Two populations of Trichoplusia ni that had developed resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis sprays (Bt sprays) in commercial greenhouse vegetable production were tested for resistance to Bt cotton (BollGard II) plants expressing pyramided Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. The T. ni colonies resistant to Bacillus thuringiensis serovar kurstaki formulations were not only resistant to the Bt toxin Cry1Ac, as previously reported, but also had a high frequency of Cry2Ab-resistant alleles, exhibiting ca. 20% survival on BollGard II foliage. BollGard II-resistant T. ni strains were established by selection with BollGard II foliage to further remove Cry2Ab-sensitive alleles in the T. ni populations. The BollGard II-resistant strains showed incomplete resistance to BollGard II, with adjusted survival values of 0.50 to 0.78 after 7 days. The resistance to the dual-toxin cotton plants was conferred by two genetically independent resistance mechanisms: one to Cry1Ac and one to Cry2Ab. The 50% lethal concentration of Cry2Ab for the resistant strain was at least 1,467-fold that for the susceptible T. ni strain. The resistance to Cry2Ab in resistant T. ni was an autosomally inherited, incompletely recessive monogenic trait. Results from this study indicate that insect populations under selection by Bt sprays in agriculture can be resistant to multiple Bt toxins and may potentially confer resistance to multitoxin Bt crops.
Serum fructosamine (SF) has been considered to be an indicator that estimates glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). There is increasing evidence that SF concentration and oxidative stress are significantly elevated in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the data about SF and its association with kidney function are lacking in nondiabetic individuals without CKD. We included 1891 nondiabetic individuals who had not been diagnosed with CKD to determine the association between SF and kidney function.
We conducted a retrospective analysis on the basis of the biochemistry database in nondiabetic individuals without CKD.
When eligible participants were stratified in accordance with SF quartiles, from the bottom to the top quartile of SF, a significant decrease of estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was observed in baseline data. SF concentration was negatively associated with estimated GFR (r=−0.066, P=0.004) in the Pearson correlation analysis. Estimated GFR was associated with SF levels independently of glucose (GLU), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and total protein (TP) in multivariable logistic regression analysis (OR=0.984; CI 95% 0.977–0.991; P<0.001).
We suggest that mild elevation of SF concentration is associated with estimated GFR in nondiabetic individuals without CKD. These findings indicate that SF may underlie CKD in nondiabetic individuals.
Fructosamine; Glomerular Filtration Rate; Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
Acute and chronic lead (Pb) exposure might cause hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of early acute exposure to Pb on the cellular morphology, apoptosis, and proliferation in rats and to elucidate the early mechanisms involved in the development of Pb-induced hypertension. Very young Sprague-Dawley rats were allowed to drink 1% Pb acetate for 12 and 40 days. Western blot analysis indicated that the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) decreased in the tissues of the abdominal and thoracic aortas and increased in the cardiac tissue after 12 and 40 days of Pb exposure, respectively. Bax was upregulated and Bcl-2 was downregulated in vascular and cardiac tissues after 40 days of Pb exposure. In addition, an increase in caspase-3 activity was observed after 40 days of exposure to Pb. In terms of morphology, we found that the internal elastic lamina (IEL) of aorta lost the original curve and the diameter of cardiac cell was enlarged after 40 days. Furthermore, the exposure led to a marked increase in acetylated histone H3 levels in the aortas and cardiac tissue after 12 and 40 days, than that in the control group. These findings indicate that Pb might increase the level of histone acetylation and induce apoptosis in vascular and cardiac tissues. However, the mechanism involved need to be further investigated.
High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a rapidly developing, non-invasive technique for local treatment of solid tumors that produce coagulative tumor necrosis. This study is aimed to investigate the feasibility of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) on early assessing treatment of HIFU ablation in rabbit with VX2 liver tumor. HIFU ablation was performed on normal liver and VX2 tumor in rabbit, and MRS was performed on normal liver and VX2 tumor before and 2 days after 100% HIFU ablation or 80% ablation in tumor volume. Choline (Cho) and choline/lipid (Cho/Lip) ratios between complete and partial HIFU ablation of tumor were compared. Tissues were harvested and sequentially sliced to confirm the necrosis. In normal liver, the Cho value liver was not obviously changed after HIFU (P > .05), but the Cho/Lip ratio was decreased (P < .05). Cho in liver VX2 tumor was much higher than that in normal liver (P < .001). Cho and Cho/Lip ratio were significantly decreased in tumor after complete HIFU ablation and partial HIFU ablation, and the Cho value in complete HIFU tumor ablation did not show any difference from that in normal liver after HIFU (P > .05); however, the Cho value in partial ablation was still higher than that in normal liver before or in tumor after complete HIFU treatment due to the residual part of tumors, and Cho/Lip ratio is lower than that in complete HIFU treatment (P < .001). The changes in MRS parameters were consistent with histopathologic changes of the tumor tissues after treatment. MRS could differentiate the complete tumor necrosis from residual tumor tissue, when combined with magnetic resonance imaging. We conclude that MRS may be applied as an important, non-invasive biomarker for monitoring the thoroughness of HIFU ablation.
