Several phase II trials in men with non-castrate PSA-recurrent prostate cancer have assessed the impact of novel non-hormonal agents on PSA kinetics. However, it is unknown whether changes in PSA kinetics influence metastasis-free survival (MFS).
We performed a retrospective post hoc analysis of 146 men treated in four phase II trials examining the investigational agents marimastat (a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor; n=39), imatinib (a tyrosine kinase inhibitor; n=25), ATN-224 (a copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase inhibitor; n=22), and lenalidomide (an antiangiogenic/immunomodulatory drug; n=60). We investigated factors influencing MFS, including within-subject changes in PSA kinetics (PSA slope, doubling time, and velocity) before and after treatment initiation.
After a median follow-up of 16.8 months, 70 patients (47.9%) developed metastases. In multivariable Cox regression models, factors that were independently predictive of MFS after adjusting for age and other clinical prognostic variables were baseline PSA doubling time (PSADT) (P=.05), baseline PSA slope (P=.01), on-study change in PSADT (P=.02), and on-study change in PSA slope (P=.03). In a landmark Kaplan-Meier analysis, median MFS was 63.5 months (95% CI 34.6–not reached) and 28.9 months (95% CI 13.5–68.0) for men with or without any decrease in PSA slope by 6 months after treatment, respectively.
This hypothesis-generating analysis suggests that within-subject changes in PSADT and PSA slope after initiation of experimental therapy may correlate with MFS in men with biochemically-recurrent prostate cancer. If validated in prospective trials, changes in PSA kinetics may represent a reasonable intermediate endpoint for screening new agents in these patients.
AGS-1C4D4 is a human monoclonal antibody against prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), a cell-surface protein expressed by most prostate cancers. AGS-1C4D4 is produced in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and has an identical sequence to AGS-PSCA, an anti-PSCA antibody produced in mouse hybridoma cells that has completed Phase I testing. Preclinical studies demonstrated comparability of AGS-1C4D4 to AGS-PSCA with respect to pharmacokinetics (PK) and tumor inhibition. However, because of differences in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity between AGS-PSCA and AGS-1C4D4, a limited Phase I trial using AGS-1C4D4 was performed evaluating safety and PK.
Patients and method
Thirteen patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer were enrolled. AGS-1C4D4 was administered intravenously every 3 weeks for four planned doses at 6, 12, 24, or 48 mg/kg. Primary endpoints were safety and PK. Secondary endpoints were immunogenicity and clinical activity. Disease assessments were conducted every 12 weeks and included radiographic and PSA evaluations. Patients with stable disease could receive extended treatment beyond four infusions.
Adverse events were primarily grade 1–2, without any grade 3–4 drug-related toxicities or infusion reactions. Anti-AGS-1C4D4 antibodies were not detected. Similar to AGS-PSCA, serum AGS-1C4D4 concentrations declined biphasically and elimination was characterized by slow clearance (CL) and a long terminal half-life (t1/2). Median CL for the four dose levels ranged from 0.10 to 0.14 ml/h kg, and t1/2 ranged from 2.2 to 2.9 weeks. No PSA reductions ≥50% were observed. Six patients (46%) had radiographically stable disease, lasting a median of 24 weeks.
AGS-1C4D4 was well-tolerated and demonstrated linear PK. Despite preclinical differences in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, AGS-1C4D4 and AGS-PSCA have similar safety and PK profiles. The recommended Phase II dose is 48 mg/kg.
AGS-1C4D4; Castration-resistant prostate cancer; Monoclonal antibody; Phase I; PSCA
Loss of the tumor suppressor PTEN is common in prostate cancer and may have prognostic significance. The authors examined PTEN and additional protein markers in primary tumors from patients with high-risk, localized prostate cancer who received adjuvant docetaxel in a prospective multicenter trial (TAX2501).
Fifty-six of 77 patients enrolled in TAX2501 had primary prostatectomy specimens available for immunohistochemical analysis of PTEN, MYC, ERG, tumor protein p53 (p53), antigen KI-67 (Ki67), and phosphorylated forms of Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and S6 ribosomal protein. Protocol-defined progression included a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level ≥0.4 ng/mL, radiologic/clinical recurrence, or death. Univariate and multivariable proportional hazards regression analyses were used to investigate the influence of PTEN status (and other protein markers) on progression-free survival (PFS).
In this exploratory, post hoc analysis, PTEN protein loss (vs presence) was observed in 61% of patients and was associated with lower preoperative PSA levels, higher clinical stage, lower Ki67 expression, the presence of p53, and the presence of ERG. In univariate analysis, the factors associated with PFS included Gleason sum, seminal vesicle invasion, PTEN status, MYC expression, and Ki67 expression. In multivariable analysis, only 3 variables emerged as independent prognostic factors for PFS: PTEN status (P = .035), MYC expression (P = .001), and Ki67 expression (P < .001). A prognostic model was constructed that incorporated clinical covariates as well as information on PTEN, MYC, and Ki67.
