Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) is considered a promising modality for cancer treatment, but despite ongoing improvements many patients do not experience clinical benefits. The tumor microenvironment is an important limiting factor in immunotherapy that has not been addressed fully in ACT treatments. In this study, we report that upregualtion of the immunosuppressive receptor PD-1 expressed on transferred T cells at the tumor site, in a murine model of ACT, compared with its expression on transferred T cells present in the peripheral blood and spleen. Since PD-1 can attenuate T cell-mediated antitumor responses, we tested whether its blockade with an anti-PD-1 antibody could enhance the antitumor activity of ACT in this model. Co-treatment with both agents increased the number of transferred T cells at the tumor site and also enhanced tumor regressions, compared to treatments with either agent alone. While anti-PD-1 did not reduce the number of immunosuppressive Treg cells and MDSCs present in tumor-bearing mice, we found that it increased expression of IFN-γ and CXCL10 at the tumor site. Bone marrow transplant experiments using IFN-γR-/- mice implicated IFN-γ as a crucial nexus for controlling PD-1-mediated tumor infiltration by T cells. Taken together, our results imply that blocking the PD-1 pathway can increase IFN-γ at the tumor site, thereby increasing chemokine-dependent trafficking of immune cells into malignant disease sites.
PD-1; T cell-mediated antitumor immune response; Adoptive cell transfer (ACT); melanoma immunotherapy
Objective. To investigate the association of FXYD-3 expression with clinicopathological variables and PINCH in patients with ESCC. Patients and Methods. Expression of FXYD-3 protein was immunohistochemically examined in normal esophageal mucous (n = 20) and ESCC (n = 64). Results. Expression of FXYD-3 in the cytoplasm markedly increased from normal esophageal epithelial cells to primary ESCC (P = 0.001). The expression of FXYD-3 was correlated with TNM stages and depth of tumor invasion. Furthermore, the cases with lymph node metastasis tended to show a higher frequency of positive expression than those without metastasis (P = 0.086), and FXYD-3 expression tended to be positively related to the expression of PINCH (P = 0.063). Moreover, the cases positive for both proteins had the highest frequency of lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001). However, FXYD-3 expression was not correlated with patient's gender (P = 0.847), age (P = 0.876), tumor location (P = 0.279), size (P = 0.771), grade of differentiation (P = 0.279), and survival (P = 0.113). Conclusion. Overexpression of FXYD-3 in the cytoplasm may play an important role in the tumorigenesis and development in the human ESCC, particularly in combination with PINCH expression.
Due to the health and economic costs of childhood obesity, coupled with studies suggesting the benefits of comprehensive (dietary, physical activity and behavioral counseling) intervention, the United States Preventive Services Task Force recently recommended childhood screening and intervention for obesity beginning at age six. Using a longitudinal data set consisting of the body mass index of 3164 children up to age 18 and another longitudinal data set containing the body mass index at ages 18 and 40 and the presence or absence of disease (hypertension and diabetes) at age 40 for 747 people, we formulate and numerically solve – separately for boys and girls – a dynamic programming problem for the optimal biennial (i.e., at ages 2, 4, …, 16) obesity screening thresholds. Unlike most screening problem formulations, we take a societal viewpoint, where the state of the system at each age is the population-wide probability density function of the body mass index. Compared to the biennial version of the task force’s recommendation, the screening thresholds derived from the dynamic program achieve a relative reduction in disease prevalence of 3% at the same screening (and treatment) cost, or – due to the flatness of the disease vs. screening tradeoff curve – achieves the same disease prevalence at a 28% relative reduction in cost. Compared to the task force’s policy, which uses the 95th percentile of body mass index (from cross-sectional growth charts tabulated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) as the screening threshold for each age, the dynamic programming policy treats mostly 16 year olds (including many who are not obese) and very few males under 14 years old. While our results suggest that adult hypertension and diabetes are minimized by focusing childhood obesity screening and treatment on older adolescents, the shortcomings in the available data and the narrowness of the medical outcomes considered prevent us from making a recommendation about childhood obesity screening policies.