Ovarian cancer is one of the most common causes of mortality among all cancers in females and is the primary cause of mortality from gynecological malignancies. The objective of the current research work was to evaluate a naturally occurring sesquiterpene-δ-Cadinene for its antiproliferative and apoptotic effects on human ovary cancer (OVCAR-3) cells. We also demonstrated the effect of δ-Cadinene on cell cycle phase distribution, intracellular damage and caspase activation. Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay was used to evaluate the antiproliferative effect of δ-cadinene on OVCAR-3 cells. Cellular morphology after δ-cadinene treatment was demonstrated by inverted phase contrast microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the effect of δ-cadinene on cell cycle phase distribution and apoptosis using propidium iodide and Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/PI kit. The results revealed that δ-cadinene induced dose-dependent as well as time-dependent growth inhibitory effects on OVACR-3 cell line. δ-cadinene also induced cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and nuclear membrane rupture which are characteristic of apoptosis. Treatment with different doses of δ-cadinene also led to cell cycle arrest in sub-G1 phase which showed dose-dependence. Western blotting assay revealed that δ-cadinene led to activation of caspases in OVCAR-3 cancer cells. PARP cleavage was noticed at 50 µM dose of δ-cadinene with the advent of the cleaved 85-kDa fragment after exposure to δ-cadinene. At 100 µM, only the cleaved form of PARP was detectable. Pro-caspase-8 expression remained unaltered until 10 µM dose of δ-cadinene. However, at 50 and 100 µM dose, pro-caspase-8 expression was no longer detectable. There was a significant increase in the caspase-9 expression levels after 50 and 100 µM δ-cadinene treatments.
Ovary cancer; apoptosis; δ-cadinene; Sulforhodamine B; caspases
The definite prognostic role of p-STAT3 has not been well defined. We performed a meta-analysis evaluating the prognostic role of p-STAT3 expression in patients with digestive system cancers.
We searched the available articles reporting the prognostic value of p-STAT3 in patients with cancers of the digestive system, mainly including colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, esophagus cancer and pancreatic cancer. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were used to assess the prognostic role of p-STAT3 expression level in cancer tissues. And the association between p-STAT3 expression and clinicopathological characteristics was evaluated.
A total of 22 studies with 3585 patients were finally enrolled in the meta-analysis. The results showed that elevated p-STAT3 expression level predicted inferior OS (HR=1.809, 95% CI: 1.442-2.270, P<0.001) and DFS (HR=1.481, 95% CI: 1.028-2.133, P= 0.035) in patients with malignant cancers of the digestive system. Increased expression of p-STAT3 is significantly related with tumor cell differentiation (Odds ratio (OR) =1.895, 95% CI: 1.364-2.632, P<0.001) and lymph node metastases (OR=2.108, 95% CI: 1.104-4.024, P=0.024). Sensitivity analysis suggested that the pooled HR was stable and omitting a single study did not change the significance of the pooled HR. Funnel plots and Egger’s tests revealed there was no significant publication bias in the meta-analysis.
Phospho-STAT3 might be a prognostic factor of patients with digestive system cancers. More well designed studies with adequate follow-up are needed to gain a thorough understanding of the prognostic role of p-STAT3.
The development of chronic periodontitis was due to not only periodontal pathogens, but also the interaction between periodontal pathogens and host. The aim of this study is to investigate the alterations in gene expression in Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.gingivalis) W83 after inoculation in rat oral cavity.