The current results indicated that PTEN status, MYC expression, and Ki67 expression in primary tumor samples may predict PFS more accurately than clinical factors alone in men with high-risk prostate cancer who receive adjuvant docetaxel after prostatectomy. If validated, these hypothesis-generating findings may have prognostic and therapeutic implications and may aid clinical trial design.
PTEN; MYC; Ki67; high-risk prostate cancer; adjuvant docetaxel; progression-free survival; prognostic model
ATN-224 (choline tetrathiomolybdate) is an oral Cu2+/Zn2+-superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) inhibitor with preclinical antitumor activity. We hypothesized that ATN-224 may induce antitumor effects as an antiangiogenic agent at low dose-levels while possessing direct antitumor activity at higher dose-levels. The objective of this study was to screen its clinical activity in patients with biochemically recurrent hormone-naïve prostate cancer.
Biochemically-recurrent prostate cancer patients with prostate specific antigen doubling times (PSADT) <12 months, no radiographic evidence of metastasis, and no hormonal therapy within 6 months (with serum testosterone levels >150 ng/dL) were eligible. ATN-224 was administered at two dose-levels, 300 mg (n=23) or 30 mg (n=24) daily, by way of randomization. PSA progression was defined as a ≥50% increase (and >5 ng/mL) in PSA from baseline or post-treatment nadir. Endpoints included the proportion of patients who were free of PSA progression at 24 weeks, changes in PSA slope/PSADT, and safety. The study was not powered to detect differences between the two treatment groups.
At 24 weeks, 59% (95% CI 33–82%) of men in the low-dose arm and 45% (95% CI 17–77%) in the high-dose arm were PSA progression-free. Median PSA progression-free survival was 30 weeks (95% CI 21–40+) and 26 weeks (95% CI 24–39+) in the low-dose and high-dose groups, respectively. Pre- and on-treatment PSA kinetics analyses showed a significant mean PSA slope decrease (p=0.006) and a significant mean PSADT increase (p=0.032) in the low-dose arm only. Serum ceruloplasmin levels, a biomarker for ATN-224 activity, were lowered in the high-dose group, but did not correlate with PSA changes.
Low-dose ATN-224 (30 mg daily) may have biologic activity in men with biochemically-recurrent prostate cancer, as suggested by an improvement in PSA kinetics. However, the clinical significance of PSA kinetics changes in this patient population remains uncertain. The absence of a dose-response effect also reduces enthusiasm, and there are currently no plans to further develop this agent in prostate cancer.
Insufficient dose of dietary methyl groups are associated with a host of conditions ranging from neural tube defects to cancer. On the other hand, it is not certain what effect excess dietary methyl groups could have on cancer. This is especially true for prostate cancer (PCa), a disease that is characterized by increasing DNA methylation changes with increasing grade of the cancer. In this three-part study in animals, we look at (i) the effect of excess methyl donors on the growth rate of PCa in vivo, (ii) the ability of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, a demethylating agent, to demethylate in the presence of excess dietary methyl donors and (iii) the effect of in utero feeding of excess methyl donors to the later onset of PCa. The results show that when mice are fed a dietary excess of methyl donors, we do not see (i) an increase in the growth rate of DU-145 and PC-3 xenografts in vivo, or (ii) interference in the ability of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine to demethylate the promoters of Androgen Receptor or Reprimo of PCa xenografts but (iii) a protective effect on the development of higher grades of PCa in the “Hi-myc” mouse model of PCa which were fed the increased methyl donors in utero. We conclude that the impact of dietary methyl donors on PCa progression depends upon the timing of exposure to the dietary agents. When fed before the onset of cancer, i.e. in utero, excess methyl donors can have a protective effect on the progression of cancer.
7-Hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01) is a protein kinase inhibitor that inhibits several serine–threonine kinases including PKC and PDK1. Due to the preclinical synergistic effects seen with topoisomerase I inhibitors and non-overlapping toxicity, UCN-01 and irinotecan were combined in a dose-finding study designed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), toxicity profile, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of UCN-01 and irinotecan.
Patients with incurable solid malignancies received UCN-01 intravenously (IV) as a 3-h infusion on day 1 and irinotecan IV over 90 min on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle. Doses of UCN-01 for subsequent cycles were half the starting dose. Dose level 1 (DL1) consisted of UCN-01 and irinotecan doses of 50 and 60 mg/m2, respectively. Blood samples were collected in cycle 1 for UCN-01, irinotecan, and irinotecan metabolites.
