We describe the clinical phenotype of a Mexican family segregating Duane syndrome as an autosomal dominant trait linked to chromosome 2q31 (DURS2) and previously reported to harbor a heterozygous α2-chimaerinmissense mutation.
A five-generation Mexican family was analyzed. Ten affected subjects were available for clinical examination. Participating subjects were tested for visual acuity, ocular alignment by prism cover testing, ocular ductions and versions, and globe retraction. In children, alignment was measured with the Krimsky test in cardinal positions of gaze.
Ten cases were included, 6 females and 4 males. Five cases presented with bilateral and 5 with unilateral Duane syndrome. Right side was the most commonly affected side on unilateral cases. Five cases exhibited exotropia, 4 esotropia, and 1 hypotropia. Seven patients had important limitation of abduction; two, moderate limitation. Four patients had mild adduction limitation and 4 had moderate limitation. No additional anomalies such as fourth (trochlear) nerve palsy, blepharoptosis, or dense amblyopia, reported in previous Duane syndrome families, were observed. All 3 cases that exhibited vertical dysfunction had upgaze limitation. One instance of nonpenetrance was recorded.
Considerable intrafamilial clinical variability was observed in this Duane syndrome pedigree carrying a α2-chimaerin mutation. The presence of bilateral involvement and associated vertical movements, commonly observed in this and others DURS2 families, could suggest the occurrence of CHN1 mutations as the source of the disease in isolated or familial DURS cases.