P.gingivalis W83 inoculation in rat oral cavity caused inflammatory responses in gingival tissues and destroyed host alveolar bone. Microarray analysis revealed that 42 genes were upregulated, and 22 genes were downregulated in the detected 1786 genes in the inoculated P.gingivalis W83. Real-time quantitative PCR detection confirmed the expression alterations in some selected genes. Products of these upregulated and downregulated genes are mainly related to transposon functions, cell transmembrane transportation, protein and nucleic acid metabolism, energy metabolism, cell division and bacterial pathogenicity.
P.gingivalis W83 has a pathogenic effect on host oral cavity. Meanwhile, inflammatory oral environment alters P.gingivalis W83 gene expression profile. These changes in gene expression may limit the proliferation and weaken the pathogenicity of P.gingivalis W83, and favor themselves to adapt local environment for survival.
Porphyromonas gingivalis; Periodontitis; Microarray; Gene expression
Objective: The present study aims to investigate the relationship between CYP2J2 gene polymorphisms and ischemic stroke (IS) in a Chinese Han population. Methods: We performed a case-control study including 300 stroke patients and 300 healthy control subjects to compare the distribution of genetic polymorphism G-50T in CYP2J2 gene. Results: We found GT genotype of G-50T in CYP2J2 gene was associated with the risk for IS (13.7% vs. 7.7%, P = 0.037). After adjustment of confounders, the difference remains significant (OR = 1.890, 95% CI: 1.042-3.011). Conclusion: CYP2J2 gene polymorphism might increase the risk of stroke in Chinese population.
Ischemic stroke; CYP2J2 gene; single nucleotide polymorphism
Retroperitoneal liposarcoma is a rare tumor with an incidence of 2.5 per million individuals. Early diagnosis is difficult as there is an absence of specific clinical presentations. The present case study reports a patient diagnosed with retroperitoneal liposarcoma who was treated by complete surgical resection and relapsed 3 months following the surgery. In addition, the clinical data of 14 patients with retroperitoneal liposarcoma were reviewed and analyzed. The mean age of the 14 patients at presentation was 54.1 (range, 36–73 years) and 5/14 patients experienced recurrence, ranging between 1 and 10 times. Of the 12 cases that reported histological subtypes, 7 were well-differentiated liposarcoma, 2 were dedifferentiated liposarcoma, 2 were myxoid liposarcoma and 1 was mixed subtype. All the patients underwent complete resection and 5 received combined multiple organs resection (3 nephrectomy, 1 sigmoid colon and 1 multiple visceral organs). However, no patients received chemotherapy or radiotherapy. In conclusion, retroperitoneal liposarcoma is a rare disease with a high rate of recurrence. Complete resection is the predominant treatment and combined resection of adjacent organs is occasionally necessary.
retroperitoneal liposarcoma; resection; recurrence
Although rituximab has revolutionized the treatment of hematological malignancies, the acquired resistance is one of the prime obstacles for cancer treatment, and development of novel CD20-targeting antibodies with potent anti-tumor activities and specificities is urgently needed. Emerging evidence has indicated that lysosomes can be considered as an “Achilles heel” for cancer cells, and might serve as an effective way to kill resistant cancer cells. HLA-DR antibody L243 has been recently reported to elicit potent lysosome-mediated cell death in lymphoma and leukemia cells, suggesting that HLA-DR could be used as a potential target against lymphoma. In this study, we generated a bispecific immunoglobulin G-like antibody targeting both CD20 and HLA-DR (CD20–243 CrossMab) through CrossMab technology. We found that the CrossMab could induce remarkably high levels of complement-dependent cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative activity. Notably, although HLA-DR is expressed on normal and malignant cells, the CrossMab exhibited highly anti-tumor specificity, showing efficient eradication of hematological malignancies both in vitro and in vivo. Our data indicated that combined targeting of CD20 and HLA-DR could be an effective approach against malignancies, suggesting that CD20–243 CrossMab would be a promising therapeutic agent against lymphoma.
CD20 antibody; rituximab; HLA-DR; lysosome-mediated cell death; CrossMab; resistant cancer cell
Over the course of two waves of infection, H7N9 avian influenza A virus has caused 436 human infections and claimed 170 lives in China as of July 2014. To investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of H7N9, we surveyed avian influenza viruses in poultry in Jiangsu province within the outbreak epicenter. We found frequent occurrence of H7N9/H9N2 coinfection in chickens. Molecular clock phylogenetic analysis confirms coinfection by H7N9/H9N2 viruses and also reveals that the identity of the H7N9 outbreak lineage is confounded by ongoing reassortment between outbreak viruses and diverse H9N2 viruses in domestic birds. Experimental inoculation of a coinfected sample in cell culture yielded two reassortant H7N9 strains with polymerase segments from the original H9N2 strain. Ongoing reassortment between the H7N9 outbreak lineage and diverse H9N2 viruses may generate new strains with the potential to infect humans, highlighting the need for continued viral surveillance in poultry and humans.