A total of 16 patients were enrolled on the trial at UCN-01/Irinotecan doses of 50/60 mg/m2 (DL1; n = 1), 70/60 mg/m2 (DL2; n = 6), 90/60 mg/m2 (DL3; n = 4), and 70/90 mg/m2 (DL4; n = 5). Two dose-limiting toxicities were observed each in DL3 and DL4 (2 grade 3 hypophosphatemia, 1 grade 4 hyperglycemia and grade 3 hypophosphatemia, 1 grade 4 febrile neutropenia). Fatigue, diarrhea, nausea, and anorexia were the most prevalent toxicities. No objective responses were documented, and four patients had stable disease for at least ten cycles. The long half-life (292.0 ± 135.7 h), low clearance (0.045 ± 0.038 1/h), and volume of distribution (14.3 ± 5.9 l) observed for UCN-01 are consistent with prior UCN-01 data. There was a significant decrease in Cmax of APC, AUC of APC and SN-38, and AUC ratio of SN-38:irinotecan when comparing days 1 and 8 PK.
APC and SN-38 exposure decreased when administered in combination with UCN-01. The MTD of the combination based on protocol criteria was defined as 70 mg/m2 of UCN-01 on day 1 and 60 mg/m2 of irinotecan on days 1 and 8 in a 21-day cycle.
UCN-01; Irinotecan; Phase I; Cell cycle; G2/M checkpoint
Activation of the epidermal growth factor pathway is important in prostate cancer development and the transcription of androgen receptor regulated genes. This study evaluated the potential activity of lapatinib in men with biochemically-relapsed androgen-dependent (stage D0) prostate cancer.
Patients with a rising PSA after primary therapy for prostate cancer were enrolled. A PSA doubling time (PSADT) <12 months was required. Lapatinib was administered at 1,500 mg orally daily. Outcome measures were changes in PSA kinetics. Primary tumor blocks were obtained and assessed for EGFR expression, EGFR Q787Q polymorphism, and Kras 38 mutational status.
49 patients were enrolled (14 ineligible), resulting in 35 pts for analysis. No PSA response was observed; best response was stable disease (n=28, 80.0%). Pre-treatment average slope was 0.19 log (PSA)/month (PSADT=3.70 months), in contrast to on-treatment average slope of 0.13 log (PSA)/month (PSADT=5.44 months) using linear mixed effects models (p=0.006). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 17.4 months for the high EGFR group and 6.0 months for the low EGFR group (p=0.50). Patients with Kras 38 mutation had shorter PFS than those without Kras 38 mutation (p=0.09).
Although no PSA responses (primary endpoint) was observed, lapatinib may have biologic activity in men with stage D0 prostate cancer as evidenced by a decrease in PSA slope in this non-randomized study. Additional trials assessing the role of EGFR overexpression and Kras wild type status in prostate cancer should be investigated.
Epidermal growth factor receptor; tyrosine kinase inhibitors; clinical trial
To describe metastasis-free survival (MFS) in men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence following radical prostatectomy, and to define clinical prognostic factors modifying metastatic risk.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
We conducted a retrospective analysis of 450 men treated with prostatectomy at a tertiary hospital between July 1981 and July 2010 who developed PSA recurrence (≥0.2 ng/mL) and never received adjuvant or salvage therapy before the development of metastatic disease.
We estimated MFS using the Kaplan–Meier method, and investigated factors influencing the risk of metastasis using Cox proportional hazards regression.
Median follow-up after prostatectomy was 8.0 years, and after biochemical recurrence was 4.0 years. At last follow-up, 134 of 450 patients (29.8%) had developed metastases, while median MFS was 10.0 years.
Using multivariable regressions, two variables emerged as independently predictive of MFS: PSA doubling time (<3.0 vs 3.0–8.9 vs 9.0–14.9 vs ≥15.0 months) and Gleason score (≤6 vs 7 vs 8–10).
Using these stratifications of Gleason score and PSA doubling time, tables were constructed to predict median, 5- and 10-year MFS after PSA recurrence. In different patient subsets, median MFS ranged from 1 to 15 years.
In men undergoing prostatectomy, MFS after PSA recurrence is variable and is most strongly influenced by PSA doubling time and Gleason score. These parameters serve to stratify men into different risk groups with respect to metastatic progression.
Our findings may provide the background for appropriate selection of patients, treatments and endpoints for clinical trials.
metastasis-free survival; natural history; prostate cancer; PSA recurrence
Enrollment in interventional therapeutic clinical trials is a small fraction of all patients who might participate given reasonable access.
