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1.  Course and Severity of Maternal Depression: Associations with Family Functioning and Child Adjustment 
Journal of youth and adolescence  2008;37(8):906-916.
Number of lifetime episodes, duration of current episode, and severity of maternal depression were investigated in relation to family functioning and child adjustment. Participants were the 151 mother–child pairs in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) child multi-site study. Mothers were diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder; children (80 males and 71 females) ranged in age from 7 to 17 years. Measures of child adjustment included psychiatric diagnoses, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and functional impairment. Measures of family functioning included family cohesion, expressiveness, conflict, organization, and household control; parenting measures assessed maternal acceptance and psychological control. Children of mothers with longer current depressive episodes were more likely to have internalizing and externalizing symptoms, with this association being moderated by child gender. Mothers with more lifetime depressive episodes were less likely to use appropriate control in their homes.
doi:10.1007/s10964-007-9216-0
PMCID: PMC4086840  PMID: 25013241
Maternal depression; Family functioning; Child adjustment; Gender
2.  Global analysis of phosphorylation and ubiquitylation crosstalk in protein degradation 
Nature methods  2013;10(7):10.1038/nmeth.2519.
Crosstalk between different types of post-translational modifications (PTMs) on the same protein molecule adds specificity and combinatorial logic to signal processing, but has not been characterized on a large-scale basis. Here, we developed two methods to identify protein isoforms that are both phosphorylated and ubiquitylated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, identifying 466 proteins with 2,100 phosphorylation sites co-occurring with 2,189 ubiquitylation sites. We applied these methods quantitatively to identify phosphorylation sites that regulate protein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Our results demonstrate that distinct phosphorylation sites are often used in conjunction with ubiquitylation, and these sites are more highly conserved than the entire set of phosphorylation sites. Finally, we investigated how the phosphorylation machinery can be regulated by ubiquitylation. We found evidence for novel regulatory mechanisms of kinases and 14-3-3 scaffold proteins via proteasome-independent ubiquitylation.
doi:10.1038/nmeth.2519
PMCID: PMC3868471  PMID: 23749301
3.  The Clinical Relevance of Self-Reported Premenstrual Worsening of Depressive Symptoms in the Management of Depressed Outpatients: A STAR*D Report 
Journal of Women's Health  2013;22(3):219-229.
Abstract
Objective
To determine the incidence, clinical and demographic correlates, and relationship to treatment outcome of self-reported premenstrual exacerbation of depressive symptoms in premenopausal women with major depressive disorder who are receiving antidepressant medication.
Method
This post-hoc analysis used clinical trial data from treatment-seeking, premenopausal, adult female outpatients with major depression who were not using hormonal contraceptives. For this report, citalopram was used as the first treatment step. We also used data from the second step in which one of three new medications were used (bupropion-SR [sustained release], venlafaxine-XR [extended release], or sertraline). Treatment-blinded assessors obtained baseline treatment outcomes data. We hypothesized that those with reported premenstrual depressive symptom exacerbation would have more general medical conditions, longer index depressive episodes, lower response or remission rates, and shorter times-to-relapse with citalopram, and that they would have a better outcome with sertraline than with bupropion-SR.
Results
At baseline, 66% (n=545/821) of women reported premenstrual exacerbation. They had more general medical conditions, more anxious features, longer index episodes, and shorter times-to-relapse (41.3 to 47.1 weeks, respectively). Response and remission rates to citalopram, however, were unrelated to reported premenstrual exacerbation. Reported premenstrual exacerbation was also unrelated to differential benefit with sertraline and bupropion-SR.
Conclusions
Self-reported premenstrual exacerbation has moderate clinical utility in the management of depressed patients, although it is not predictive of overall treatment response. Factors that contribute to a more chronic or relapsing course may also play a role in premenstrual worsening of major depressive disorder (MDD).
doi:10.1089/jwh.2011.3186
PMCID: PMC3634137  PMID: 23480315
4.  Do Menopausal Status and Use of Hormone Therapy Affect Antidepressant Treatment Response? Findings from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) Study 
Journal of Women's Health  2013;22(2):121-131.
Abstract
Background
Menopausal status and use of hormonal contraception or menopausal hormone therapy (HT) may affect treatment response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). This report evaluates whether menopausal status and use of hormonal contraceptives or menopausal HT affect outcome in women treated with citalopram.
Methods
In the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study, 896 premenopausal and 544 postmenopausal women were treated with citalopram for 12–14 weeks. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were used in adjusted analysis of the effect of menopausal status and use of hormonal contraceptives or menopausal HT on outcomes. Remission was defined as final Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-17 (HRSD17) ≤7 or Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report (QIDS-SR16) score ≤5 and response as ≥50% decrease from the baseline QIDS-SR16 score.