IMPORTANCE We found frequent occurrence of H7N9/H9N2 coinfection in chickens. The H7N9 outbreak lineage is confounded by ongoing reassortment between H7N9 and H9N2 viruses. The importance of H9N2 viruses as the source of novel avian influenza virus infections in humans requires continuous attention.
Hidden blood loss typically occurs following total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and is thought to be related to free fatty acid (FFA). To study the effect of linoleic acid on red blood cells and to examine the pathogenesis of hidden blood loss in vivo, we generated an animal model by injecting linoleic acid into the tail veins of rats. We collected blood samples and determined red blood cell count (RBC) and levels of hemoglobin (Hb), as well as the oxidation and reducing agents in the blood, including glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and ferryl hemoglobin (Fe4+ = O2-), which is generated by the oxidation of Hb. Hidden blood loss occurred when linoleic acid was administered at a concentration of 60 mmol/L; RBC and Hb levels were significantly reduced by 24 h post-injection. This was followed by erythrocyte deformation, reduced activity of GSH-PX and T-SOD, and decreased levels of H2O2. This was accompanied by an increase in ferryl species, which likely contributes to oxidative stress in vivo. Our findings suggest that linoleic acid enhances acute red blood cell injury. Hb and RBC began to increase by 72 h, potentially resulting from linoleic acid metabolism. Thus, elevated levels of linoleic acid in the blood cause acute oxidative damage to red blood cells, eventually leading to partial acute anemia. These findings highlight the pathophysiology underlying hidden blood loss.
Linoleic acid; free fatty acid; erythrocyte damage; oxidative stress; hidden blood loss
Little is known about the timing of modern human emergence and occupation in Eastern Eurasia. However a rapid migration out of Africa into Southeast Asia by at least 60 ka is supported by archaeological, paleogenetic and paleoanthropological data. Recent discoveries in Laos, a modern human cranium (TPL1) from Tam Pa Ling‘s cave, provided the first evidence for the presence of early modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia by 63-46 ka. In the current study, a complete human mandible representing a second individual, TPL 2, is described using discrete traits and geometric morphometrics with an emphasis on determining its population affinity. The TPL2 mandible has a chin and other discrete traits consistent with early modern humans, but it retains a robust lateral corpus and internal corporal morphology typical of archaic humans across the Old World. The mosaic morphology of TPL2 and the fully modern human morphology of TPL1 suggest that a large range of morphological variation was present in early modern human populations residing in the eastern Eurasia by MIS 3.
Objective: To compare the clinicopathological features, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of two types of uterine sex cord-like tumors. Methods: The clinicopathological features of four uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCTs) and two endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements (ESTSCLEs) were analyzed retrospectively. Results: All patients were premenopausal women. The most common clinical presentation was vaginal bleeding (four cases). Total hysterectomy with or without bilateral adnexectomy was the most common treatment pattern (five cases). A patient with UTROSCTs, presenting with recurrence 10 months after transvaginal submucous myomectomy, underwent a total hysterectomy (case 2). All tumors were polypoid or intramural masses, usually located in the uterine fundus or submucosa. The majority of UTROSCTs were positive for cytokeratin (4/4 cases), one was positive for Wilms tumor protein, and of two cases with smooth muscle actin immunoreactivity, two were positive for desmin. UTROSCTs were positive for two or more sex cord markers, whereas sex cord markers were less frequently detected in ESTSCLEs. CD10 was variably positive in two UTROSCT patients and strongly positive in all ESTSCLE patients. Three UTROSCTs and one ESTSCLE were positive for both estrogen and progesterone receptors. All patients with UTROSCTs were alive without evidence of recurrence. One patient with ESTSCLEs underwent postoperative chemotherapy after total vaginal hysterectomy but developed recurrence at the vaginal stump (case 5). The other patient with ESTSCLEs was lost to follow-up. Conclusion: These UTROSCTs are polymorphic neoplasms with true sex cord differentiation and uncertain malignant potential, which possess a distinct biology from ESTSCLEs.
Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors; endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements; pathology; clinical; diagnosis; treatment outcome
There is increasing evidence to suggest that hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) are sustained by a distinct subpopulation of self-renewing cells known as cancer stem cells. However, the precise signals required for maintenance of stemness-like properties of these cells are yet to be elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that the level of oncoprotein osteopontin (OPN) in tumor cells of the edge of bulk tumors was significantly correlated with the clinical prognosis of patients with HCC. OPN was highly expressed in side population fractions of HCC cell lines, as well as in dormant cells, spheroids and chemo-resistant cancer cells, all of which are considered as having stemness-like cellular features. Depletion of OPN in HCC cell lines resulted in a reduction in the proportion of side population fractions, formation of hepato-spheroids, expression of stem-cell-associated genes and decreased tumorigenecity in immunodeficient mice. Mechanistically, OPN was demonstrated to bind to integrin αvβ3 and activate the transcription factor NF-κB, which resulted in upregulation of HIF-1α transcription and its downstream gene, BMI1, to mediate maintenance of the stemness-like phenotype. Suppression of the αvβ3–NF-κB–HIF-1α pathway decreased OPN-mediated self-renewal capabilities. Levels of OPN protein expression were significantly correlated with HIF-1α protein levels in HCC tumor tissue samples. OPN might promote a cancer stem cell-like phenotype via the αvβ3–NF-κB–HIF-1α pathway. Our findings offer strong support for OPN requirement in maintaining stem-like properties in HCC cells.
Cancer stem cell; hepatocellular carcinoma; osteopontin; stemness
The activation of Translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO) has been demonstrated to mediate rapid anxiolytic efficacy in stress response and stress-related disorders. This protein is involved in the synthesis of endogenous neurosteroids that promote γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated neurotransmission in the central neural system. However, little is known about the functions and the underlying mechanisms of TSPO in chronic pain-induced anxiety-like behaviors. The novel TSPO ligand N-benzyl-N-ethyl-2-(7,8-dihydro-7-benzyl-8-oxo-2-phenyl-9H-purin-9-yl) acetamide (ZBD-2) was used in the present study. We found that ZBD-2 (0.15 or 1.5 mg/kg) significantly attenuated anxiety-like behaviors in mice with chronic inflammatory pain induced by hindpaw injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA). However, the treatment did not alter the nociceptive threshold or inflammation in the hindpaw. Hindpaw injection of CFA induced the upregulation of TSPO, GluR1-containing α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, and NR2B-containing N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). ZBD-2 administration reversed the alterations of the abovementioned proteins in the BLA of the CFA-injected mice. Electrophysiological recording revealed that ZBD-2 could prevent an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory transmissions in the BLA synapses of CFA-injected mice. Therefore, as the novel ligand of TSPO, ZBD-2 induced anxiolytic effects, but did not affect the nociceptive threshold of mice under chronic pain. The anxiolytic effects of ZBD-2 were related to the regulation of the balance between excitatory and inhibitory transmissions in the BLA.
Translocator protein (18 kDa); Anxiety; Pain; Amygdala
First settlement of Polynesia, and population expansion throughout the ancestral Polynesian homeland are foundation events for global history. A precise chronology is paramount to informed archaeological interpretation of these events and their consequences. Recently applied chronometric hygiene protocols excluding radiocarbon dates on wood charcoal without species identification all but eliminates this chronology as it has been built for the Kingdom of Tonga, the initial islands to be settled in Polynesia. In this paper we re-examine and redevelop this chronology through application of Bayesian models to the questioned suite of radiocarbon dates, but also incorporating short-lived wood charcoal dates from archived samples and high precision U/Th dates on coral artifacts. These models provide generation level precision allowing us to track population migration from first Lapita occupation on the island of Tongatapu through Tonga’s central and northern island groups. They further illustrate an exceptionally short duration for the initial colonizing Lapita phase and a somewhat abrupt transition to ancestral Polynesian society as it is currently defined.