Contribution of the vestibular end organ to regulation of arterial pressure was quantitatively compared with the role of baroreceptors in terms of baroreflex sensitivity and c-Fos protein expression in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Baroreflex sensitivity and c-Fos protein expression in the RVLM were measured in conscious rats that had undergone bilateral labyrinthectomy (BL) and/or baroreceptor unloading. BL attenuated baroreflex sensitivity during intravenous infusion of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), but did not significantly affect the sensitivity following infusion of phenylephrine (PE). Baroreflex sensitivity became positive following sinoaortic denervation (SAD) during infusion of PE and attenuated sensitivity during infusion of SNP. Baroreflex sensitivity also became positive following double ablation (BL+SAD) during infusion of PE, and attenuated sensitivity during infusion of SNP. c-Fos protein expression increased significantly in the RVLM in the sham group after SNP administration. However, the BL, SAD, and SAD+BL groups showed significant decreases in c-Fos protein expression compared with that in the sham group. The SAD group showed more reduced c-Fos protein expression than that in the BL group, and the SAD+BL group showed less expression than that in the SAD group. These results suggest that the vestibular system cooperates with baroreceptors to maintain arterial pressure during hypotension but that baroreceptors regulate arterial pressure during both hypotension and hypertension. Additionally, afferent signals for maintaining blood pressure from the vestibular end organs and the baroreceptors may be integrated in the RVLM.
Baroreceptor; Blood pressure; c-Fos protein; Rostral ventrolateral medulla; Vestibular system
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of lenalidomide in the treatment of intermediate-1 risk non-5q deletion [non-del (5q)] myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). A total of 30 patients with MDS were classified through G-banding chromosome karyotype analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). According to the International Prognostic Scoring System scores, among the 30 patients, 23 and seven cases had scores of 0.5 and 1.0, respectively. Lenalidomide (Revlimid®), 10 mg/day) was administered for 21 days every 28 days. All 30 cases were treated with lenalidomide for at least three cycles, including 20 cases with four cycles. The patients did not require erythropoietin, cyclosporine or iron chelation treatments. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS statistical software version 13.0, and comparisons among groups were conducted using a t-test. The efficacy of lenalidomide was demonstrated in patients with intermediate-1 risk non-del (5q) MDS. Peripheral blood cell counts were improved following treatment, and absolute neutrophil, haemoglobin and platelet counts increased following 2–4 cycles of treatment. All patients became stable having undergone three cycles of treatment; however, 17 patients with chromosomal abnormalities had no cytogenetic response to the treatment, as confirmed through the FISH test. Patients with intermediate-1 risk non-del (5q) MDS treated with lenalidomide did not achieve complete haematological remission, although they demonstrated haematological improvement.
lenalidomide; myelodysplastic syndrome
Rehmannia glutinosa, a traditional Chinese medicine herb, is unable to grow normally in a soil where the same species has recently been cultivated. The biological basis of this so called “replanting disease” is unknown, but it may involve the action of microRNAs (miRNAs), which are known to be important regulators of plant growth and development. High throughput Solexa/Illumina sequencing was used to generate a transcript library of the R. glutinosa transcriptome and degradome in order to identify possible miRNAs and their targets implicated in the replanting disease. A total of 87,665 unigenes and 589 miRNA families (17 of which have not been identified in plants to date) was identified from the libraries made from a first year (FP) and a second year (SP) crop. A comparison between the FP and SP miRNAs showed that the abundance of eight of the novel and 295 of the known miRNA families differed between the FP and SP plants. Sequencing of the degradome sampled from FP and SP plants led to the identification of 165 transcript targets of 85 of the differentially abundant miRNA families. The interaction of some of these miRNAs with their target(s) is likely to form an important part of the molecular basis of the replanting disease of R. glutinosa.
To examine the secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure level in Chinese office buildings and to evaluate the effectiveness of a smoke-free policy in reducing SHS exposure.