Results
Premenopausal and postmenopausal women differed in multiple clinical and demographic baseline variables but did not differ in response or remission rates. Premenopausal women taking hormonal contraceptives had significantly greater unadjusted remission rates on the HRSD17 and the QIDS-SR16 than women not taking contraception. Response and remission rates were not different between postmenopausal women taking vs. not taking HT. Adjusted results showed no significant difference in any outcome measure across menopause status in women who were not taking contraception/HT. There were no significant differences in adjusted results across HT status in premenopausal or postmenopausal women.
Conclusions
In this study, citalopram treatment outcome was not affected by menopausal status. Hormonal contraceptives and HT also did not affect probability of good outcome.
doi:10.1089/jwh.2012.3479
PMCID: PMC3613168  PMID: 23398127
5.  Cross-Disorder Genomewide Analysis of Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Depression 
The American journal of psychiatry  2010;167(10):10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.09091335.
Background
Family and twin studies indicate substantial overlap of genetic influences on psychotic and mood disorders. Linkage and candidate gene studies have also suggested overlap across schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BPD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). The objective of this study was to apply genomewide association study (GWAS) analysis to address the specificity of genetic effects on these disorders.
Method
We combined GWAS data from three large effectiveness studies of SCZ (CATIE, genotyped n = 741), BPD (STEP-BD, n = 1575) and MDD (STAR*D, n= 1938) and psychiatrically-screened controls (NIMH-GI controls, n = 1204). We applied a two-stage analytic procedure involving an omnibus test of allele frequency differences among case and control groups followed by a model selection step to identify the best-fitting model of allelic effects across disorders.
Results
The strongest result was seen for a single nucleotide polymorphism near the adrenomedullin (ADM) gene (rs6484218, p = 3.93 × 10−8), with the best-fitting model indicating that the effect is specific to bipolar II disorder. We also observed evidence suggesting that several genes may have effects that transcend clinical diagnostic boundaries including variants in NPAS3 that showed pleiotropic effects across SCZ, BPD, and MDD.
Conclusions
This study provides the first genomewide significant evidence implicating variants near the ADM gene on chromosome 11p15 in psychopathology, with effects that appear to be specific to bipolar II disorder. Although we do not detect genomewide significant evidence of cross-disorder effects, our study provides evidence that there are both pleiotropic and disorder-specific effects on major mental illness and illustrates an approach to dissecting the genetic basis of mood and psychotic disorders that can inform future large-scale cross-disorder GWAS analyses.
doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.09091335
PMCID: PMC3880556  PMID: 20713499
6.  Rationale and Design of the Chronic Kidney Disease Antidepressant Sertraline Trial (CAST) 
Contemporary clinical trials  2012;34(1):136-144.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects one in five patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and is an independent risk factor for hospitalization and death before and after dialysis initiation. However, it remains an under-recognized and under-treated problem, in part due to the lack of well-controlled studies that support or refute the efficacy and safety of antidepressant medications in CKD patients. Major trials of antidepressant treatment excluded patients with stages 3–5 CKD, precisely those at higher risk for both depression and increased mortality. The Chronic Kidney Disease Antidepressant Sertraline Trial (CAST) is a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of sertraline, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). It will enroll 200 adults with stages 3–5 CKD and MDD excluding kidney transplant and chronic dialysis patients. Sertraline will be administered at an initial dose of 50 mg once daily or matching placebo followed by a dose escalation strategy consisting of 50 mg increments at 2 weeks intervals (as tolerated) to a maximum dose of 200 mg. The primary outcome is improvement in depression symptom severity measured by the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology scale. Secondary outcomes include safety endpoints and improvement in quality of life. Changes in cognitive function, adherence to medications, nutritional status, inflammation, and platelet function will be explored as potential mechanisms by which depression may mediate poor outcomes. We discuss the rationale and design of the CAST study, the largest placebo-controlled trial aimed to establish safety and efficacy of a SSRI in the acute phase treatment of CKD patients with MDD.
doi:10.1016/j.cct.2012.10.004
PMCID: PMC3525806  PMID: 23085503
depression; chronic kidney disease; sertraline; randomized trial; treatment
7.  What Are the Clinical Implications of New Onset or Worsening Anxiety During the First Two Weeks of SSRI Treatment for Depression? 
Depression and anxiety  2011;29(2):10.1002/da.20917.
Objective
To evaluate the prevalence of new onset or worsening of anxiety symptoms, as well as their clinical implications, during the first two weeks of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) pharmacotherapy for depression.
Method
Adult outpatients with non-psychotic major depressive disorder were enrolled in an 8-week acute phase SSRI treatment trial at 15 clinical sites across the US. Worsening anxiety was defined as a greater than 2 point increase on the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) between baseline and Week 2. New onset of anxiety symptoms was ascribed when the BAI baseline rating was 0 and the Week 2 value was greater or equal to 2 points on the BAI.