Prince Rupprecht's larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr) is a native high-value forest tree species in North China whose clonal propagation through somatic embryogenesis (SE) has the potential to rapidly capture the benefits of breeding or genetic engineering programs and to improve raw material uniformity and quality. To date, research has focused on clarifying the molecular mechanism of SE, but proteomic studies are still in the early stages. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis was performed on three developmental stages of SE in L. principis-rupprechtii in an attempt to identify a wide range of proteins that are regulated differentially during this process. Proteins were extracted and analyzed from the pro-embryogenic mass (PEM), globular embryo (GE), and cotyledon embryo (CE) stages of embryo development. We detected 503 proteins in total and identified 96 proteins expressed differentially during different developmental stages. The identified proteins were analyzed further to provide information about their expression patterns and functions during SE. Four clusters of proteins based on shared expression profiles were generated. Functional analysis showed that proteins involved in primary metabolism, phosphorylation, and oxidation reduction were upregulated during somatic embryo development. This work provides novel insights into the process of larch embryo development in vitro and a basis for further study of the biological process and opportunities for practical application of this knowledge.
Wnt/β-catenin signaling underlies the pathogenesis of a broad range of human cancers, including the deadly plasma cell cancer multiple myeloma (MM). In this study, we report that downregulation of the tumor suppressor microRNA miR-30-5p is a frequent pathogenetic event in MM. Evidence was developed that miR-30-5p downregulation occurs as a result of interaction between MM cells and bone marrow stromal cells, which in turn enhances expression of BCL9, a transcriptional co-activator of the Wnt signaling pathway known to promote MM cell proliferation, survival, migration, drug resistance and formation of MM cancer stem cells. The potential for clinical translation of strategies to re-express miR-30-5p as a therapeutic approach was further encouraged by the capacity of miR-30c and miR-30mix to reduce tumor burden and metastatic potential in vivo, in three murine xenograft models of human MM, without adversely affecting associated bone disease. Together, our findings offer a preclinical rationale to explore miR-30-5p delivery as an effective therapeutic strategy to eradicate MM cells in vivo.
myeloma; miR-30-5p; Wnt pathway; BCL9; replacement therapy
physicochemistries of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) offer
considerable commercial potential for new products and processes,
but also the possibility of unforeseen and negative consequences upon
ENM release into the environment. Investigations of ENM ecotoxicity
have revealed that the unique properties of ENMs and a lack of appropriate
test methods can lead to results that are inaccurate or not reproducible.
The occurrence of spurious results or misinterpretations of results
from ENM toxicity tests that are unique to investigations of ENMs
(as opposed to traditional toxicants) have been reported, but have
not yet been systemically reviewed. Our objective in this manuscript
is to highlight artifacts and misinterpretations that can occur at
each step of ecotoxicity testing: procurement or synthesis of the
ENMs and assessment of potential toxic impurities such as metals or
endotoxins, ENM storage, dispersion of the ENMs in the test medium,
direct interference with assay reagents and unacknowledged indirect
effects such as nutrient depletion during the assay, and assessment
of the ENM biodistribution in organisms. We recommend thorough characterization
of initial ENMs including measurement of impurities, implementation
of steps to minimize changes to the ENMs during storage, inclusion
of a set of experimental controls (e.g., to assess impacts of nutrient
depletion, ENM specific effects, impurities in ENM formulation, desorbed
surface coatings, the dispersion process, and direct interference
of ENM with toxicity assays), and use of orthogonal measurement methods
when available to assess ENMs fate and distribution in organisms.
Analysis of one of the most comprehensive datasets to date of the largest passerine bird clade, Passerida, identified 10 primary well-supported lineages corresponding to Sylvioidea, Muscicapoidea, Certhioidea, Passeroidea, the ‘bombycillids’ (here proposed to be recognized as Bombycilloidea), Paridae/Remizidae (proposed to be recognized as Paroidea), Stenostiridae, Hyliotidae, Regulidae (proposed to be recognized as Reguloidea) and spotted wren-babbler Spelaeornis formosus. The latter was found on a single branch in a strongly supported clade with Muscicapoidea, Certhioidea and Bombycilloidea, although the relationships among these were unresolved. We conclude that the spotted wren-babbler represents a relict basal lineage within Passerida with no close extant relatives, and we support the already used name Elachura formosa and propose the new family name Elachuridae for this single species.
