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1.  Investigating Women’s Experiences of Asthma Care in Pregnancy: A Qualitative Study 
The Open Nursing Journal  2014;8:56-63.
Background : Most asthmatic women have normal pregnancies and complications are infrequent when their asthma is well-controlled. Symptom control and medical treatment are concerning to pregnant asthma suffers, as is the impact that their illness and treatment might have on their unborn baby. The aim was to investigate in a qualitative study the thoughts and feelings of women’s experiences of asthma in pregnancy. Twenty-two women with asthma who had a pregnancy within two years were asked to participate. Seven women were interviewed when data saturation was achieved. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using the ‘Framework’ Method, independently analysed by two researchers and consensus reached concerning the construction of themes.
The key themes that emerged were Asthma and pregnancy; Pregnancy and post-natal experiences; and Health professionals.
These findings are globally interesting because of the prevalence of maternal asthma and they illustrate participants’ experiences concerning their asthma care and their views on its improvement. Pregnant asthmatic women have concerns about their care and treatment which might be alleviated by outreach, joint working between respiratory doctors and nurse specialists, midwives and General Practice nurses. Targeted educational activities could form a part of this care delivery.
doi:10.2174/1874434601408010056
PMCID: PMC4262795  PMID: 25538796
Asthma; interviews; midwife; nurse; pregnancy; qualitative research.
2.  Multiple type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes following genome-wide association scan in UK samples 
Science (New York, N.Y.)  2007;316(5829):1336-1341.
The molecular mechanisms involved in the development of type 2 diabetes are poorly understood. Starting from genome-wide genotype data for 1,924 diabetic cases and 2,938 population controls generated by the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, we set out to detect replicated diabetes association signals through analysis of 3,757 additional cases and 5,346 controls, and by integration of our findings with equivalent data from other international consortia. We detected diabetes susceptibility loci in and around the genes CDKAL1, CDKN2A/CDKN2B and IGF2BP2 and confirmed the recently described associations at HHEX/IDE and SLC30A8. Our findings provide insights into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes, emphasizing the contribution of multiple variants of modest effect. The regions identified underscore the importance of pathways influencing pancreatic beta cell development and function in the etiology of type 2 diabetes.
doi:10.1126/science.1142364
PMCID: PMC3772310  PMID: 17463249
3.  EDTA Improves Stability of Whole Blood C-Peptide and Insulin to Over 24 Hours at Room Temperature 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(7):e42084.
Introduction
C-peptide and insulin measurements in blood provide useful information regarding endogenous insulin secretion. Conflicting evidence on sample stability and handling procedures continue to limit the widespread clinical use of these tests. We assessed the factors that altered the stability of insulin and C-peptide in blood.
Methods
We investigated the impact of preservative type, time to centrifugation, storage conditions and duration of storage on the stability of C-peptide and insulin on three different analytical platforms.
Results
C-peptide was stable for at least 24 hours at room temperature in both centrifuged and whole blood collected in K+-EDTA and serum gel tubes, with the exception of whole blood serum gel, which decreased to 78% of baseline at 24 hours, (p = 0.008). Insulin was stable at room temperature for 24 hours in both centrifuged and whole blood collected in K+-EDTA tubes. In contrast insulin levels decreased in serum gel tubes both centrifuged and whole blood (66% of baseline, p = 0.01 and 76% of baseline p = 0.01, by 24 hours respectively). C-peptide and insulin remained stable after 6 freeze-thaw cycles.
Conclusions
The stability of C-peptide and insulin in whole blood K+-EDTA tubes negates the need to conform to strict sample handling procedures for these assays, greatly increasing their clinical utility.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0042084
PMCID: PMC3408407  PMID: 22860060
4.  Mendelian Randomization Studies Do Not Support a Role for Raised Circulating Triglyceride Levels Influencing Type 2 Diabetes, Glucose Levels, or Insulin Resistance 
Diabetes  2011;60(3):1008-1018.
