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1.  Arl13b in primary cilia regulates the migration and placement of interneurons in the developing cerebral cortex 
Developmental cell  2012;23(5):925-938.
Coordinated migration and placement of interneurons and projection neurons lead to functional connectivity in the cerebral cortex; defective neuronal migration and the resultant connectivity changes underlie the cognitive defects in a spectrum of neurological disorders. Here we show that primary cilia play a guiding role in the migration and placement of postmitotic interneurons in the developing cerebral cortex, and that this process requires the ciliary protein, Arl13b. Through live imaging of interneuronal cilia we show migrating interneurons display highly dynamic primary cilia and we correlate cilia dynamics with the interneuron’s migratory state. We demonstrate that the guidance cue receptors essential for interneuronal migration localize to interneuronal primary cilia, but their concentration and dynamics are altered in the absence of Arl13b. Expression of Arl13b variants known to cause Joubert syndrome induce defective interneuronal migration, suggesting that defects in cilia-dependent interneuron migration may underlie the neurological defects in Joubert syndrome patients.
doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2012.09.019
PMCID: PMC3529475  PMID: 23153492
Ciliopathies; microfluidics; Arl13b; Joubert Syndrome
2.  Human CHN1 mutations hyperactivate α2-chimaerin and cause Duane’s retraction syndrome 
Science (New York, N.Y.)  2008;321(5890):839-843.
The RacGAP molecule α2-chimaerin is implicated in neuronal signaling pathways required for precise guidance of developing corticospinal axons. We now demonstrate that a variant of Duane’s retraction syndrome, a congenital eye movement disorder in which affected individuals show aberrant development of axon projections to the extraocular muscles, can result from gain-of-function heterozygous missense mutations in CHN1 that increase α2-chimaerin RacGAP activity in vitro. A subset of mutations enhances α2-chimaerin membrane translocation and/or α2-chimaerin’s previously unrecognized ability to form a complex with itself. In ovo expression of mutant CHN1 alters the development of ocular motor axons. These data demonstrate that human CHN1 mutations can hyperactivate α2-chimaerin and result in aberrant cranial motor neuron development.
doi:10.1126/science.1156121
PMCID: PMC2593867  PMID: 18653847

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