Survey of smoking policies and measurement of SHS level in 14 office buildings from 10 provinces in China.
Smoking in the building significantly elevated the SHS concentrations both in offices with at least one smoker and in offices with no smokers. In one building that recently adopted a smoke-free policy, the nicotine concentrations decreased significantly after the policy was enacted. Enactment of a smoking policy was effective in reducing SHS exposure in the buildings.
Nonsmoking office workers in China were exposed to significant levels of SHS at work; both the central and local governments should realize the need to legislate against workplace smoking.
Currently, Saphenous vein (SV) and internal thoracic artery (ITA) are still the most common graft materials in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) whereas SV graft have a lower long-term patency than ITA. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) phenotype conversion, proliferation and migration may play a key role in mechanism of vein graft restenosis. To explore differential gene expression profile in VSMCs from SV and ITA will help to further elucidate the mechanism of VSMCs in vein graft restenosis after CABG and to provide new thread of gene therapy.
VSMCs from paired SV and ITA were cultured for experiments of Affymetrix microarrays and verification using FQ RT-PCR, while the database for annotation, visualization and integrated discovery bioinformatics resources (DAVID 2.0) was utilized for bioinformatics analysis of differential gene expression profile between SV VSMCs and ITA VSMCs. RNA of tunica media from SV and ITA segments were extracted for FQ RT-PCR to display differential expression of PLAT
54,613 probe sets were examined by gene microarray experiments. In SV VSMCs, 1,075 genes were up-regulated and 406 of them were higher than two-fold; 1,399 genes were down-regulated and 424 of them were lower than two-fold as compare with ITA VSMCs.14 ECM-related genes differentially expressed were verificated and listed as following: COL4A4, COL11A1, FN1, TNC, THBS, FBLN, MMP3, MMP9, TIMP3, WNT5A, SGCD were higher whereas COL14A1, ELN, PLAT lower in SV VSMCs than ITA VSMCs. In addition, PLAT was lower in tunica media from SV segments than ITA.
VSMCs from SV and ITA have distinct phenotypes characteristics. Both promoting and inhibiting migration ECM-related genes were higher in VSMCs from SV as compared with ITA, suggesting that VSMCs from SV have more potential migrating capability whereas less PLAT both in SV VSMCs and vascular tissue,implying that SV may prone to be restenosis after CABG.
Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells; Restenosis; Gene Expression Profile; Extracellular Matrix; Migration
Studies have indicated that the immune system plays a pivotal role in hepatitis. Substance P (SP) has been shown to modulate the immune response. In order to investigate the role of SP in liver injury and to determine whether it leads to pro-inflammatory signaling, we established a mouse model of hepatic injury induced by concanavalin A (ConA). We also exposed mouse Kupffer cells (KCs) to SP in vitro. Cytokine and SP levels in liver homogenates were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the protective effects of L-703,606 were evaluated through serological and histological assessments. Neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) expression was evaluated by immunofluorescence and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The levels of SP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly increased in the ConA-treated mice and the levels of ALT and AST were markedly reduced by L-703,606-pretreatment. Liver injury was significantly reduced by treatment with L-703,606. The mouse KCs expressed NK-1R and SP increased NK-1R mRNA expression. Furthermore, NK-1R blockade eliminated the effect of SP on NK-1R mRNA expression. The cytokine levels exhibited a substantial increase in the SP-pretreated KCs compared with the KCs that were cultured in control medium. The inter-leukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels in the L-703,606-pretreated KCs were significantly lower compared with those in the SP-pretreated KCs. Our study suggests that neurogenic inflammation induced by SP plays an important role in hepatitis. Mouse KCs express NK-1R and SP increases NK-1R mRNA expression. SP enhances IL-6 and TNF-α secretion and an NK-1R antagonist inhibits this secretion.
concanavalin A; liver injury; substance P; neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist; neurogenic inflammation
Altered chloride homeostasis has been thought to be a risk factor for several brain disorders, while less attention has been paid to its role in liver disease. We aimed to analyze the involvement and possible mechanisms of altered chloride homeostasis of GABAergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in the motor deficit observed in a model of encephalopathy caused by acute liver failure, by using glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 - green fluorescent protein knock-in transgenic mice.
