Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-3 (3)

Clipboard (0)

Select a Filter Below

Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Histo-anatomical structure of the living isolated rat heart in two contraction states assessed by diffusion tensor MRI 
Deformation and wall-thickening of ventricular myocardium are essential for cardiac pump function. However, insight into the histo-anatomical basis for cardiac tissue re-arrangement during contraction is limited. In this report, we describe dynamic changes in regionally prevailing cardiomyocyte (fibre) and myolaminar (sheet) orientations, using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) of ventricles in the same living heart in two different mechanical states. Hearts, isolated from Sprague–Dawley rats, were Langendorff-perfused and imaged, initially in their slack state during cardioplegic arrest, then during lithium-induced contracture. Regional fibre- and sheet-orientations were derived from DTI-data on a voxel-wise basis. Contraction was accompanied with a decrease in left-handed helical fibres (handedness relative to the baso-apical direction) in basal, equatorial, and apical sub-epicardium (by 14.0%, 17.3%, 15.8% respectively; p < 0.001), and an increase in right-handed helical fibres of the sub-endocardium (by 11.0%, 12.1% and 16.1%, respectively; p < 0.001). Two predominant sheet-populations were observed, with sheet-angles of either positive (β+) or negative (β−) polarity relative to a ‘chamber-horizontal plane’ (defined as normal to the left ventricular long-axis). In contracture, mean ‘intersection’-angle (geometrically quantifiable intersection of sheet-angle projections) between β+ and β− sheet-populations increased from 86.2 ± 5.5° (slack) to 108.3 ± 5.4° (p < 0.001). Subsequent high-resolution DTI of fixed myocardium, and histological sectioning, reconfirmed the existence of alternating sheet-plane populations. Our results suggest that myocardial tissue layers in alternating sheet-populations align into a more chamber-horizontal orientation during contraction. This re-arrangement occurs via an accordion-like mechanism that, combined with inter-sheet slippage, can significantly contribute to ventricular deformation, including wall-thickening in a predominantly centripetal direction and baso-apical shortening.
PMCID: PMC3526796  PMID: 23043978
Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging; Cardiac contraction; Myocardial histo-architecture; Diffusion tensor imaging; Myolaminae; 2D, two-dimensional; 3D, three-dimensional; ADC, apparent diffusion coefficient; CF, circumferential fibre; DTI, diffusion tensor imaging; FA, fractional anisotropy; FOV, field of view; IDL, interactive data language; LHF/RHF, left/right-handed helical fibre; LV, left ventricle; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; NMR, nuclear magnetic resonance
2.  Prospective study of insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3, genetic variants in the IGF1 and IGFBP3 genes and risk of coronary artery disease 
Although experimental studies have suggested that insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and its binding protein IGFBP-3 might have a role in the aetiology of coronary artery disease (CAD), the relevance of circulating IGFs and their binding proteins in the development of CAD in human populations is unclear. We conducted a nested case-control study, with a mean follow-up of six years, within the EPIC-Norfolk cohort to assess the association between circulating levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and risk of CAD in up to 1,013 cases and 2,055 controls matched for age, sex and study enrolment date. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, we found no association between circulating levels of IGF-I or IGFBP-3 and risk of CAD (odds ratio: 0.98 (95% Cl 0.90-1.06) per 1 SD increase in circulating IGF-I; odds ratio: 1.02 (95% Cl 0.94-1.12) for IGFBP-3). We examined associations between tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) at the IGF1 and IGFBP3 loci and circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels in up to 1,133 cases and 2,223 controls and identified three tSNPs (rs1520220, rs3730204, rs2132571) that showed independent association with either circulating IGF-I or IGFBP-3 levels. In an assessment of 31 SNPs spanning the IGF1 or IGFBP3 loci, none were associated with risk of CAD in a meta-analysis that included EPIC-Norfolk and eight additional studies comprising up to 9,319 cases and 19,964 controls. Our results indicate that IGF-I and IGFBP-3 are unlikely to be importantly involved in the aetiology of CAD in human populations.
PMCID: PMC3166154  PMID: 21915365
Epidemiology; Genetics of cardiovascular disease; Risk factors; IGF1; IGFBP3
3.  Synthesis of Pluraflavin A “Aglycone” 
Journal of the American Chemical Society  2008;130(49):16786-16790.
The “aglycone” of pluraflavin A (2) has been synthesized. The key features of this synthesis include a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between a nitrile oxide (cf. 14) and an olefin (22) to yield an isoxazoline followed by subsequent conversion into the γ-pyrone of pluraflavin A. The epoxide moiety linked to the pyrone is installed prior to Diels-Alder installation of the D-ring, which allows access to a number of potentially active cytotoxic intermediates en route to the final compound. The preliminary in vitro results of two such compounds are also included with the racemic title compound exhibiting cytotoxicity in the nanomolar range.
PMCID: PMC2638005  PMID: 19049469

Results 1-3 (3)