Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-4 (4)

Clipboard (0)

Select a Filter Below

more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Subgingival Microbial Profiles of Smokers with Periodontitis 
Journal of Dental Research  2010;89(11):1247-1253.
The subgingival microbiome is largely uncultivated, and therefore, cultivation-based and targeted molecular approaches have limited value in examining the effect of smoking on this community. We tested the hypothesis that the subgingival biofilm is compositionally different in current and never-smokers by using an open-ended molecular approach for bacterial identification. Subgingival plaque from deep sites of current and never-smokers matched for disease was analyzed by 16S sequencing. Smokers demonstrated greater abundance of Parvimonas, Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Bacteroides, and Treponema and lower levels of Veillonella, Neisseria, and Streptococcus. Several uncultivated Peptostreptococci, Parvimonas micra, Campy-lobacter gracilis, Treponema socranskii, Dialister pneumosintes, and Tannerella forsythia were elevated in this group, while Veillonella sp. oral clone B2, Neisseria sp. oral clone 2.24, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Capnocytophaga sp. clone AH015 were at lower levels. The microbial profile of smoking-associated periodontitis is distinct from that of non-smokers, with significant differences in the prevalence and abundance of disease-associated and health-compatible organisms.
PMCID: PMC3318026  PMID: 20739702
bacteria; subgingival; molecular; DNA; smoking; periodontitis
2.  Side-to-Side Differences in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Volume in Healthy Control Subjects 
Journal of biomechanics  2009;43(3):576.
Examination of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) anatomy is of great interest both in studying injury mechanisms and surgical reconstruction. However, after a typical acute ACL rupture it is not possible to measure the dimensions of the ACL itself due to concomitant or subsequent degeneration of the remaining ligamentous tissue. The contralateral ACL may be an appropriate surrogate for measuring anatomical dimensions, but it remains unknown whether side-to-side differences preclude using the contralateral as a valid surrogate for the ruptured ACL. This study examined whether the ACL volume is significantly different between the left and right knees of uninjured subjects. ACL volumes were calculated for the left and right sides of 28 individuals using a previously-validated MRI-based method. The mean ACL volume was not significantly different (p=0.2331) between the two sides in this population. Side-to-side ACL volume was also well correlated (correlation=0.91, p<0.0001). The results of this study show that the volume of the contralateral ACL is a valid surrogate measure for a missing ACL on the injured side. This non-invasive, in vivo technique for measuring ACL volume may prove useful in future large-scale comprehensive studies of potential risk factors for ACL rupture, in quantification potential loading effects on ACL size as a prophylactic measure against ACL rupture, and in the use of ACL volume as a screening tool for assessing risk of injury.
PMCID: PMC2813385  PMID: 19906378
anterior cruciate ligament; anatomy; injury; MRI
3.  Random Spot Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratio Is Unreliable for Estimating 24-Hour Proteinuria in Individual Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Nephritis Patients 
Nephron. Clinical Practice  2009;113(3):c177-c182.
Recently the American Rheumatologic Association (ARA) recommended random spot urine protein/creatinine ratio (P/C) to monitor systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) glomerulonephritis (GN). Shortly afterward, 2 works were published, designated Study 1 and Study 2, which are the only studies to test spot P/C in SLE GN. Here we evaluate Study 1 and Study 2, which came to different conclusions.
Study 1 compared spot P/C to the P/C of intended 24-hour collections >50% complete, which reliably estimates 24-hour proteinuria. Study 2 compared spot P/C to the protein content of intended 24-hour collections >80% complete. To compare studies, Study 2 data were converted to P/C ratios.
Study 1 and Study 2 were found to be in agreement. Both showed that spot P/C and 24-hour P/C were highly correlated, but only when compared over the entire P/C range (0–8.0) (r = 0.842). Over the P/C range 0.5–3.0 (the most common P/C range encountered in SLE GN), correlation was present, but concordance was poor, rendering random P/C ratio unreliable.
Random spot P/C ratio is unreliable for detecting moderate proteinuria change. For example, random spot P/C would not reliably diagnose British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) Category A or B proteinuric flares.
PMCID: PMC2821433  PMID: 19672116
SLE glomerulonephritis; Proteinuria; SLE flare
4.  Phenotypes, genotypes and disease susceptibility associated with gene copy number variations: complement C4 CNVs in European American healthy subjects and those with systemic lupus erythematosus 
Cytogenetic and Genome Research  2009;123(1-4):131-141.
A new paradigm in human genetics is high frequencies of inter-individual variations in copy numbers of specific genomic DNA segments. Such common copy number variation (CNV) loci often contain genes engaged in host-environment interaction including those involved in immune effector functions. DNA sequences within a CNV locus often share a high degree of identity but beneficial or deleterious polymorphic variants are present among different individuals. Thus, common gene CNVs can contribute, both qualitatively and quantitatively, to a spectrum of phenotypic variants. In this review we describe the phenotypic and genotypic diversities of complement C4 created by copy number variations of RCCX modules (RP-C4-CYP21-TNX) and size dichotomy of C4 genes. A direct outcome of C4 CNV is the generation of two classes of polymorphic proteins, C4A and C4B, with differential chemical reactivities towards peptide or carbohydrate antigens, and a range of C4 plasma protein concentrations (from 15 to 70 mg/dl) among healthy subjects. Deliberate molecular genetic studies enabled development of definitive techniques to determine exact patterns of RCCX modular variations, copy numbers of long and short C4A and C4B genes by Southern blot analyses or by real-time quantitative PCR. It is found that in healthy European Americans, the total C4 gene copy number per diploid genome ranges from 2 to 6: 60.8% of people with four copies of C4 genes, 27.2% with less than four copies, and 12% with more than four copies. Such a distribution is skewed towards the low copy number side in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototypic autoimmune disease with complex etiology. In SLE, the frequency of individuals with less than four copies of C4 is significantly increased (42.2%), while the frequency of those with more than four copies is decreased (6%). This decrease in total C4 gene copy number in SLE is due to increases in homozygous and heterozygous deficiencies of C4A but not C4B. Therefore, it is concluded that lower copy number of C4 is a risk factor for and higher gene copy number of C4 is a protective factor against SLE disease susceptibility.
PMCID: PMC2709077  PMID: 19287147

Results 1-4 (4)