A hierarchical approach is utilized in measuring staged participation from trial availability to patient enrollment. Our framework suggests that concern for justice comes in the design and eligibility criteria for clinical trials; attention to beneficence is given in the eligibility and physician triage stages. The remaining four stages rely on respect for persons. An example is given where reasons for nonparticipation or barriers to participation in prostate cancer clinical trials are examined within the framework. In addition, medical oncology patients with an initial six month consultation are tracked from one stage to the next by race using the framework to assess participation comparability.
We illustrated seven transitions from being a patient to enrollment in a clinical trial in a small study of prostate cancer cases who consulted SKCCC Medical Oncology Department in early 2010. Pilot data suggest transition probabilities as follows: 65% availability, 84% eligibility, 92% patient triage, 89% trials discussed, 45% patient interested, 63% patient consented, and 92% patient enrolled. The average transition probability was 77.7%. The average transition probability, patient-trial-fit was 50%; opportunity was 51%, and acceptance was 66.7%. Trial availability, patient interest and patient consented were three transitions that were below the average; none were statistically significant.
The framework may serve to streamline comprehensive reporting of clinical trial participation to the benefit of patients and the ethical conduct of clinical trials.
Justice; Beneficence; Respect for persons; Clinical trials; Clinical trial accrual; Prostate cancer; Barriers to clinical trials; Disparities; Framework
The need for effective targeted therapies for renal cell carcinomas (RCC) has fueled the interest for understanding molecular pathways involved in the oncogenesis of kidney tumors. Aiming to analyze the expression status and prognostic significance of mTOR and hypoxia-induced pathway members in patients with clear cell RCC (ccRCC) tissue microarrays were constructed from 135 primary and 41 metastatic ccRCC. Immunoexpression levels were compared and correlated with clinicopathologic parameters and outcome. PTEN levels were significantly lower in primary and metastatic ccRCC compared to benign tissues (P<0.001). Levels of phos-AKT, phos-S6, and 4EBP1 were higher in metastatic ccRCC (P≤0.001). For phos-S6 and 4EBP1, levels were higher in primary ccRCC compared to benign tissues (P<0.001). c-MYC levels were higher in metastatic ccRCC (P<0.0001) and incremental p27 levels were observed in benign, primary ccRCC, and metastatic ccRCC (P<0.0001). HIF-1α levels were significantly higher in primary and metastatic ccRCC compared to benign tissues (P<0.0001). In primary ccRCC, levels of all mTOR and hypoxia-induced pathway members were significantly associated with pT stage (P≤0.036), p27 levels with Fuhrman grade (P=0.031), and 4EBP1, p27, and HIF-1α levels with tumor size (P≤0.025). Tumor size, HIF-1α and phos-S6 levels were associated with disease-specific survival (P≤0.032) and tumor progression (P≤0.043). In conclusion, both mTOR and hypoxia-induced pathways were activated in primary and metastatic ccRCC. PTEN loss seems to be an early event during tumorigenesis. Tumor size, HIF-1α and phos-S6 expression were found to be independent predictors of both DSS and tumor progression in primary ccRCC.
clear cell renal cell carcinoma; mammalian target of rapamycin pathway; hypoxia-induced pathway; PTEN; AKT; S6; 4EBP1; c-MYC; p27; HIF-1α; prognosis
MGCD0103 is a novel isotype-selective inhibitor of human histone deaceylases (HDACs) with the potential to regulate aberrant gene expression and restore normal growth control in malignancies.
Patients and Methods
A phase I trial of MGCD0103, given as a three-times-per-week oral dose for 2 of every 3 weeks, was performed in patients with advanced solid tumors. Primary end points were safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamic (PD) assessments of HDAC activity, and histone acetylation status in peripheral WBCs.
Six dose levels ranging from 12.5 to 56 mg/m2/d were evaluated in 38 patients over 99 cycles (median, 2; range, 1 to 11). The recommended phase II dose was 45 mg/m2/d. Dose-limiting toxicities consisting of fatigue, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, and dehydration were observed in three (27%) of 11 and two (67%) of three patients treated at the 45 and 56 mg/m2/d dose levels, respectively. Disease stabilization for four or more cycles was observed in five (16%) of 32 patients assessable for efficacy. PK analyses demonstrated interpatient variability which was improved by coadministration with low pH beverages. Elimination half-life ranged from 6.7 to 12.2 hours, and no accumulation was observed with repeated dosing. PD evaluations confirmed inhibition of HDAC activity and induction of acetylation of H3 histones in peripheral WBCs from patients by MGCD0103.
At doses evaluated, MGCD0103 appears tolerable and exhibits favorable PK and PD profiles with evidence of target inhibition in surrogate tissues.
