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1.  Spectral observation of conversion between ionized vs. non-ionized proton-coupled electron transfer interfaces† 
Two-point hydrogen bonding between acid and base functionalities provides a convenient method for the modular assembly of proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) networks, especially when that interface comprises an amidinium and two-point anionic partner; a system is presented that permits the proton configuration within the interface to be determined when pKa values of the conjugate acids are known.
PMCID: PMC4625797  PMID: 18473057
2.  Water Oxidation Catalysis by Co(II) Impurities in Co(III)4O4 Cubanes 
Journal of the American Chemical Society  2014;136(50):17681-17688.
The observed water oxidation activity of the compound class Co4O4(OAc)4(Py–X)4 emanates from a Co(II) impurity. This impurity is oxidized to produce the well-known Co-OEC heterogeneous cobaltate catalyst, which is an active water oxidation catalyst. We present results from electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance line broadening analysis, and electrochemical titrations to establish the existence of the Co(II) impurity as the major source of water oxidation activity that has been reported for Co4O4 molecular cubanes. Differential electrochemical mass spectrometry is used to characterize the fate of glassy carbon at water oxidizing potentials and demonstrate that such electrode materials should be used with caution for the study of water oxidation catalysis.
PMCID: PMC4277775  PMID: 25407218
3.  Modulation of Y356 Photooxidation in E. coli Class Ia Ribonucleotide Reductase by Y731 Across the α2:β2 Interface 
Journal of the American Chemical Society  2013;135(36):10.1021/ja405498e.
Substrate turnover in class Ia ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) requires reversible radical transport across two subunits over 35 A, which occurs by a multi-step proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism. Using a photooxidant-labeled β2 subunit of Escherichia coli class Ia RNR, we demonstrate photoinitiated oxidation of a tyrosine in an α2:β2 complex, which results in substrate turnover. Using site-directed mutations of the redox-active tyrosines at the subunit interface—Y356F(β) and Y731F(α)—this oxidation is identified to be localized on Y356. The rate of Y356 oxidation depends on the presence of Y731 across the interface. This observation supports the proposal that unidirectional PCET across the Y356(β)–Y731(α)–Y730(α) triad is crucial to radical transport in RNR.
PMCID: PMC3881532  PMID: 23927429
4.  Kinetics of Hydrogen Atom Abstraction from Substrate by an Active Site Thiyl Radical in Ribonucleotide Reductase 
Journal of the American Chemical Society  2014;136(46):16210-16216.
Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) catalyze the conversion of nucleotides to deoxynucleotides in all organisms. Active E. coli class Ia RNR is an α2β2 complex that undergoes reversible, long-range proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) over a pathway of redox active amino acids (β-Y122 → [β-W48] → β-Y356 → α-Y731 → α-Y730 → α-C439) that spans ∼35 Å. To unmask PCET kinetics from rate-limiting conformational changes, we prepared a photochemical RNR containing a [ReI] photooxidant site-specifically incorporated at position 355 ([Re]-β2), adjacent to PCET pathway residue Y356 in β. [Re]-β2 was further modified by replacing Y356 with 2,3,5-trifluorotyrosine to enable photochemical generation and spectroscopic observation of chemically competent tyrosyl radical(s). Using transient absorption spectroscopy, we compare the kinetics of Y· decay in the presence of substrate and wt-α2, Y731F-α2 ,or C439S-α2, as well as with 3′-[2H]-substrate and wt-α2. We find that only in the presence of wt-α2 and the unlabeled substrate do we observe an enhanced rate of radical decay indicative of forward radical propagation. This observation reveals that cleavage of the 3′-C–H bond of substrate by the transiently formed C439· thiyl radical is rate-limiting in forward PCET through α and has allowed calculation of a lower bound for the rate constant associated with this step of (1.4 ± 0.4) × 104 s–1. Prompting radical propagation with light has enabled observation of PCET events heretofore inaccessible, revealing active site chemistry at the heart of RNR catalysis.
PMCID: PMC4244835  PMID: 25353063
5.  Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in Biology: Results from Synergistic Studies in Natural and Model Systems 
Annual review of biochemistry  2009;78:673-699.
Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) underpins energy conversion in biology. PCET may occur with the unidirectional or bidirectional transfer of a proton and electron and may proceed synchronously or asynchronously. To illustrate the role of PCET in biology, this review presents complementary biological and model systems that explore PCET in electron transfer (ET) through hydrogen bonds [azurin as compared to donor-acceptor (D–A) hydrogen-bonded networks], the activation of C–H bonds [alcohol dehydrogenase and soybean lipoxygenase (SLO) as compared to Fe(III) metal complexes], and the generation and transport of amino acid radicals [photosystem II (PSII) and ribonucleotide reductase (RNR)as compared to tyrosine-modified photoactive Re(I) and Ru(II) complexes]. In providing these comparisons, the fundamental principles of PCET in biology are illustrated in a tangible way.
PMCID: PMC4625787  PMID: 19344235
amino acid radical; lipoxygenase; photosystem II; ribonucleotide reductase; tyrosine
6.  Direct Interfacial Y731 Oxidation in α2 by a Photoβ2 Subunit of E. coli Class Ia Ribonucleotide Reductase 
Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) is a fundamental mechanism important in a wide range of biological processes including the universal reaction catalysed by ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) in making de novo, the building blocks required for DNA replication and repair. These enzymes catalyse the conversion of nucleoside diphosphates (NDPs) to deoxynucleoside diphosphates (dNDPs). In the class Ia RNRs, NDP reduction involves a tyrosyl radical mediated oxidation occurring over 35 Å across the interface of the two required subunits (β2 and α2) involving multiple PCET steps and the conserved tyrosine triad [Y356(β2)–Y731(α2)–Y730(α2)]. We report the synthesis of an active photochemical RNR (photoRNR) complex in which a Re(I)-tricarbonyl phenanthroline ([Re]) photooxidant is attached site-specifically to the Cys in the Y356C-(β2) subunit and an ionizable, 2,3,5-trifluorotyrosine (2,3,5-F3Y) is incorporated in place of Y731 in α2. This intersubunit PCET pathway is investigated by ns laser spectroscopy on [Re356]-β2:2,3,5-F3Y731-α2 in the presence of substrate, CDP, and effector, ATP. This experiment has allowed analysis of the photoinjection of a radical into α2 from β2 in the absence of the interfacial Y356 residue. The system is competent for light-dependent substrate turnover. Time-resolved emission experiments reveal an intimate dependence of the rate of radical injection on the protonation state at position Y731(α2), which in turn highlights the importance of a well-coordinated proton exit channel involving the key residues, Y356 and Y731, at the subunit interface.
PMCID: PMC4618407  PMID: 26504513
7.  Ultrafast N-H vibrational dynamics of cyclic doubly hydrogen-bonded homo- and heterodimers 
The journal of physical chemistry. B  2008;112(42):13167-13171.
Hydrogen-bonded interfaces are essential structural elements in biology. Furthermore they can mediate electron transport by coupling the electron to proton transfer within the interface. The specific hydrogen-bonding configuration and strength have a large impact on the proton transfer, which exchanges the hydrogen bonded donor and acceptor species (i.e. NH---O → N---HO. Modulations of the hydrogen-bonding environment, such as the hydrogen-bond stretch and twist modes, affect the proton transfer dynamics. Here we present transient grating and echo peak shift measurements of the NH stretch vibrations of four doubly hydrogen-bonded cyclic dimers in their electronic ground state. The equilibrium vibrational dynamics exhibit strong coherent modulations that we attribute to coupling of the high-frequency NH vibration to the low frequency inter-dimer stretch and twist modes and not to interference between multiple Fermi-resonances that dominate the substructure of the linear spectra.
PMCID: PMC4596713  PMID: 18821789
8.  Modulation of Phenol Oxidation in Cofacial Dyads 
Journal of the American Chemical Society  2015;137(37):11860-11863.