Results
Overall, after two weeks of treatment, 48.8% (98 of 201 participants) reported improvement in anxiety symptoms, 36.3% (73 of 201) reported minimal symptom change, and 14.9% (30 of 201) reported worsening of anxiety symptoms. No association was found between change in anxiety symptoms within the first two weeks and change in depressive symptoms or remission at the end of 8 weeks of treatment. For participants with clinically meaningful anxiety symptoms at baseline, however, worsening of anxiety during the first two weeks of treatment was associated with worsening depressive symptoms by 8 weeks (p = .054).
Conclusions
The trajectory of anxiety symptom change early in SSRI treatment is an important indicator of eventual outcome for outpatients with major depression and baseline anxiety symptoms.
doi:10.1002/da.20917
PMCID: PMC3860362  PMID: 22147631
anxiety; change; depression; SSRI; outcome
8.  Comparative Phosphoproteomic Analysis of Neonatal and Adult Murine Brain 
Proteomics  2012;12(13):10.1002/pmic.201200003.
Developmental processes are governed by diverse regulatory mechanisms including a suite of signaling pathways employing reversible phosphorylation. With the advent of large-scale phosphoproteomics it is now possible to identify thousands of phosphorylation sites from tissues at distinct developmental stages. We describe here the identification of over 6,000 non-redundant phosphorylation sites from neonatal murine brain. When compared to nearly three times the number of phosphorylation sites identified from three-week-old murine brain, remarkably one-third of the neonatal sites were unique. This fraction only dropped to one-quarter when allowing the site to stray plus or minus 15 residues. This provides evidence for considerable change in the profiles of developmentally-regulated phosphoproteomes. Using quantitative mass spectrometry we characterized a novel phosphorylation site (Ser265) identified uniquely in the neonatal brain on Doublecortin (Dcx), a protein essential for proper mammalian brain development. While the relative levels of Dcx and phospho-Ser265 Dcx between embryonic and neonatal brain were similar, their levels fell precipitously by postnatal day 21, as did phospho-Ser297, a site required for proper neuronal migration. Both sites lie near the microtubule-binding domain and may provide functionally similar regulation via different kinases.
doi:10.1002/pmic.201200003
PMCID: PMC3816108  PMID: 22807455
Phosphoproteomics; Brain Development; Quantitative Mass Spectrometry; Doublecortin (Dcx); phosphorylation
9.  Genome-Wide Association Study of Suicide Attempts in Mood Disorder Patients 
The American journal of psychiatry  2010;167(12):1499-1507.
Objective
Family and twin studies suggest that liability for suicide attempts is heritable and distinct from mood disorder susceptibility. The authors therefore examined the association between common genomewide variation and lifetime suicide attempts.
Method
The authors analyzed data on lifetime suicide attempts from genomewide association studies of bipolar I and II disorder as well as major depressive disorder. Bipolar disorder subjects were drawn from the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder cohort, the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium bipolar cohort, and the University College London cohort. Replication was pursued in the NIMH Genetic Association Information Network bipolar disorder project and a German clinical cohort. Depression subjects were drawn from the Sequential Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression cohort, with replication in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety/Netherlands Twin Register depression cohort.
Results
Strongest evidence of association for suicide attempt in bipolar disorder was observed in a region without identified genes (rs1466846); five loci also showed suggestive evidence of association. In major depression, strongest evidence of association was observed for a single nucleotide polymorphism in ABI3BP, with six loci also showing suggestive association. Replication cohorts did not provide further support for these loci. However, meta-analysis incorporating approximately 8,700 mood disorder subjects identified four additional regions that met the threshold for suggestive association, including the locus containing the gene coding for protein kinase C-epsilon, previously implicated in models of mood and anxiety.
Conclusions
The results suggest that inherited risk for suicide among mood disorder patients is unlikely to be the result of individual common variants of large effect. They nonetheless provide suggestive evidence for multiple loci, which merit further investigation.
doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.10040541
PMCID: PMC3795390  PMID: 21041247
10.  Association Between Bipolar Spectrum Features and Treatment Outcomes in Outpatients With Major Depressive Disorder 
Archives of general psychiatry  2010;68(4):351-360.
Context
It has been suggested that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who display pretreatment features suggestive of bipolar disorder or bipolar spectrum features might have poorer treatment outcomes.
Objective
To assess the association between bipolar spectrum features and antidepressant treatment outcome in MDD.
Design
Open treatment followed by sequential randomized controlled trials.
Setting
Primary and specialty psychiatric outpatient centers in the United States.