This study was designed to evaluate toxicity and preliminary efficacy of 2 cycles of concomitant standard dose/schedule of 153Sm-lexidronam plus Q 3 weeks schedule escalating doses of docetaxel in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC).
mCRPC patients with progressive bone metastases were treated in 4 cohorts. Docetaxel doses were escalated from 50, 50, 0 mg/m2 (on days 1, 22, 43, per 12-week cycle) to 75, 75, 75 mg/m2. 153Sm-lexidronam was administered on days 2 (Q 12 weeks) at dose of 1 mCi/kg/cycle (maximum of 2 cycles).
Thirteen patients received an average of 3.6 doses of docetaxel (range, 2–6 doses, median 4) and 1.5 doses of 153Sm-lexidronam (range, 1–2, median 2). Toxicity was primarily hematologic. There were total 35 episodes grade 3/4 neutropenia with a median 7 (range 7–14) days to recovery to ≤grade 1. One dose limiting grade 3 thrombocytopenia occurred on cohorts 3 and 4. Eight of 13 (62%) patients had PSA > 50% decrease as best response during the treatment. Median time to bone disease progression was 5.2 months (range 91 days–10 months+); 6/13 (46%) patients had stable/improved bone scans at 6 months and 6/6 (100%) symptomatic patients had improvement in pain.
Concurrent 6-month administration of 4 doses (75 mg/m2) of standard Q 3 weeks schedule of docetaxel with 2 Q 3 months infusions of 1 mCi/Kg 153Sm-lexidronam is feasible with reversible bone marrow suppression, and deserves further testing in mCRPC patients with extensive bone metastasis.
153Sm-lexidronam; Metastatic prostate cancer; Docetaxel; Phase I
Sunitinib is a standard treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), an index of systemic inflammation, is associated with outcome in several cancer types.
To study the association of pre-treatment neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio with response rate, progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients treated with sunitinib for mRCC.
We retrospectively studied an unselected cohort of patients with mRCC, who were treated with sunitinib. Logistic regression model was used to analyse response rate. Cox regression models were fitted to identify risk factors associated with PFS and OS. We investigated how pre-treatment NLR is associated with these clinical outcomes after adjusting for confounding covariates. Regression tree for censored data method was used to find the best NLR cut-off value.
Between 2004 and 2011, 133 patients with mRCC were treated with sunitinib. One hundred and nine were included in the NLR analysis, from which were excluded patients without available data on pre-treatment NLR or with comorbidities/recent treatments known to be associated with a change of blood counts. Factors associated with PFS were low NLR ≥ 3 (HR = 0.285, p < 0.001), past nephrectomy (HR = 0.38, p = 0.035), sunitinib dose reduction/treatment interruption (HR = 0.6, p = 0.014), and the use of antiotensin system inhibitors (HR = 0.537, p = 0.008). Low NLR ≥ 3 was associated with OS (HR = 0.3, p = 0.043).
In patients with mRCC treated with sunitinib, pre-treatment NLR may be associated with PFS and OS. This should be investigated prospectively, and if validated applied in clinical practice and clinical trials.
Metastatic renal cell carcinoma; Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio; Outcome; Sunitinib
Adrenal/intratumoral androgen biosynthesis contributes to ligand-dependent androgen receptor activation in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRCP). Compounds targeting CYP-17 hydroxylase and lyase, as ketoconazole and abiraterone, block adrenal/intratumoral androgen biosynthesis, and are used as sequential endocrine approaches in mCRCP. We aimed to describe contemporary experience and association of clinical factors with Prostate specific antigen (PSA) response and disease progression, in mCRPC progressing on GnRH-agonist, antiandrogen, antiandrogen withdrawal, and treated with ketoconazole.
Data were retrospectively analyzed in all mCRPC patients treated with ketoconazole. Patients continued GnRH-agonist, and treated with ketoconazole 200–400 mg 3× a day until dose-limiting toxicity or disease progression. A multivariate cox regression model was used to identify clinical factors associated with PSA response and disease progression.
From 1999 to 2010, 114 mCRPC patients were treated with ketoconazole. With a median follow-up time of 31 months (range 5–129), 25 patients (22%) had grade 3/4 toxicity, most commonly fatigue, abdominal discomfort, nausea, and dizziness. Sixty-one patients (54%) had ≥50% PSA decline. Median time to progression was 8 months (range 1–129). Factors associated with PSA response and disease progression were response to prior antiandrogen (≥6 vs. <6 months), pre-treatment PSADT (≥3 vs. <3 months) and extent of disease (limited-axial skeleton and/or nodal vs. extensive-appendicular skeleton and/or visceral).