The presentation of two phenols on a xanthene backbone is akin to the tyrosine dyad (Y730 and Y731) of ribonucleotide reductase. X-ray crystallography reveals that the two phenol moieties are cofacially disposed at 4.35 Å. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) reveals that phenol oxidation is modulated within the dyad, which exhibits a splitting of one-electron waves with the second oxidation of the phenol dyad occurring at larger positive potential than that of a typical phenol. In contrast, a single phenol appended to a xanthene exhibits a two-electron (ECE) process, consistent with reported oxidation pathways of phenols in acetonitrile. The perturbation of the phenol potential by stacking is reminiscent of a similar effect for guanines stacked within DNA base pairs.
PMCID: PMC4596711  PMID: 26305909
9.  Photocrystallographic Observation of Halide-Bridged Intermediates in Halogen Photoeliminations 
Journal of the American Chemical Society  2014;136(43):15346-15355.
Polynuclear transition metal complexes, which frequently constitute the active sites of both biological and chemical catalysts, provide access to unique chemical transformations that are derived from metal–metal cooperation. Reductive elimination via ligand-bridged binuclear intermediates from bimetallic cores is one mechanism by which metals may cooperate during catalysis. We have established families of Rh2 complexes that participate in HX-splitting photocatalysis in which metal–metal cooperation is credited with the ability to achieve multielectron photochemical reactions in preference to single-electron transformations. Nanosecond-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy, steady-state photocrystallography, and computational modeling have allowed direct observation and characterization of Cl-bridged intermediates (intramolecular analogues of classical ligand-bridged intermediates in binuclear eliminations) in halogen elimination reactions. On the basis of these observations, a new class of Rh2 complexes, supported by CO ligands, has been prepared, allowing for the isolation and independent characterization of the proposed halide-bridged intermediates. Direct observation of halide-bridged structures establishes binuclear reductive elimination as a viable mechanism for photogenerating energetic bonds.
PMCID: PMC4227815  PMID: 25264809
10.  A Nanocrystal-based Ratiometric pH Sensor for Natural pH Ranges 
A ratiometric fluorescent pH sensor based on CdSe/CdZnS nanocrystal quantum dots (NCs) has been designed for biological pH ranges. The construct is formed from the conjugation of a pH dye (SNARF) to NCs coated with a poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimer. The sensor exhibits a well–resolved ratio response at pH values between 6 and 8 under linear or two–photon excitation, and in the presence of a 4% bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution.
PMCID: PMC4582792  PMID: 26413260
11.  Electrochemical polymerization of pyrene derivatives on functionalized carbon nanotubes for pseudocapacitive electrodes 
Nature Communications  2015;6:7040.
Electrochemical energy-storage devices have the potential to be clean and efficient, but their current cost and performance limit their use in numerous transportation and stationary applications. Many organic molecules are abundant, economical and electrochemically active; if selected correctly and rationally designed, these organic molecules offer a promising route to expand the applications of these energy-storage devices. In this study, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are introduced within a functionalized few-walled carbon nanotube matrix to develop high-energy, high-power positive electrodes for pseudocapacitor applications. The reduction potential and capacity of various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are correlated with their interaction with the functionalized few-walled carbon nanotube matrix, chemical configuration and electronic structure. These findings provide rational design criteria for nanostructured organic electrodes. When combined with lithium negative electrodes, these nanostructured organic electrodes exhibit energy densities of ∼350 Wh kg−1electrode at power densities of ∼10 kW kg−1electrode for over 10,000 cycles.
Electrochemically active organic molecules are an important class of electrode materials for energy storage. Here, the authors report organic electrodes made of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and functionalized few-walled carbon nanotubes, which show promising electrochemical performance.
PMCID: PMC4432658  PMID: 25943905
12.  Deciphering Radical Transport in the Catalytic Subunit of Class I Ribonucleotide Reductase 
Incorporation of 2,3,6-trifluorotyrosine (F3Y) and a rhenium bipyridine ([Re]) photooxidant into a peptide corresponding to the C-terminus of the β protein (βC19) of Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) allows for the temporal monitoring of radical transport into the α2 subunit of RNR. Injection of the photogenerated F3Y radical from the [Re]–F3Y–βC19 peptide into the surface accessible Y731 of the α2 subunit is only possible when the second Y730 is present. With the Y–Y established, radical transport occurs with a rate constant of 3 × 105 s−1. Point mutations that disrupt the Y–Y dyad shut down radical transport. The ability to obviate radical transport by disrupting the hydrogen bonding network of the amino acids composing the co-linear proton-coupled electron transfer pathway in α2 suggests a finely tuned evolutionary adaptation of RNR to control the transport of radicals in this enzyme.