Alterations in intracellular chloride concentration in GABAergic neurons within the SNr and changes in the expression of two dominant chloride homeostasis-regulating genes, KCC2 and NKCC1, were evaluated in mice with hypolocomotion due to hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The effects of pharmacological blockade and/or activation of KCC2 and NKCC1 functions with their specific inhibitors and/or activators on the motor activity were assessed.
In our mouse model of acute liver injury, chloride imaging indicated an increase in local intracellular chloride concentration in SNr GABAergic neurons. In addition, the mRNA and protein levels of KCC2 were reduced, particularly on neuronal cell membranes; in contrast, NKCC1 expression remained unaffected. Furthermore, blockage of KCC2 reduced motor activity in the normal mice and led to a further deteriorated hypolocomotion in HE mice. Blockade of NKCC1 was not able to normalize motor activity in mice with liver failure.
Our data suggest that altered chloride homeostasis is likely involved in the pathophysiology of hypolocomotion following HE. Drugs aimed at restoring normal chloride homeostasis would be a potential treatment for hepatic failure.
This paper presents a novel approach that three-dimensionally visualizes and evaluates stenoses in human coronary arteries by using harmonic skeletons. A harmonic skeleton is the center line of a multi-branched tubular surface extracted based on a harmonic function, which is the solution of the Laplace equation. This skeletonization method guarantees smoothness and connectivity and provides a fast and straightforward way to calculate local cross-sectional areas of the arteries, and thus provides the possibility to localize and evaluate coronary artery stenosis, which is a commonly seen pathology in coronary artery disease.
Image morphing, or image interpolation in the time domain, deals with the metamorphosis of one image into another. In this paper, a new class of image morphing algorithms is proposed based on the theory of optimal mass transport. The L2 mass moving energy functional is modified by adding an intensity penalizing term, in order to reduce the undesired double exposure effect. It is an intensity-based approach and, thus, is parameter free. The optimal warping function is computed using an iterative gradient descent approach. This proposed morphing method is also extended to doubly connected domains using a harmonic parameterization technique, along with finite-element methods.
Image interpolation; image morphing; image warping; mass preserving mapping; Monge–Kantorovich flow; optimal transport
The aim of the study was to test for human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and human telomerase RNA component (hTERC) gene amplification in tissues derived from esophageal cancer, in esophagus displaying atypical hyperplasia and in normal tissue, and to analyze the relationship between them and discuss whether HPV infection and hTERC gene amplification play a role in the duration of survival of esophageal cancer patients.
To test for HPV infection, surface plasma resonance was used after extracting and subjecting the DNA to PCR amplification. Measurement of hTERC gene amplification was performed by the fluorescence in situ hybridization technique.
The rates of HPV infection in the normal group, the atypical esophageal hyperplasia group and the cancer group were 0% (0/40), 10.00% (1/10) and 20.65% (19/92), respectively, with a statistically significant difference of P < 0.01. The hTERC gene amplification rate in normal tissue, grade I atypical hyperplastic tissue, grade II/III atypical hyperplastic tissue and esophageal cancer tissue were 0% (0/89), 15.38% (4/26), 47.06% (8/17) and 89.13% (82/92), respectively, with a statistically significant difference of P < 0.01. On follow-up of 92 patients, survival curves of the HPV-positive and HPV-negative groups were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Survival curves of the hTERC gene amplification-positive and hTERC gene amplification-negative groups were statistically significant (P < 0.05). A matching chi-square test showed that there was no correlation between HPV infection and hTERC gene amplification (P > 0.05).