Ketoconazole is effective and safe in mCRPC. Prior response to antiandrogen, pre-treatment PSADT, and disease extent are associated with PSA response and disease progression, and further supports a therapeutic role in suppressing adrenal androgens in mCRPC.
disease progression; ketoconazole; metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer; PSA response
Valproic Acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, has been demonstrated to cause a marked decrease in proliferation of prostate cancer (PCa) cells in vitro and a significant reduction in tumor volume in vivo. The goal of this study is to better understand the VPA-induced growth inhibition in vivo, by studying expression of various markers in PCa xenografts. Methods. For in vitro experiments, PCa cells were treated with 0, 0.6, and 1.2 mM VPA for 14 days. For in vivo models, experimental animals received 0.4% VPA in drinking water for 35 days. Tissue microarray was generated using cell pellets and excised xenografts. Results. VPA treatment causes cell cycle arrest in PCa cells in vivo, as determined by increase in p21 and p27 and decrease in cyclin D1 expression. Increased expression of cytokeratin18 was also seen in xenografts. LNCaP xenografts in treated animals had reduced androgen receptor (AR) expression. While decreased proliferation was found in vitro, increase in apoptosis was found to be the reason for decreased tumor growth in vivo. Also, an anti-angiogenic effect was observed after VPA treatment. Conclusion. VPA inhibits tumor growth by multiple mechanisms including cell cycle arrest, induction of differentiation, and inhibition of growth of tumor vasculature.
To evaluate the safety and activity of 6 months of treatment with lenalidomide at 5 or 25 mg/d in nonmetastatic biochemically relapsed prostate cancer.
Sixty men with non-castrate, nonmetastatic, biochemically relapsed prostate cancer were stratified by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time, surgery/radiation therapy, prior androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), and randomized to lenalidomide 5 mg (n = 26) or 25 mg/d (n = 34) for 3 weeks repeated monthly for 6 months or until dose-limiting toxicity or disease progression. Toxicity was evaluated monthly, and PSAs and X-rays/scans every 6 months. Study size was determined to detect a progression rate of 40% at 6 months in either arm with 85% power (compared with a rate of 80% in the population receiving no treatment). Changes in PSA slopes were calculated using the regression of the log PSA for each patient before and during the initial 6 months and compared by t test.
Baseline variables were balanced between arms. Grade 3/4 toxicity rates were 12% (n = 3) with 5 mg and 29% (n = 10) with 25 mg (P = 0.1), most commonly neutropenia (five patients, all on 25 mg). Two patients per arm had thromboembolic events. The change in PSA slope was greater with 25 mg versus 5 mg [−0.172 (−0.24 to −0.11) versus −0.033 (−0.11 to 0.04); P = 0.005]. With a mean follow-up of 31.4 months (range 14–44), five patients on 25 mg and one patient on 5 mg remain on the study.
Lenalidomide has acceptable toxicity and is associated with long-term disease stabilization and PSA declines. Randomized studies evaluating conventional clinical disease end points in this patient population are planned.
The pharmacodynamic properties of MGCD0103, an isotype-selective inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC), were evaluated in preclinical models and patients with a novel whole cell HDAC enzyme assay.
Boc-Lys(ε-Ac)-AMC, an HDAC substrate with fluorescent read-out, was found to be cell-permeable and was used to monitor MGCD0103-mediated HDAC inhibition in cultured cancer cells in vitro, in peripheral white blood cells ex vivo, in mice in vivo and in human patients.
MGCD0103 inhibited HDAC activity in several human cancer cell lines in vitro and in human peripheral white blood cells ex vivo in a dose-dependent manner. Unlike SAHA, the HDAC inhibitory activity of MGCD0103 was time-dependent and sustained for at least 24 h following drug removal in peripheral white blood cells ex vivo. Inhibitory activity of MGCD0103 was sustained for at least 8 h in vivo in mice, and 48 h in patients with solid tumors. HDAC inhibitory activity of MGCD0103 in peripheral white blood cells correlated with induction of histone acetylation in blood and in implanted tumors in mice. In cancer patients, sustained pharmacodynamic (PD) effect of MGCD0103 was visualized only by dose-dependent enzyme inhibition in peripheral white cells but not by histone acetylation analysis.
This study demonstrates that MGCD0103 has sustained PD effects that can be monitored both in vitro and in vivo with a cell-based HDAC enzyme assay.