PMCID: PMC3268775  PMID: 22121977
Ribonucleotide Reductase; Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer; Radical Transport
13.  Metabolic Tumor Profiling with pH, Oxygen, and Glucose Chemosensors on a Quantum Dot Scaffold 
Inorganic chemistry  2013;53(4):1900-1915.
Acidity, hypoxia and glucose levels characterize the tumor microenvironment rendering pH, pO2 and pGlucose, respectively, important indicators of tumor health. To this end, understanding how these parameters change can be a powerful tool for the development of novel and effective therapeutics. We have designed optical chemosensors that feature a quantum dot and an analyte-responsive dye. These non-invasive chemosensors permit pH, oxygen, and glucose to be monitored dynamically within the tumor microenvironment by using multiphoton imaging.
PMCID: PMC3944830  PMID: 24143874
15.  Two–Photon Oxygen Sensing with Quantum Dot–Porphyrin Conjugates 
Inorganic chemistry  2013;52(18):10.1021/ic4011168.
Supramolecular assemblies of a quantum dot (QD) associated to palladium(II) porphyrins have been developed to detect oxygen (pO2) in organic solvents. Palladium porphyrins are sensitive in the 0–160 torr range, making them ideal phosphors for in vivo biological oxygen quantification. Porphyrins with meso pyridyl substituents bind to the surface of the QD to produce self–assembled nanosensors. Appreciable overlap between QD emission and porphyrin absorption features results in efficient Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) for signal transduction in these sensors. The QD serves as a photon antenna, enhancing porphyrin emission under both one– and two–photon excitation, demonstrating that QD–palladium porphyrin conjugates may be used for oxygen sensing over physiological oxygen ranges.
PMCID: PMC3881537  PMID: 23978247
16.  Alternating layer addition approach to CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots with near-unity quantum yield and high on-time fractions 
We report single-particle photoluminescence (PL) intermittency (blinking) with high on-time fractions in colloidal CdSe quantum dots (QD) with conformal CdS shells of 1.4 nm thickness, equivalent to approximately 4 CdS monolayers. All QDs observed displayed on-time fractions > 60% with the majority > 80%. The high-on-time-fraction blinking is accompanied by fluorescence quantum yields (QY) close to unity (up to 98% in an absolute QY measurement) when dispersed in organic solvents and a monoexponential ensemble photoluminescence (PL) decay lifetime. The CdS shell is formed in high synthetic yield using a modified selective ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique that employs a silylated sulfur precursor. The CdS shell provides sufficient chemical and electronic passivation of the QD excited state to permit water solubilization with greater than 60% QY via ligand exchange with an imidazole-bearing hydrophilic polymer.
PMCID: PMC4052982  PMID: 24932403
17.  Energy Transfer of CdSe/ZnS Nanocrystals Encapsulated with Rhodamine-Dye Functionalized Poly(acrylic acid) 
Energy transfer between a CdSe/ZnS nanocrystal (NC) donor and a rhodamine isothiocyanate (RITC) acceptor has been achieved via a functionalized poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) encapsulating layer over the surface of the NC. The modification of PAA with both N-octylamine (OA) and 5-amino-1-pentanol (AP), [PAA-OA-AP], allows for the simultaneous water-solubilization and functionalization of the NCs, underscoring the ease of synthesizing NC-acceptor conjugates with this strategy. Photophysical studies of the NC-RITC constructs showed that energy transfer is efficient, with kFRET approaching 108 s−1. The ease of the covalent conjugation of molecules to NCs with PAA-OA-AP coating, together with efficient energy transfer, makes the NCs encapsulated with PAA-OA-AP attractive candidates for sensing applications.