HPV infection may be one of many factors contributing to the development of esophageal cancer, but it does not influence prognosis. Amplification of the hTERC gene appears to influence certain features associated with postoperative survival in esophageal carcinoma patients.
Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus; Prognosis; Human papilloma virus; Human telomerase RNA components gene
Objective. To demonstrate the role of Wnt/β-catenin canonical pathway in postmenopausal osteoporosis by evaluating serum β-catenin levels in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and analyzing their possible relationship with serum OPG, RANKL, the ratio of RANKL/OPG, sclerostin, and bone turnover markers. Methods. 480 patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and 170 healthy postmenopausal women were enrolled in the study. Serum β-catenin, OPG, RANKL, and sclerostin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Bone status was assessed by measuring bone mineral density and bone turnover markers. Estradiol levels were also detected. Results. Serum β-catenin levels were lower in postmenopausal osteoporotic women compared to nonosteoporotic postmenopausal women (26.26 ± 14.81 versus 39.33 ± 5.47 pg/mL, P < 0.001). Serum β-catenin was positively correlated with osteoprotegerin (r = 0.232, P < 0.001) and negatively correlated with the ratio of RANKL/OPG, body mass index, and sclerostin (r = −0.128, P = 0.005; r = −0.117, P = 0.010; r = −0.400, P < 0.001, resp.) in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Conclusion. The results indicate that lower serum β-catenin and concomitantly higher ratio of RANKL/OPG may be involved in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Functional communication between RANKL/RANK/OPG system and Wnt pathways plays an important role in postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Eight- and four-membered analogues of N-butyldeoxynojirimycin (NB-DNJ), a reversible male contraceptive in mice, were prepared and tested. A chiral pool approach was used for the synthesis of the target compounds. Key steps for the synthesis of the eight-membered analogues involve: ringclosing metathesis and Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation, and for the four-membered analogues: Sharpless epoxidation, epoxide ring opening (azide), and Mitsunobu reaction to form the four-membered ring. (3S,4R,5S,6R,7R)-1-Nonylazocane-3,4,5,6,7-pentaol (6), was moderately active against rat-derived ceramide-specific glucosyltransferase and four of the other eight-membered analogues were weakly active against rat-derived β-glucosidase 2. Among the four-membered analogues, ((2R,3s,4S)-3-hydroxy-1-nonylazetidine-2,4-diyl)dimethanol (25), displayed selective inhibitory activity against mouse-derived ceramide-specific glucosyltransferase and was about half as potent as NB-DNJ against the rat-derived enzyme. ((2S,4S)-3-Hydroxy-1-nonyl-azetidine-2,4-diyl)dimethanol (27) was found to be a selective inhibitor of β-glucosidase 2, with potency similar to NB-DNJ. Additional glycosidase assays were performed to identify potential other therapeutic applications. The eight-membered iminosugars exhibited specificity for almond-derived β-glucosidase and the 1-nonylazetidine 25 inhibited α-glucosidase (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with an IC50 of 600 nM and β-glucosidase (almond) with an IC50 of 20 µM. Only N-nonyl derivatives were active, emphasizing the importance of a long lipophilic side chain for inhibitory activity of the analogues studied.
Due to their significant value in both economy and ecology, Daphnia had long been employed to investigate in vivo response of cholinesterase (ChE) in anticholinesterase exposures, whereas the type constitution and property of the enzyme remained unclear. A type of ChE was purified from Daphnia magna using a three-step procedure, i.e., Triton X-100 extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation, and diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-Sepharose™-Fast-Flow chromatography. According to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), molecular mass of the purified ChE was estimated to be 84 kDa. Based on substrate studies, the purified enzyme preferred butyrylthiocholine iodide (BTCh) [with maximum velocity (V
max)/Michaelis constant (K
m)=8.428 L/(min·mg protein)] to acetylthiocholine iodide (ATCh) [with V
m=5.346 L/(min·mg protein)] as its substrate. Activity of the purified enzyme was suppressed by high concentrations of either ATCh or BTCh. Inhibitor studies showed that the purified enzyme was more sensitive towards inhibition by tetraisopropylpyrophosphoramide (iso-OMPA) than by 1,5-bis(4-allyldimethylammoniumphenyl) pentan-3-one dibromide (BW284C51). Result of the study suggested that the purified ChE was more like a type of pseudocholinesterase, and it also suggested that Daphnia magna contained multiple types of ChE in their bodies.