Participants
Male and female outpatients aged 18 to 75 years with a DSM-IV diagnosis of nonpsychotic MDD who participated in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study.
Interventions
Open treatment with citalopram followed by up to 3 sequential next-step treatments.
Main Outcome Measures
Number of treatment levels required to reach protocol-defined remission, as well as failure to return for the postbaseline visit, loss to follow-up, and psychiatric adverse events. For this secondary analysis, putative bipolar spectrum features, including items on the mania and psychosis subscales of the Psychiatric Diagnosis Screening Questionnaire, were examined for association with treatment outcomes.
Results
Of the 4041 subjects who entered the study, 1198 (30.0%) endorsed at least 1 item on the psychosis scale and 1524 (38.1%) described at least 1 recent manic-like/hypomaniclike symptom. Irritability and psychotic-like symptoms at entry were significantly associated with poorer outcomes across up to 4 treatment levels, as were shorter episodes and some neurovegetative symptoms of depression. However, other indicators of bipolar diathesis including recent maniclike symptoms and family history of bipolar disorder as well as summary measures of bipolar spectrum features were not associated with treatment resistance.
Conclusion
Self-reported psychoticlike symptoms were common in a community sample of outpatients with MDD and strongly associated with poorer outcomes. Overall, the data do not support the hypothesis that unrecognized bipolar spectrum illness contributes substantially to antidepressant treatment resistance.
doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.179
PMCID: PMC3794668  PMID: 21135313
11.  Pharmacogenetics Studies in STAR*D: Strengths, Limitations, and Results 
Several lines of evidence support an important genetic contribution to the wide individual variation in therapeutic response to antidepressant medications. The Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study provided the largest cohort assembled to date of DNA from patients with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder, uniformly treated with citalopram and followed prospectively for up to 12 weeks. This pivotal study changed the face of pharmacogenetics research by increasing the sample size by an order of magnitude as well as by providing detailed prospective information about antidepressant response and tolerability. Several groups have identified markers in genes and tested the replication of previous findings of genes associated with outcome and side effects of antidepressant treatment. Variants in HTR2A, GRIK4, and KCNK2 were associated with citalopram treatment outcome. Replication was achieved in markers in the FKBP5 gene. Other findings in PDE11A and BDNF were not successfully replicated, and reports of potential confounders in previous associations with serotonin transporter variation (SLC6A4) were identified. Polymorphisms in pharmacokinetic genes involved in metabolism and transmembrane transport were also not associated with antidepressant response. Adverse events were also tested. Treatment-emergent suicidal ideation was associated with GRIK2, GRIA3, PAPLN, IL28RA, and CREB1. Sexual dysfunction was linked with variation in GRIN3A, GRIA1 GRIA3, and GRIK2. Reported and future findings of pharmacogenetics studies in STAR*D could help elucidate pathways involved in major depression and those pertinent to antidepressant outcome and side effects. Replication of these findings in independent samples could lead to the development of new treatments and to optimization of available treatments.
doi:10.1176/appi.ps.60.11.1446
PMCID: PMC3775610  PMID: 19880459
12.  Estimating Individualized Treatment Rules Using Outcome Weighted Learning 
There is increasing interest in discovering individualized treatment rules for patients who have heterogeneous responses to treatment. In particular, one aims to find an optimal individualized treatment rule which is a deterministic function of patient specific characteristics maximizing expected clinical outcome. In this paper, we first show that estimating such an optimal treatment rule is equivalent to a classification problem where each subject is weighted proportional to his or her clinical outcome. We then propose an outcome weighted learning approach based on the support vector machine framework. We show that the resulting estimator of the treatment rule is consistent. We further obtain a finite sample bound for the difference between the expected outcome using the estimated individualized treatment rule and that of the optimal treatment rule. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated via simulation studies and an analysis of chronic depression data.
doi:10.1080/01621459.2012.695674
PMCID: PMC3636816  PMID: 23630406
Dynamic Treatment Regime; Individualized Treatment Rule; Weighted Support Vector Machine; RKHS; Risk Bound; Bayes Classifier; Cross Validation
13.  Absolute quantification of protein and post-translational modification abundance with stable isotope–labeled synthetic peptides 
Nature protocols  2011;6(2):175-186.