OBJECTIVE
The causal nature of associations between circulating triglycerides, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes is unclear. We aimed to use Mendelian randomization to test the hypothesis that raised circulating triglyceride levels causally influence the risk of type 2 diabetes and raise normal fasting glucose levels and hepatic insulin resistance.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We tested 10 common genetic variants robustly associated with circulating triglyceride levels against the type 2 diabetes status in 5,637 case and 6,860 control subjects and four continuous outcomes (reflecting glycemia and hepatic insulin resistance) in 8,271 nondiabetic individuals from four studies.
RESULTS
Individuals carrying greater numbers of triglyceride-raising alleles had increased circulating triglyceride levels (SD 0.59 [95% CI 0.52–0.65] difference between the 20% of individuals with the most alleles and the 20% with the fewest alleles). There was no evidence that the carriers of greater numbers of triglyceride-raising alleles were at increased risk of type 2 diabetes (per weighted allele odds ratio [OR] 0.99 [95% CI 0.97–1.01]; P = 0.26). In nondiabetic individuals, there was no evidence that carriers of greater numbers of triglyceride-raising alleles had increased fasting insulin levels (SD 0.00 per weighted allele [95% CI −0.01 to 0.02]; P = 0.72) or increased fasting glucose levels (0.00 [−0.01 to 0.01]; P = 0.88). Instrumental variable analyses confirmed that genetically raised circulating triglyceride levels were not associated with increased diabetes risk, fasting glucose, or fasting insulin and, for diabetes, showed a trend toward a protective association (OR per 1-SD increase in log10 triglycerides: 0.61 [95% CI 0.45–0.83]; P = 0.002).
CONCLUSIONS
Genetically raised circulating triglyceride levels do not increase the risk of type 2 diabetes or raise fasting glucose or fasting insulin levels in nondiabetic individuals. One explanation for our results is that raised circulating triglycerides are predominantly secondary to the diabetes disease process rather than causal.
doi:10.2337/db10-1317
PMCID: PMC3046819  PMID: 21282362
5.  Mendelian Randomization Studies do not Support a Role for Raised Circulating Triglyceride Levels influencing Type 2 Diabetes, Glucose Levels, or Insulin Resistance 
Diabetes  2011;60(3):1008-1018.
Objective
The causal nature of associations between circulating triglycerides, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes is unclear. We aimed to use Mendelian randomization to test the hypothesis that raised circulating triglyceride levels causally influence the risk of type 2 diabetes, raised normal fasting glucose levels, and hepatic insulin resistance.
Research design and methods
We tested 10 common genetic variants robustly associated with circulating triglyceride levels against type 2 diabetes status in 5637 cases, 6860 controls, and four continuous outcomes (reflecting glycemia and hepatic insulin resistance) in 8271 non-diabetic individuals from four studies.
Results
Individuals carrying greater numbers of triglyceride-raising alleles had increased circulating triglyceride levels (0.59 SD [95% CI: 0.52, 0.65] difference between the 20% of individuals with the most alleles and the 20% with the fewest alleles). There was no evidence that carriers of greater numbers of triglyceride-raising alleles were at increased risk of type 2 diabetes (per weighted allele odds ratio (OR) 0.99 [95% CI: 0.97, 1.01]; P = 0.26). In non-diabetic individuals, there was no evidence that carriers of greater numbers of triglyceride-raising alleles had increased fasting insulin levels (0.00 SD per weighted allele [95% CI: −0.01, 0.02]; P = 0.72) or increased fasting glucose levels (0.00 SD per weighted allele [95% CI: −0.01, 0.01]; P = 0.88). Instrumental variable analyses confirmed that genetically raised circulating triglyceride levels were not associated with increased diabetes risk, fasting glucose or fasting insulin, and, for diabetes, showed a trend towards a protective association (OR per 1 SD increase in log10-triglycerides: 0.61 [95% CI: 0.45, 0.83]; P = 0.002).