Crustacea; Pseudocholinesterase; Cholinesterase; Substrate preference; Selective inhibitors
The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of depression in Chinese university students, and to identify the socio-demographic factors associated with depression in this population. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was used to select university students (N = 5245) in Harbin (Heilongjiang Province, Northeastern China), who were aged 16–35 years. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to determine depressive symptoms of the participants. BDI scores of 14 or higher were categorized as depressive for logistic regression analysis. Depression was diagnosed by the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). 11.7% of the participants had a BDI score 14 or higher. Major Depressive Disorder was seen in 4.0% of Chinese university students. There were no statistical differences in the incidence of depression when gender, ethnicity, and university classification were analyzed. Multivariate analysis showed that age, study year, satisfaction with major, family income situation, parental relationship and mother's education were significantly associated with depression. Moderate depression is prevalent in Chinese university students. The students who were older, dissatisfied with their major, had a lower family income, poor parental relationships, and a lower level of mother's education were susceptible to depression.
Proton-based chemical shift imaging (CSI) probes were encapsulated inside nano-carriers to increase the sensivitity of the reporters. Co-encapsulation with a relaxation agent results in improved sensitivity and suppresses background signals. Simultaneous imaging of different chemical shift reporters allows multiplexed detection.
Background & Aims
It is a challenge to develop direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) that target the NS3/4A protease of hepatitis C virus (HCV) because resistant variants develop. Ketoamide compounds, designed to mimic the natural protease substrate, have been developed as inhibitors. However, clinical trials have revealed rapid selection of resistant mutants, most of which are considered to be pre-existing variants.
We identified residues near the ketoamide-binding site in X-ray structures of the genotype 1a protease, co-crystallized with boceprevir or a telaprevir-like ligand, and then identified variants at these positions in 219 genotype 1 sequences from a public database. We used side-chain modeling to assess the potential effects of these variants on the interaction between ketoamide and the protease, and compared these results with the phenotypic effects on ketoamide resistance, RNA replication capacity, and infectious virus yields in a cell culture model of infection.
Thirteen natural binding-site variants with potential for ketoamide resistance were identified at 10 residues in the protease, near the ketoamide binding site. Rotamer analysis of amino acid side-chain conformations indicated that 2 variants (R155K and D168G) could affect binding of telaprevir more than boceprevir. Measurements of antiviral susceptibility in cell culture studies were consistent with this observation. Four variants (Q41H, I132V, R155K, and D168G) caused low-to-moderate levels of ketoamide resistance; 3 of these were highly fit (Q41H, I132V, and R155K).
Using a comprehensive sequence and structure-based analysis, we showed how natural variation in the HCV protease NS3/4A sequences might affect susceptibility to first-generation DAAs. These findings increase our understanding of the molecular basis of ketoamide resistance among naturally existing viral variants.
virology; genetic; drug resistance; treatment
The cellular response to DNA damage employs multiple dynamic protein modifications to exert rapid and adaptable effects. Substantial work has detailed the roles of canonical checkpoint-mediated phosphorylation in this program. Recent studies have also implicated sumoylation in the DNA damage response; however, a systematic view of the contribution of sumoylation to replication and repair and its interplay with checkpoints is lacking. Here, using a biochemical screen in yeast, we establish that DNA damage-induced sumoylation occurs on a large scale. We identify MRX (Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2) as a positive regulator of this induction for a subset of repair targets. In addition, we find that defective sumoylation results in failure to complete replication of a damaged genome and impaired DNA end processing, highlighting the importance of the SUMO-mediated response in genome integrity. We also show that DNA damage-induced sumoylation does not require Mec1 checkpoint signaling, and the presence of both enables optimal DNA damage resistance.