In the analysis of biological systems, it is of interest to identify the components of the system and to monitor their changes in abundance under different conditions. The AQUA (for ‘absolute quantification’) method allows sensitive and specific targeted quantification of protein and post-translational modifications in complex protein mixtures using stable isotope–labeled peptides as internal standards. Each AQUA experiment is composed of two stages: method development and application to a biological scenario. In the method development stage, peptides from the protein of interest are chosen and then synthesized with stable isotopes such as 13C, 2H or 15N. The abundance of these internal standards and their endogenous counterparts can be measured by mass spectrometry with selected reaction monitoring or selected ion monitoring methods. Once an AQUA method is established, it can be rapidly applied to a wide range of biological samples, from tissue culture cells to human plasma and tissue. After AQUA peptide synthesis, the development, optimization and application of AQUA analyses to a specific biological problem can be achieved in ~1 week. Here we demonstrate the usefulness of this method by monitoring both Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) protein abundance in multiple lung cancer cell lines and the extent of Plk1 activation loop phosphorylation (pThr-210) during release from S phase.
doi:10.1038/nprot.2010.196
PMCID: PMC3736726  PMID: 21293459
14.  Pharmacometabolomics of Response to Sertraline and to Placebo in Major Depressive Disorder – Possible Role for Methoxyindole Pathway 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e68283.
Therapeutic response to selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) varies considerably among patients, and the onset of antidepressant therapeutic action is delayed until after 2 to 4 weeks of treatment. The objective of this study was to analyze changes within methoxyindole and kynurenine (KYN) branches of tryptophan pathway to determine whether differential regulation within these branches may contribute to mechanism of variation in response to treatment. Metabolomics approach was used to characterize early biochemical changes in tryptophan pathway and correlated biochemical changes with treatment outcome. Outpatients with MDD were randomly assigned to sertraline (n = 35) or placebo (n = 40) in a double-blind 4-week trial; response to treatment was measured using the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD17). Targeted electrochemistry based metabolomic platform (LCECA) was used to profile serum samples from MDD patients. The response rate was slightly higher for sertraline than for placebo (21/35 [60%] vs. 20/40 [50%], respectively, χ2(1)  = 0.75, p = 0.39). Patients showing a good response to sertraline had higher pretreatment levels of 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MTPM), greater reduction in 5-MTPM levels after treatment, an increase in 5-Methoxytryptophol (5-MTPOL) and Melatonin (MEL) levels, and decreases in the (KYN)/MEL and 3-Hydroxykynurenine (3-OHKY)/MEL ratios post-treatment compared to pretreatment. These changes were not seen in the patients showing poor response to sertraline. In the placebo group, more favorable treatment outcome was associated with increases in 5-MTPOL and MEL levels and significant decreases in the KYN/MEL and 3-OHKY/MEL; changes in 5-MTPM levels were not associated with the 4-week response. These results suggest that recovery from a depressed state due to treatment with drug or with placebo could be associated with preferential utilization of serotonin for production of melatonin and 5-MTPOL.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068283
PMCID: PMC3714282  PMID: 23874572
15.  Assessing anxious features in depressed outpatients 
Both the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD17) and 30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology – Clinician-rated (IDS-C30) contain a subscale that assesses anxious symptoms. We used classical test theory and item response theory methods to assess and compare the psychometric properties of the two anxiety subscales (HRSDANX and IDS-CANX) in a large sample (N = 3453) of outpatients with non-psychotic major depressive disorder in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. Approximately 48% of evaluable participants had at least one concurrent anxiety disorder by the self-report Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire (PDSQ). The HRSDANX and IDS-CANX were highly correlated (r = 0.75) and both had moderate internal consistency given their limited number of items (HRSDANX Cronbach’s alpha = 0.48; IDS-CANX Cronbach’s alpha = 0.58). The optimal threshold for ascribing the presence/absence of anxious features was found at a total score of eight or nine for the HRSDANX and seven or eight for the IDS-CANX. It would seem beneficial to delete item 17 (loss of insight) from the HRSDANX as it negatively correlated with the scale’s total score. Both the HRSDANX and IDS-CANX subscales have acceptable psychometric properties and can be used to identify anxious features for clinical or research purposes.
doi:10.1002/mpr.353
PMCID: PMC3708141  PMID: 22057975
depression; anxiety; rating scales; STAR*D; measurement-based care
16.  Faster Remission of Chronic Depression With Combined Psychotherapy and Medication Than With Each Therapy Alone 
The main aim of the present novel reanalysis of archival data was to compare the time to remission during 12 weeks of treatment of chronic depression following antidepressant medication (n = 218), psychotherapy (n = 216), and their combination (n = 222). Cox regression survival analyses revealed that the combination of medication and psychotherapy produced full remission from chronic depression more rapidly than either of the single modality treatments, which did not differ from each other. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to explore predictors (treatment group, demographic, clinical, and psychosocial) of remission. For those receiving the combination treatment, the most likely to succeed were those with low baseline depression (24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HRSD; M. Hamilton, 1967] score < 26) and those with high depression scores but low anxiety (HRSD ≥ 26 and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [M. Hamilton, 1959] <14). Both profiles were associated with at least 40% chance of attaining full remission. The model did not identify predictors for those receiving medication or psychotherapy alone, and it did not distinguish between the 2 monotherapies. The authors conclude that combined antidepressant medications and psychotherapy result in faster full remission of chronic forms of major depressive disorder.
doi:10.1037/0022-006X.76.3.459
PMCID: PMC3694578  PMID: 18540739
chronic depression; remission; psychotherapy; antidepressant medications; combined treatments
17.  Relief of Expressed Suicidal Intent by ECT: A Consortium for Research in ECT Study 
The American journal of psychiatry  2005;162(5):977-982.
