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1.  Atypical X-Chromosome Inactivation in an X;1 Translocation Patient Demonstrating Xq28 Functional Disomy 
X-chromosome inactivation is an epigenetic process used to regulate gene dosage in mammalian females by silencing genes on one X-chromosome. While the pattern of X-chromosome inactivation is typically random in normal females, abnormalities of the X-chromosome may result in skewing due to disadvantaged cell growth. We describe a female patient with an X;1 translocation [46,X,t(X;1)(q28;q21)] and unusual pattern of X-chromosome inactivation who demonstrates functional disomy of the Xq28 region distal to the translocation breakpoint. There was complete skewing of X-chromosome inactivation in the patient, along with the atypical findings of an active normal X chromosome and an inactive derivative X. Characterization of the translocation revealed that the patient’s Xq28 breakpoint interrupts the DKC1 gene. Molecular analysis of the breakpoint region revealed functional disomy of Xq28 genes distal to DKC1. We propose that atypical X-chromosome inactivation occurred in the patient due to a post-inactivation cell selection mechanism likely initiated by disruption of DKC1. As a result, the pattern of X-chromosome inactivation is opposite that of the expected for an X;autosome translocation. Therefore, we suggest the phenotypic abnormalities found in the patient are a result of functional disomy in the Xq28 region.
doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.32699
PMCID: PMC2709101  PMID: 19215059
X-Chromosome Inactivation; X;1 Translocation; Xq28 Functional Disomy; DKC1
2.  Gene-resolution analysis of DNA copy number variation using oligonucleotide expression microarrays 
BMC Genomics  2007;8:111.
Background
Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is a high-throughput method for measuring genome-wide DNA copy number changes. Current aCGH methods have limited resolution, sensitivity and reproducibility. Microarrays for aCGH are available only for a few organisms and combination of aCGH data with expression data is cumbersome.
Results
We present a novel method of using commercial oligonucleotide expression microarrays for aCGH, enabling DNA copy number measurements and expression profiles to be combined using the same platform. This method yields aCGH data from genomic DNA without complexity reduction at a median resolution of approximately 17,500 base pairs. Due to the well-defined nature of oligonucleotide probes, DNA amplification and deletion can be defined at the level of individual genes and can easily be combined with gene expression data.
Conclusion
A novel method of gene resolution analysis of copy number variation (graCNV) yields high-resolution maps of DNA copy number changes and is applicable to a broad range of organisms for which commercial oligonucleotide expression microarrays are available. Due to the standardization of oligonucleotide microarrays, graCNV results can reliably be compared between laboratories and can easily be combined with gene expression data using the same platform.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-8-111
PMCID: PMC1868757  PMID: 17470268

Results 1-2 (2)