Human parechoviruses (HPeVs) are a species in the Parechovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family. We report a complete genome sequence of a novel HPeV strain, CH-ZJ1, that was found in an infant with gastroenteritis in Zhenjiang City, China. The complete genome consists of 7,298 nucleotides (nt), excluding the 3′ poly(A) tail; the open reading frame is mapped between nucleotide positions 654 and 7211 and encodes a 2,185-amino acid (aa) polyprotein. The phylogenetic tree obtained for the complete genome of this HPeV strain and the other HpeV strains available in GenBank indicated that CH-ZJ1 is intervenient between HpeV type 4 (HpeV4) and HpeV5. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 3D and VP1 genes reveals two incongruent trees. Recombination detection indicated that CH-ZJ1 might be a recombinant which was produced by more than one genomic recombination event that occurred among HPeV1, HPeV4, and HPeV3 strains.
In a mastocytoma model expressing mutant c-KIT, a combination of the c-KIT inhibitor dasatinib and an OX40-specific monoclonal antibody synergized in triggering a strong antitumor T-cell response that promoted curative therapeutic effects. Along with a number of other recent studies, these data support the notion that combining targeted agents with immunotherapy may constitute a promising approach for cancer therapy.
targeted therapy; immunotherapy; dasatinib; anti-OX40; C-KIT mutant tumors
To evaluate the association of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) with renal function in essential hypertension.
LV diastolic function was estimated by the ratio of early diastolic velocities (E) from transmitral inflow to early diastolic velocities (E′) of tissue Doppler at mitral annulus (septal corner); NT-proBNP was measured in 207 hypertensive patients (mean age 56±14 years). The subjects were classified into 3 groups: E/E′≤10 group (n = 48), 1015 group (n = 50). The renal function was estimated by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with 99mTc-DTPA. GFR from 30 to 59 ml/min/1.73 m2 was defined as Stage 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD). GFR was also estimated using the modified MDRD equation. Albuminuria was defined by urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR).
GFR was lower and UACR was higher in E/E′ >15 group than in 10< E/E′ ≤15 group or E/E′ ≤10 group (p<0.0001), GFR was significantly negative and UACR was positive correlated with E/E′ and NT-proBNP (p<0.0001). In multivariate stepwise linear analysis, GFR had significant correlation with age (p = 0.001), gender (p = 0.003), E/E′ (p = 0.03), lgNT-proBNP (p = 0.001) and lgUACR (p = 0.01), while eGFR had no significant correlation with E/E′ or lgNT-proBNP. Multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusted for potential confounding factors, showed that participants in E/E′>15 group were more likely to have Stage 3 CKD compared with those in E/E′≤10 group with an adjusted odds ratio of 8.31 (p = 0.0036).
LV diastolic function, assessed with E/E′ and NT-proBNP is associated with renal function in essential hypertension.
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represents more than 5% of all cancers diagnosed annually in United States and around the world. Despite advances in the management of patients with this disease, the survival has not been significantly improved, and the search for potential alternative therapies is encouraging. Here we demonstrate that deguelin administration causes a significant HNSCC cell death. Deguelin induces both cell apoptosis and autophagy by modulating multiple signaling pathways in cultured HNSCC cells. Deguelin inhibits Akt signaling, and down-regulates survivin and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) expressions, by disrupting their association with heat shock protein-90 (Hsp-90). Deguelin induces ceramide production through de novo synthase pathway to promote HNSCC cell death. Importantly, increased ceramide level activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which then directly phosphorylates Ulk1 and eventually leads to cell autophagy. We found that a low dose of deguelin sensitized HNSCC cells to 5-FU. Finally, using a nude mice Hep-2 xenograft model, we also showed a significant anti-tumor ability of deguelin in vivo. Together, we suggest that deguelin may represent a novel and effective chemo-agent against HNSCC.