Objective
This study assessed the incidence, severity, and course of expressed suicidal intent in depressed patients who were treated with ECT. The data are from the first phase of an ongoing, collaborative multicenter study, the overall aim of which was to compare continuation ECT with pharmacotherapy in the prevention of relapse after a successful course of ECT.
Method
Suicidal intent, as expressed by patients during an interview, was scored at baseline and before each ECT session with item 3 on the 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale in 444 patients with unipolar depression.
Results
One hundred thirty-one patients (29.5%) reported suicidal thoughts and acts (score of 3 or 4) at baseline. Scores decreased to 0 after 1 week (three ECT sessions) in 38.2% of the patients, after 2 weeks (six ECT sessions) in 61.1%, and in 80.9% at the end of the course of treatment.
Conclusions
Expressed suicidal intent in depressed patients was rapidly relieved with ECT. Evidence-based treatment algorithms for major depressive mood disorders should include dichotomization according to suicide risk, as assessed by interview. For patients at risk, ECT should be considered earlier than at its conventional “last resort” position.
doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.162.5.977
PMCID: PMC3684568  PMID: 15863801
18.  The Efficacy of Acute Electroconvulsive Therapy in Atypical Depression 
Objective
This study examined the characteristics and outcomes of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), with or without atypical features, who were treated with acute bilateral electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).
Method
Analyses were conducted with 489 patients who met DSM-IV criteria for MDD. Subjects were identified as typical or atypical on the basis of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV obtained at baseline prior to ECT. Depression symptom severity was measured by the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D24) and the 30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology–Self-Report (IDS-SR30). Remission was defined as at least a 60% decrease from baseline in HAM-D24 score and a total score of 10 or below on the last 2 consecutive HAM-D24 ratings. The randomized controlled trial was performed from 1997 to 2004.
Results
The typical (N = 453) and atypical (N = 36) groups differed in several sociodemographic and clinical variables including gender (p = .0071), age (p = .0005), treatment resistance (p = .0014), and age at first illness onset (p < .0001) and onset of current episode (p = .0008). Following an acute course of bilateral ECT, a considerable portion of both the typical (67.1%) and the atypical (80.6%) groups reached remission. The atypical group was 2.6 (95% CI = 1.1 to 6.2) times more likely to remit than the typical group after adjustment for age, psychosis, gender, clinical site, and depression severity based on the HAM-D24.
Conclusion
Acute ECT is an efficacious treatment for depressed patients with typical or atypical symptom features.
PMCID: PMC3670137  PMID: 18278988
19.  A multiplex targeted proteomic assay for biomarker detection in plasma: a pancreatic cancer biomarker case study 
Journal of Proteome Research  2012;11(3):1937-1948.
Biomarkers are most frequently proteins that are measured in the blood. Their development largely relies on antibody creation to test the protein candidate performance in blood samples of diseased versus non-diseased patients. The creation of such antibody assays has been a bottleneck in biomarker progress due to the cost, extensive time and effort required to complete the task. Targeted proteomics is an emerging technology that is playing an increasingly important role to facilitate disease biomarker development. In this study, we applied a SRM-based targeted proteomics platform to directly detect candidate biomarker proteins in plasma to evaluate their clinical utility for pancreatic cancer detection. The characterization of these protein candidates used a clinically well-characterized cohort that included plasma samples from patients with pancreatic cancer, chronic pancreatitis and healthy age-matched controls. Three of the five candidate proteins, including gelsolin, lumican and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, demonstrated an AUC value greater than 0.75 in distinguishing pancreatic cancer from the controls. In addition, we provide an analysis of the reproducibility, accuracy, and robustness of the SRM-based proteomics platform. This information addresses important technical issues that could aid in the adoption of the targeted proteomics platform for practical clinical utility.
doi:10.1021/pr201117w
PMCID: PMC3292708  PMID: 22316387
Targeted proteomics; Mass spectrometer; Selected reaction monitoring (SRM); Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM); Pancreas; Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; Pancreatic cancer; Chronic pancreatitis; Biomarker; Plasma
20.  Baseline depression severity as a predictor of single and combination antidepressant treatment outcome: Results from the CO-MED Trial 
European Neuropsychopharmacology  2011;22(3):183-199.