PMCID: PMC4050743  PMID: 24926175
18.  Conformational control of energy transfer: a new mechanism for biocompatible nanocrystal-based sensors** 
Fold-up fluorophore: A new paradigm for designing self-referencing fluorescent nanosensors is demonstrated by interfacing a pH-triggered molecular conformational switch with quantum dots. Analytedependent, large-amplitude conformational motion controls the distance between the nanocrystal energy donor and an organic FRET acceptor. The result is a fluorescence signal capable of reporting pH values from individual endosomes in living cells.
PMCID: PMC3793206  PMID: 23225635
biosensors; fluorescent probes; quantum dots; molecular devices; molecular machines
19.  Energy transfer mediated by asymmetric hydrogen-bonded interfaces† 
Amidine-appended ferrocene derivatives form a supramolecular assembly with Ru(ii)(bpy-COOH) (L)22+ complexes (bpy-COOH is 4-CO2H-4′-CH3-bpy and L = bpy, 2,2′-bipyridine or btfmbpy, 4,4′-bis (trifluoromethyl)-2,2′-bipyridine). Steady-state, time-resolved spectroscopy and kinetic isotope effects establish that the metal-to-ligand charge transfer excited states of the Ru(ii) complexes are quenched by proton-coupled energy transfer (PCEnT). These results show that proton motion can be effective in mediating not only electron transfer (ET) but energy transfer (EnT) as well.
PMCID: PMC3868475  PMID: 24363889
20.  Halogen Photoelimination from Dirhodium Phosphazane Complexes via Chloride-Bridged Intermediates 
Halogen photoelimination is a critical step in HX-splitting photocatalysis. Herein, we report the photoreduction of a pair of valence-isomeric dirhodium phosphazane complexes, and suggest that a common intermediate is accessed in the photochemistry of both mixed-valent and valence-symmetric complexes. The results of these investigations suggest that halogen photoelimination proceeds by two sequential photochemical reactions: ligand dissociation followed by subsequent halogen elimination.
PMCID: PMC3819227  PMID: 24224081
21.  Photochemical Tyrosine Oxidation with a Hydrogen-Bonded Proton Acceptor by Bidirectional Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer 
Amino acid radical generation and transport are fundamentally important to numerous essential biological processes to which small molecule models lend valuable mechanistic insights. Pyridyl-amino acid-methyl esters are appended to a rhenium(I) tricarbonyl 1,10-phenanthroline core to yield rhenium–amino acid complexes with tyrosine ([Re]–Y–OH) and phenylalanine ([Re]–F). The emission from the [Re] center is more significantly quenched for [Re]–Y–OH upon addition of base. Time-resolved studies establish that excited-state quenching occurs by a combination of static and dynamic mechanisms. The degree of quenching depends on the strength of the base, consistent with a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) quenching mechanism. Comparative studies of [Re]–Y–OH and [Re]–F enable a detailed mechanistic analysis of a bidirectional PCET process.
PMCID: PMC3594118  PMID: 23495362
22.  Re(bpy)(CO)3CN as a Probe of Conformational Flexibility in a Photochemical Ribonucleotide Reductase† 
Biochemistry  2009;48(25):5832-5838.
Photochemical ribonucleotide reductases (photoRNRs) have been developed to study the proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) mechanism of radical transport in class I E. coli ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). The transport of the effective radical occurs along several conserved aromatic residues across two subunits: β2(•Y122→W48→Y356)→ α2(Y731→Y730→C439). The current model for RNR activity suggests that radical transport is strongly controlled by conformational gating. The C-terminal tail peptide (Y- βC19) of β2 is the binding determinant of β2 to α2 and contains the redox active Y356 residue. A photoRNR has been generated synthetically by appending a Re(bpy)(CO)3CN ([Re]) photo-oxidant next to Y356 of the 20-mer peptide. Emission from the [Re] center dramatically increases upon peptide binding, serving as a probe for conformational dynamics and Y356 protonation state. The diffusion coefficient of [Re]-Y-βC19 has been measured (kd1 = 6.1 × 10−7 cm−1 s–1), along with the dissociation rate constant for the [Re]-Y-βC19:α2 complex (7000 s−1 > koff > 400 s−1). Results from detailed time-resolved emission and absorption spectroscopies reveal biexponential kinetics, suggesting a large degree of conformational flexibility in the α2:[Re]-Y-βC19 complex that partitions the N-terminus of the peptide into both bound and solvent-exposed fractions.