Histone deacetylase; MGCD0103; pharmacodynamics; cancer clinical trial
This article reviews the problem of bone disease in prostate cancer and the evolving role of the novel agent denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that inhibits the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, in suppressing bone resorption and offering bone protection in this disease. Prostate cancer frequently metastasizes to bone, and additionally its treatment with androgen deprivation leads to accelerated bone loss resulting in clinically relevant skeletal complications associated with disabling symptoms. Among the bone-targeting therapeutic strategies investigated for the prevention of bone complications, the potent bisphosphonate zoledronic acid has been the most widely used agent for bone protection in the past decade. Denosumab is the first among a new class of osteoclast-targeting agents to show superior efficacy in several clinical scenarios in both prostate and breast cancer, as well as in osteoporosis, but the focus of this review will be on its role in prostate cancer. The safety and efficacy of denosumab versus zoledronic acid was established in a randomized trial, demonstrating a delay in skeletal-related events in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients. This study led to the approval of denosumab in the US. The chief risks of denosumab were hypocalcemia and osteonecrosis of the jaw. Denosumab was also approved for fracture risk reduction in patients on androgen-deprivation therapy for nonmetastatic prostate cancer. Although denosumab extended bone metastasis-free survival in a Phase III trial in men with castration-resistant nonmetastatic prostate cancer to a statistically significant degree, a Food and Drug Administration committee found that the effect was not sufficiently clinically meaningful for regulatory approval, and the Food and Drug Administration issued a letter concurring with the committee’s recommendation. The role of denosumab in prostate cancer will continue to evolve either as monotherapy or in combination with other bone-targeting strategies.
denosumab; prostate cancer; bone disease
Integrins mediate invasion and angiogenesis in prostate cancer bone metastases. We conducted a phase II study of Cilengitide, a selective antagonist of αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins, in non-metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer with rising PSA.
Patients were observed for 4 weeks with PSA monitoring, and then treated with 2,000 mg IV of cilengitide twice weekly until toxicity/progression. PSA, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating endothelial cells (CECs) were monitored each cycle with imaging performed every 3 cycles. Primary end point was PSA decline by ≥ 50%. Secondary endpoints were safety, PSA slope, time to progression (TTP), overall survival (OS), CTCs, CECs and gene expression.
16 pts were enrolled; 13 were eligible with median age 65.5 years, baseline PSA 8.4 ng/mL and median Gleason sum 7. Median of 3 cycles was administered. Treatment was well tolerated with 2 grade 3 toxicities and no grade 4 toxicities. There were no PSA responses; 11 patients progressed by PSA after 3 cycles. Median TTP was 1.8 months and median OS has not been reached. Median pre- and on-treatment PSA slopes were 1.1 and 1.8 ng/mL/month. Baseline CTCs were detected in 1/9 patients. CTC increased (0 to 1; 2 pts), remained at 0 (2 pts) or decreased (23 to 0; 1 patient) at progression. Baseline median CEC was 26 (0–61) and at progression, 47 (15–148). Low cell counts precluded gene expression studies.
Cilengitide was well tolerated but had no detectable clinical activity. CTCs are of questionable utility in non-metastatic prostate cancer.
EMD 121974; cilengitide; non-metastatic prostate cancer
In 2005, the US Department of Defense, through the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Office of the Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs, created a funding mechanism to form a clinical trials consortium to conduct phase I and II studies in prostate cancer. This is the first report of the Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Consortium (PCCTC).
Patients and Methods
The Department of Defense award supports a consortium of 10 prostate cancer research centers. Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center was awarded the Coordinating Center grant for the consortium and charged with creating an infrastructure to conduct early-phase multicenter clinical trials. Each participating center was required to introduce ≥ 1 clinical trial per year and maintain accrual of a minimum of 35 patients per year.
The PCCTC was launched in 2006 and now encompasses 10 leading prostate cancer research centers. Fifty-one trials have been opened, and 1386 patients have been accrued at member sites. Members share an online clinical trial management system for protocol tracking, electronic data capture, and data storage. A legal framework has been instituted, and standard operating procedures, an administrative structure, editorial support, centralized budgeting, and mechanisms for scientific review are established.
The PCCTC fulfills a congressional directive to create a clinical trials instrument dedicated to early-phase prostate cancer studies. The member institutions have built an administrative, informatics, legal, financial, statistical, and scientific infrastructure to support this endeavor. Clinical trials are open and accruing in excess of federally mandated goals.
Clinical consortium; Collaborative; Infrastructure; Phase I/II trial
To determine the activity and tolerability of 100-mg once-daily (QD) dasatinib in patients with metastatic castration-resistance prostate cancer (CRPC). Dasatinib, an oral Src family kinase inhibitor, has demonstrated both preclinical and clinical activity with twice-daily dosing in patients with metastatic CRPC.
Chemotherapy-naive men with metastatic CRPC and increasing prostate-specific antigen levels were treated with dasatinib 100 mg QD. The primary measurement was a composite lack of disease progression, according to the Prostate Cancer Working Group 2 criteria, determined every 12 weeks during the study. The other analyses included changes in the prostate-specific antigen level, bone lesions, soft tissue disease, and bone turnover markers (urine N-telopeptide and bone alkaline phosphatase).