The objective of this manuscript is to report associations between baseline depressive severity and (1) baseline sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, (2) treatment outcomes, and (3) differential outcomes for three treatment groups. Six hundred and sixty-five outpatients with nonpsychotic, major depressive disorder were prospectively randomized to treatment with either a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) monotherapy (escitalopram plus placebo) or one of two antidepressant medication combinations (bupropion-sustained release plus escitalopram, or venlafaxine-extended release plus mirtazapine). For purposes of these analyses, participants were divided into four groups based on baseline severity by the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology - Self-Report (QIDS-SR16) total score: mild (0–10) [N=81], moderate (11–15) [N=238], severe (16–20) [N=260] and very severe (21–27) [N=67]. Treatment outcomes at 12 and 28 weeks were compared among the four severity groups. A history of childhood neglect and/or abuse was strongly associated with the severity of adult depression (1/2 of participants in the very severy group versus 1/5–1/4 of those in the mild group reported abuse and/or neglect). The degree of suicidality (e.g., 15/.4% of the very severe group ever attempted suicide versus none in the mild group), the number of suicide attempts (e.g., mean of .41 +/− 1.99 suicide attempts in the severe group versus o.o +/−0.0 in the mild group) and severity of suicidality (e.g., 9.2% of participants in very severe group had a plan or made a gesture versus 5.6% in moderate group and none in the mild group) were increased in more severe groups. Participants with a greater baseline depressive severity reported significantly more psychiatric comorbitities (e..g. [at p < 0.05] increased rates of agoraphobia, bulimia, generalized anxiety, hypocondriasis, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, social phobia and somatoform disorder, with 23.9 % of participants in the very severe group having reported four or more psychiatric disorders versus 1.2% of the mild group). Combination medication treatments were no more effective in treating severe depressions than was SSRI monotherapy. Remission (61.7% of participants in the mild group achieved remission versus 28.4% in the very severe group) is more difficult to achieve in more severe groups than is response (48.8% of participants in the mild group achieved response versus 58.2% in the very severe group) (p < 0.03) . These data may help us to understand the impact of baseline features on antidepressant medication effectiveness and to inform the personalization of depression treatment across the spectrum of depressive severity.
doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2011.07.010
PMCID: PMC3273676  PMID: 21920711
Depression; abuse; suicide; combination treatment severity; response; remission
21.  A patient-level meta-analysis of studies evaluating vagus nerve stimulation therapy for treatment-resistant depression 
Objective
To compare response and remission rates in depressed patients with chronic treatment-resistant depression (TRD) treated with vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) Therapy® plus treatment as usual (VNS + TAU) or TAU alone in a meta-analysis using Bayesian hierarchical models.
Data sources and study selection
Six outpatient, multicenter, clinical trials that have evaluated VNS + TAU or TAU in TRD, including two single-arm studies of VNS + TAU (n = 60 and n = 74), a randomized study of VNS + TAU versus TAU (n = 235), a randomized study of VNS + TAU comparing different VNS stimulation intensities (n = 331), a nonrandomized registry of VNS + TAU versus TAU (n = 636), and a single-arm study of TAU (n = 124) to provide longer-term, control data for comparison with VNS-treated patients.
Data extraction
A systematic review of individual patient-level data based on the intent-to-treat principle, including all patients who contributed more than one post-baseline visit. Response was based on the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Clinical Global Impressions scale’s Improvement subscale (CGI-I), as these were the two clinician-rated measures common across all or most studies. Remission was based on the MADRS.
Results
Outcomes were compared from baseline up to 96 weeks of treatment with VNS + TAU (n = 1035) versus TAU (n = 425). The MADRS response rate for VNS + TAU at 12, 24, 48, and 96 weeks were 12%, 18%, 28%, and 32% versus 4%, 7%, 12%, and 14% for TAU. The MADRS remission rate for VNS + TAU at 12, 24, 48, and 96 weeks were 3%, 5%, 10%, and 14% versus 1%, 1%, 2%, and 4%, for TAU. Adjunctive VNS Therapy was associated with a greater likelihood of response (odds ratio [OR] = 3.19, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.12, 4.66) and remission (OR = 4.99, CI: 2.93, 7.76), compared with TAU. For patients who had responded to VNS + TAU at 24 weeks, sustained response was more likely at 48 weeks (OR = 1.98, CI: 1.34, 3.01) and at 96 weeks (OR = 3.42, CI: 1.78, 7.31). Similar results were observed for CGI-I response.
Conclusion
For patients with chronic TRD, VNS + TAU has greater response and remission rates that are more likely to persist than TAU.
doi:10.2147/MDER.S41017
PMCID: PMC3590011  PMID: 23482508
Bayesian meta-analysis; remission rate; response rate; treatment-resistant depression; vagus nerve stimulation; VNS Therapy
22.  The Effect of Concurrent Substance Use Disorder on the Effectiveness of Single and Combination Antidepressant Medications for the Treatment of Major Depression: An Exploratory Analysis of a Single-Blind Randomized Trial 
Depression and Anxiety  2012;29(2):111-122.