PMCID: PMC3340421  PMID: 19402704
23.  Two-Photon Absorbing Nanocrystal Sensors for Ratiometric Detection of Oxygen 
Journal of the American Chemical Society  2009;131(36):12994-13001.
Two nanocrystal-osmium(II) polypyridyl (NC-Os(II)PP) conjugates have been designed to detect oxygen in biological environments. Polypyridines appended with a single free amine were linked with facility to a carboxylic acid functionality of a semiconductor NC overlayer to afford a biologically stable amide bond. The Os(II)PP complexes possess broad absorptions that extend into the red spectral region; this absorption feature makes them desirable acceptors of energy from NC donors. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the NC to the Os(II)PP causes an enhanced Os(II)PP emission with a concomitant quenching of the NC emission. Owing to the large two-photon absorption cross-section of the NCs, FRET from NC to the Os(II)PP can be established under two-photon excitation conditions. In this way, two-photon processes of metal polypyridyl complexes can be exploited for sensing. The emission of the NC is insensitive to oxygen, even at 1 atm, whereas excited states of both osmium complexes are quenched in the presence of oxygen. The NC emission may thus be used as an internal reference to correct for fluctuations in the photoluminescence intensity signal. These properties taken together establish NC-Os(II)PP conjugates as competent ratiometric, two-photon oxygen sensors for application in biological microenvironments.
PMCID: PMC3340422  PMID: 19697933
24.  Chemistry of Personalized Solar Energy 
Inorganic Chemistry  2009;48(21):10001-10017.
Personalized energy (PE) is a transformative idea that provides a new modality for the planet’s energy future. By providing solar energy to the individual, an energy supply becomes secure and available to people of both legacy and non-legacy worlds, and minimally contributes to increasing the anthropogenic level of carbon dioxide. Because PE will be possible only if solar energy is available 24 hours a day, 7 day a week, the key enabler for solar PE is an inexpensive storage mechanism. HX (X = halide or OH−) splitting is a fuel-forming reaction of sufficient energy density for large scale solar storage but the reaction relies on chemical transformations that are not understood at the most basic science level. Critical among these are multielectron transfers that are proton-coupled and involve the activation of bonds in energy poor substrates. The chemistry of these three italicized areas is developed, and from this platform, discovery paths leading to new HX and H2O splitting catalysts are delineated. For the case of the water splitting catalyst, it captures many of the functional elements of photosynthesis. In doing so, a highly manufacturable and inexpensive method has been discovered for solar PE storage.
PMCID: PMC3332084  PMID: 19775081
25.  A Comparative PCET Study of a Donor-Acceptor Pair Linked by Ionized and Non-ionized Asymmetric Hydrogen-Bonded Interfaces 
A Zn(II) porphyrin-amidinium is the excited state electron donor (D) to a naphthalene diimide acceptor (A) appended with either a carboxylate or sulfonate functionality. The two-point hydrogen bond (---[H+]---) formed between the amidinium and carboxylate or sulfonate establishes a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) pathway for charge transfer. The two D---[H+]---A assemblies differ only by the proton configuration within the hydrogen bonding interface. Specifically, the amidinium transfers a proton to the carboxylate to form a non-ionized amidine-carboxylic acid two-point hydrogen network whereas the amidinium maintains both protons when bound to the sulfonate functionality forming an ionized amidinium-sulfonate two-point hydrogen network. These two interface configurations within the dyads thus allow for a direct comparison of PCET kinetics for the same donor and acceptor juxtaposed by an ionized and non-ionized hydrogen-bonded interface. Analysis of PCET kinetics ascertained from transient absorption and transient emission spectroscopy reveal that the ionized interface is more strongly impacted by the local solvent environment, thus establishing that the initial static configuration of the proton interface is a critical determinant to the kinetics of PCET.
PMCID: PMC3278395  PMID: 19489645

Results 1-25 (32)