The present trial was designed before the publication of the recent Prostate Cancer Working Group 2 criteria; however, the analyses are presented to conform to the updated guidelines. A total of 48 patients received dasatinib. A lack of disease progression was observed in 21 patients (44%) at week 12 and in 8 (17%) at week 24. Urine N-telopeptide was reduced by ≥40% from baseline in 22 (51%) of 43 patients, and bone alkaline phosphatase was decreased in 26 (59%) of 44 patients. Dasatinib was well-tolerated, with only 6 patients (13%) with drug-related grade 3–4 adverse events and 3 (6%) with grade 3 adverse events. The most common treatment-related adverse events (≥20%) were fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, headache, and anorexia.
Dasatinib 100 mg QD has a favorable safety profile and maintains a similar degree of activity as the previously reported twice-daily dosing schedules. These data support additional study of dasatinib 100 mg QD for metastatic CRPC.
Patients on investigational clinical trials and their caregivers experience poor quality of life (QOL), which declines as the disease progresses.
To examine the effect of a standardized cognitive–behavioral problem-solving educational intervention on the QOL of patients enrolled on investigational clinical trials and their caregivers.
Prospective, multi-institution, randomized trial. QOL was measured repeatedly over 6 months.
Patients were simultaneously enrolled onto phase 1, 2, or 3 Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved cancer clinical trials.
Intervention arm dyads participated in three conjoint educational sessions during the first month, learning the COPE problem solving model. Nonintervention arm dyads received usual care.
Global QOL was measured by the City of Hope Quality of Life Instruments for Patients or Caregivers; problem solving skills were measured by the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised.
The results are reported using the CONSORT statement. The analytic data set included 476 dyads including 1596 patient data points and 1576 care giver data points. Patient QOL showed no significant difference in the rate of change between the intervention and usual care arms (p = 0.70). Caregiver QOL scores in the intervention arm declined, but at less than half the rate in the control arm (p = 0.02).
The COPE intervention enabled the average caregiver to come much closer to stable QOL over the 6-month follow-up. Future studies should enroll subjects much earlier in the cancer illness trajectory, a common patient/caregiver theme. The maximum effect was seen in caregivers who completed the 6-month follow-up, suggesting that the impact may increase over time.
Current treatment for metastatic renal cell cancer with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) have provided improved overall survival, but complete responses are rare. We conducted a multicenter phase II study to evaluate the objective response rate of 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2 NCD) alone and in combination with sunitinib for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma who have progressed on sunitinib alone.
Adults with metastatic kidney cancer were stratified depending on whether they were still taking sunitinib or had discontinued sunitinib therapy at the time of registration. Patients were treated with 2ME2 NCD alone or in combination with sunitinib. The primary endpoint was objective response rate.
In total, 17 patients were enrolled, and 12 were evaluable for response (arm A, n=7; arm b, n=5). In arm A, four patients had the best response of stable disease, and three patients developed disease progression. In arm B, three patients had a best response of stable disease, and two patients had disease progression. One patient continued to receive treatment for a total of 14 cycles before developing disease progression. Fatigue was the most common observed toxicities. Thirty five percent of patients required discontinuation of therapy secondary to toxicities.
2ME2 NCD had minimal anti-tumor activity, with no observed objective responses. The study was terminated because 2ME2 NCD was not found to be tolerable at the recommended phase 2 dose in this patient population. A newer 2ME2 analog is in development with a more favorable toxicity profile and increased potency.
Renal cell carcinoma; Clinical trials; Phase II; 2-methoxyestradiol; Sunitinib malate; Antiangiogenic agent
BMS-641988 is an androgen receptor antagonist with increased potency relative to bicalutamide in both in vitro and in vivo prostate cancer models. A first-in-man phase I study was conducted to define the safety and tolerability of oral BMS-641988 in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).
Doses were escalated from 5 to 150 mg based on discrete pharmacokinetic parameters in cohorts of 3 to 6 subjects. After establishing safety with 20 mg of BMS-641988 in the United States, a companion study was opened in Japan to assess differences in drug metabolism between populations.
Sixty-one men with CRPC were treated with daily BMS-641988. The pharmacokinetics of BMS-641988 and its active metabolites were proportional to dose. One patient experienced an epileptic seizure at a dose of 60 mg administered twice. Despite achieving target drug exposures, anti-tumor activity was limited to 1 partial response. Seventeen of 23 evaluable patients (74%) exhibited stable disease on imaging (median 15 weeks; range 8–32), and 10 of 61 patients (16%) achieved a ≥30%. decline in levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Partial agonism was seen within the context of this study upon removal of the drug as evidenced by a decrease in PSA.
Although the clinical outcomes of predominantly stable disease and partial agonism were similar to what was observed in the preclinical evaluation of the compound, the limited anti-tumor activity of BMS-641988 at therapeutic dose levels coupled with an episode of seizure activity led to study closure.