Background
The co-occurrence of substance use disorder (SUD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) is common and is often thought to impair response to antidepressant therapy. These patients are often excluded from clinical trials, resulting in a significant knowledge gap regarding optimal pharmacotherapy for the treatment of MDD with concurrent SUD.
Methods
In the Combining Medications to Enhance Depression Outcomes study, 665 adult outpatients with chronic and/or recurrent MDD were prospectively treated with either escitalopram monotherapy (escitalopram and placebo) or an antidepressant combination (venalfaxine-XR and mirtazapine or escitalopram and bupropion-SR). Participants with MDD and concurrent SUD (13.1%) were compared to those without SUD (86.9%) on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics at baseline and treatment response at 12-week and 28-week endpoints.
Results
The participants with MDD and SUD were more likely to be male and have current suicidal thoughts/plans, and had a greater lifetime severity and number of suicide attempts, and a higher number of concurrent Axis I disorders, particularly concurrent anxiety disorders. There were no significant differences between the MDD with or without SUD groups in terms of dose, time in treatment, response or remission at week 12 and 28. Furthermore, no significant differences in response or remission rates were noted between groups on the basis of the presence or absence of SUD and treatment assignment.
Conclusions
Although significant baseline sociodemographic and clinical differences exist, patients with MDD and concurrent SUD are as likely to respond and remit to a single or combination antidepressant treatment as those presenting without SUD.
doi:10.1002/da.20918
PMCID: PMC3325509  PMID: 22495941
major depressive disorder; substance use disorder; dual diagnosis; combination antidepressants; treatment outcome
23.  Systematic and quantitative assessment of the ubiquitin modified proteome 
Molecular cell  2011;44(2):325-340.
Summary
Despite the diverse biological pathways known to be regulated by ubiquitylation, global identification of substrates that are targeted for ubiquitylation has remained a challenge. To globally characterize the ubiquitin-modified proteome (ubiquitinome), we utilized a monoclonal antibody that recognizes diglycine (diGly) containing isopeptides following trypsin digestion. We identify ~19,000 diGly modified lysine residues within ~ 5000 proteins. Using quantitative proteomics we monitored temporal changes in diGly site abundance in response to both proteasomal and translational inhibition indicating both a dependence of on-going translation to observe alterations in site abundance and distinct dynamics of individual modified lysines in response to proteasome inhibition. Further, we demonstrate that quantitative diGly proteomics can be utilized to identify substrates for cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases. Interrogation of the ubiquitinome allows for not only a quantitative assessment of alterations in protein homeostasis fidelity, but also identification of substrates for individual ubiquitin pathway enzymes.
doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2011.08.025
PMCID: PMC3200427  PMID: 21906983
24.  Marine cloud brightening 
The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein—have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud–albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.
doi:10.1098/rsta.2012.0086
PMCID: PMC3405666  PMID: 22869798
cloud brightening; geoengineering; albedo; cloud modelling; spray technology; field experiment
25.  Children of Depressed Mothers 1 Year After Remission of Maternal Depression: Findings From the StAR*D-Child Study 
The American journal of psychiatry  2011;168(6):593-602.
Objective
Maternal major depressive disorder is an established risk factor for child psychopathology. The authors previously reported that 1 year after initiation of treatment for maternal depression, children of mothers whose depression remitted had significantly improved functioning and psychiatric symptoms. This study extends these findings by examining changes in psychiatric symptoms, behavioral problems, and functioning among children of depressed mothers during the first year after the mothers' remission from depression.
Method
Children were assessed at baseline and at 3-month intervals with the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children–Present and Lifetime Version, the Child Behavior Checklist, and the Children's Global Assessment Scale for 1 year after their mothers' remission or for 2 years if the mothers did not remit. The authors compared children of early remitters (0–3 months; N=36), late remitters (3–12 months; N=28), and nonremitters (N=16).
Results
During the postremission year, children of early-remitting mothers showed significant improvement on all outcomes. Externalizing behavioral problems decreased in children of early- and late-remitting mothers but increased in children of nonremitting mothers. Psychiatric symptoms decreased significantly only in children of mothers who remitted, and functioning improved only in children of early-remitting mothers.
Conclusions
Remission of mothers' depression, regardless of its timing, appears to be related to decreases in problem behaviors and symptoms in their children over the year after remission. The favorable effect of mothers' remission on children's functioning was observed only in children of early-remitting mothers.
doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.10010032
PMCID: PMC3423977  PMID: 21406462

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