Elachura formosa; old species; Passerida; Spelaeornis formosus; systematics
The aim of this study was to compare the clinicopathological significance of miR-200a/miR-141 and miR-205 expression in endometrioid carcinomas (ECs) versus nonendometrioid carcinomas (NECs) and to assess their correlation with hormone receptor status. miR-200a/miR-141 and miR-205 expression in 154 endometrial cancers was determined by qRT-PCR. The status of estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER/PR) was assessed using immunohistochemistry. miR-200a/miR-141 and miR-205 increased significantly in ECs and in NECs. The expression level of miR-200a was significantly higher in NECs than in ECs (P = 0.025). Furthermore, there was a trend that NECs with worse clinicopathological variables had a higher miR-200a expression, while an inverse trend existed in ECs. miR-205 upregulation occurred frequently in NECs without lymph node metastases (P = 0.030), whereas such association was not present in ECs. Interestingly, In ECs, miR-200a/miR-141 upregulation occurred frequently in the hormone receptor positive subgroups than the negative subgroups (P < 0.05). Similarly, the expression level of miR-205 was higher in the hormone receptor positive subgroups and the association between miR-205 and PR reached statistical significance (P = 0.024). In contrast, in NECs, a negative correlation was found between miR-200a/miR-141 and ER or PR status. Meanwhile, in ECs, miR-200a upregulation correlated with prolonged survival in the ER positive subgroup (P = 0.046), whereas an inverse trend existed in the ER negative subgroup. Our findings suggest that miR-200a/miR-141 and miR-205 increased significantly in ECs and in NECs. However, they might behave differently in ECs versus NECs. miR-200a/miR-141 and miR-205 might be associated with hormone receptor status in endometrial cancer and may possess prognostic impacts.
Endometrial carcinoma; miR-200a/miR-141; miR-205; ER; PR
Aim: To explore the association between COX-2 polymorphisms and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) susceptibility. Methods: We collected fasting peripheral venous blood from 60 cases with NSCLC and 62 healthy controls through physical examinations, and applied PCR-RFLP to analyze COX-2 polymorphisms of two groups. Results: With respect to detecting COX-2 rs689466 and rs5275 polymorphisms, the distribution frequency of mutant genotype AA of COX-2 rs689466 in case group was higher than that in control group, which possessed significant difference between two groups (P < 0.05). Carriers with AA genotype were 4.05 times at risk of NSCLC than those with GG genotype (P = 0.04, OR=4.05, 95% CI = 1.14-14.43). The distribution of mutant genotype CC of COX-2 rs5275 was different between two groups, and carriers with genotype CC were at 5.70 times higher risk of NSCLC than those with genotype TT. After corrected by sex, gender, smoking and drinking factors, AA genotype of COX-2 rs689466 and CC genotype of COX-2 rs5275 still contributed to increased risk of NSCLC (OR=4.22, 95% CI=1.10-16.17, OR=6.95, 95% CI=1.27-38.11). After analyzed of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotypes of alleles in two SNPs, the distribution frequency of A-C haplotype in case group was higher than that in control group, with significant difference between two groups (P < 0.05). After corrected by sex, gender, smoking and drinking factors, statistical difference was still found in the total distribution of A-C haplotype between two groups (P = 0.03, OR=6.11, 95% CI=1.16-32.2). Conclusions: COX-2 rs689466 and rs5275 polymorphisms may be related to NSCLC susceptibility. And A-C haplotype might be a susceptibility haplotype for NSCLC.
COX-2; non-small cell lung cancer; polymorphism
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most frequent histological form of primary bone cancer in adolescence. TP53 is a tumor suppressor gene which is essential for regulating cell division and preventing tumor formation. The purpose of this study is to examine whether genetic mutations in the TP53 gene are associated with OS risk and survival in a Chinese population. Five polymorphisms in the TP53 gene were selected in a case-control study, including 210 OS patients and 420 cancer-free controls. We found that subjects carrying rs12951053 CC genotype and rs1042522 GG genotype were significantly associated with risk of OS [odds ratio (OR) = 1.68, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.05-2.68; OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.16-3.07] compared with subjects carrying the common genotypes. Results of haplotype analysis also showed that A-G-G-A-C haplotype (rs12951053, rs1042522, rs8064946, rs9895829 and rs12602273) conferred significant decreased risk of OS (OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.19-0.72) compared with A-C-G-A-C haplotype. Besides, rs1042522 was an independent prognostic factor for OS with hazard radio (HR) = 1.94 (95% CI: 1.03-3.65) in GG genotype than in CC genotype. Our data suggest that genetic mutations in the TP53 gene are associated with risk and survival of OS in Chinese population.
Osteosarcoma; TP53; polymorphism; haplotype; susceptibility; survival