Conclusion
Genetically raised circulating triglyceride levels do not increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, or raise fasting glucose or fasting insulin levels in non-diabetic individuals. One explanation for our results is that raised circulating triglycerides are predominantly secondary to the diabetes disease process rather than causal.
doi:10.2337/db10-1317
PMCID: PMC3046819  PMID: 21282362
6.  New genetic loci implicated in fasting glucose homeostasis and their impact on type 2 diabetes risk 
Dupuis, Josée | Langenberg, Claudia | Prokopenko, Inga | Saxena, Richa | Soranzo, Nicole | Jackson, Anne U | Wheeler, Eleanor | Glazer, Nicole L | Bouatia-Naji, Nabila | Gloyn, Anna L | Lindgren, Cecilia M | Mägi, Reedik | Morris, Andrew P | Randall, Joshua | Johnson, Toby | Elliott, Paul | Rybin, Denis | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur | Henneman, Peter | Grallert, Harald | Dehghan, Abbas | Hottenga, Jouke Jan | Franklin, Christopher S | Navarro, Pau | Song, Kijoung | Goel, Anuj | Perry, John R B | Egan, Josephine M | Lajunen, Taina | Grarup, Niels | Sparsø, Thomas | Doney, Alex | Voight, Benjamin F | Stringham, Heather M | Li, Man | Kanoni, Stavroula | Shrader, Peter | Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine | Kumari, Meena | Qi, Lu | Timpson, Nicholas J | Gieger, Christian | Zabena, Carina | Rocheleau, Ghislain | Ingelsson, Erik | An, Ping | O’Connell, Jeffrey | Luan, Jian'an | Elliott, Amanda | McCarroll, Steven A | Payne, Felicity | Roccasecca, Rosa Maria | Pattou, François | Sethupathy, Praveen | Ardlie, Kristin | Ariyurek, Yavuz | Balkau, Beverley | Barter, Philip | Beilby, John P | Ben-Shlomo, Yoav | Benediktsson, Rafn | Bennett, Amanda J | Bergmann, Sven | Bochud, Murielle | Boerwinkle, Eric | Bonnefond, Amélie | Bonnycastle, Lori L | Borch-Johnsen, Knut | Böttcher, Yvonne | Brunner, Eric | Bumpstead, Suzannah J | Charpentier, Guillaume | Chen, Yii-Der Ida | Chines, Peter | Clarke, Robert | Coin, Lachlan J M | Cooper, Matthew N | Cornelis, Marilyn | Crawford, Gabe | Crisponi, Laura | Day, Ian N M | de Geus, Eco | Delplanque, Jerome | Dina, Christian | Erdos, Michael R | Fedson, Annette C | Fischer-Rosinsky, Antje | Forouhi, Nita G | Fox, Caroline S | Frants, Rune | Franzosi, Maria Grazia | Galan, Pilar | Goodarzi, Mark O | Graessler, Jürgen | Groves, Christopher J | Grundy, Scott | Gwilliam, Rhian | Gyllensten, Ulf | Hadjadj, Samy | Hallmans, Göran | Hammond, Naomi | Han, Xijing | Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa | Hassanali, Neelam | Hayward, Caroline | Heath, Simon C | Hercberg, Serge | Herder, Christian | Hicks, Andrew A | Hillman, David R | Hingorani, Aroon D | Hofman, Albert | Hui, Jennie | Hung, Joe | Isomaa, Bo | Johnson, Paul R V | Jørgensen, Torben | Jula, Antti | Kaakinen, Marika | Kaprio, Jaakko | Kesaniemi, Y Antero | Kivimaki, Mika | Knight, Beatrice | Koskinen, Seppo | Kovacs, Peter | Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm | Lathrop, G Mark | Lawlor, Debbie A | Le Bacquer, Olivier | Lecoeur, Cécile | Li, Yun | Lyssenko, Valeriya | Mahley, Robert | Mangino, Massimo | Manning, Alisa K | Martínez-Larrad, María Teresa | McAteer, Jarred B | McCulloch, Laura J | McPherson, Ruth | Meisinger, Christa | Melzer, David | Meyre, David | Mitchell, Braxton D | Morken, Mario A | Mukherjee, Sutapa | Naitza, Silvia | Narisu, Narisu | Neville, Matthew J | Oostra, Ben A | Orrù, Marco | Pakyz, Ruth | Palmer, Colin N A | Paolisso, Giuseppe | Pattaro, Cristian | Pearson, Daniel | Peden, John F | Pedersen, Nancy L. | Perola, Markus | Pfeiffer, Andreas F H | Pichler, Irene | Polasek, Ozren | Posthuma, Danielle | Potter, Simon C | Pouta, Anneli | Province, Michael A | Psaty, Bruce M | Rathmann, Wolfgang | Rayner, Nigel W | Rice, Kenneth | Ripatti, Samuli | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Roden, Michael | Rolandsson, Olov | Sandbaek, Annelli | Sandhu, Manjinder | Sanna, Serena | Sayer, Avan Aihie | Scheet, Paul | Scott, Laura J | Seedorf, Udo | Sharp, Stephen J | Shields, Beverley | Sigurðsson, Gunnar | Sijbrands, Erik J G | Silveira, Angela | Simpson, Laila | Singleton, Andrew | Smith, Nicholas L | Sovio, Ulla | Swift, Amy | Syddall, Holly | Syvänen, Ann-Christine | Tanaka, Toshiko | Thorand, Barbara | Tichet, Jean | Tönjes, Anke | Tuomi, Tiinamaija | Uitterlinden, André G | van Dijk, Ko Willems | van Hoek, Mandy | Varma, Dhiraj | Visvikis-Siest, Sophie | Vitart, Veronique | Vogelzangs, Nicole | Waeber, Gérard | Wagner, Peter J | Walley, Andrew | Walters, G Bragi | Ward, Kim L | Watkins, Hugh | Weedon, Michael N | Wild, Sarah H | Willemsen, Gonneke | Witteman, Jaqueline C M | Yarnell, John W G | Zeggini, Eleftheria | Zelenika, Diana | Zethelius, Björn | Zhai, Guangju | Zhao, Jing Hua | Zillikens, M Carola | Borecki, Ingrid B | Loos, Ruth J F | Meneton, Pierre | Magnusson, Patrik K E | Nathan, David M | Williams, Gordon H | Hattersley, Andrew T | Silander, Kaisa | Salomaa, Veikko | Smith, George Davey | Bornstein, Stefan R | Schwarz, Peter | Spranger, Joachim | Karpe, Fredrik | Shuldiner, Alan R | Cooper, Cyrus | Dedoussis, George V | Serrano-Ríos, Manuel | Morris, Andrew D | Lind, Lars | Palmer, Lyle J | Hu, Frank B. | Franks, Paul W | Ebrahim, Shah | Marmot, Michael | Kao, W H Linda | Pankow, James S | Sampson, Michael J | Kuusisto, Johanna | Laakso, Markku | Hansen, Torben | Pedersen, Oluf | Pramstaller, Peter Paul | Wichmann, H Erich | Illig, Thomas | Rudan, Igor | Wright, Alan F | Stumvoll, Michael | Campbell, Harry | Wilson, James F | Hamsten, Anders | Bergman, Richard N | Buchanan, Thomas A | Collins, Francis S | Mohlke, Karen L | Tuomilehto, Jaakko | Valle, Timo T | Altshuler, David | Rotter, Jerome I | Siscovick, David S | Penninx, Brenda W J H | Boomsma, Dorret | Deloukas, Panos | Spector, Timothy D | Frayling, Timothy M | Ferrucci, Luigi | Kong, Augustine | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | Stefansson, Kari | van Duijn, Cornelia M | Aulchenko, Yurii S | Cao, Antonio | Scuteri, Angelo | Schlessinger, David | Uda, Manuela | Ruokonen, Aimo | Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta | Waterworth, Dawn M | Vollenweider, Peter | Peltonen, Leena | Mooser, Vincent | Abecasis, Goncalo R | Wareham, Nicholas J | Sladek, Robert | Froguel, Philippe | Watanabe, Richard M | Meigs, James B | Groop, Leif | Boehnke, Michael | McCarthy, Mark I | Florez, Jose C | Barroso, Inês
Nature genetics  2010;42(2):105-116.
Circulating glucose levels are tightly regulated. To identify novel glycemic loci, we performed meta-analyses of 21 genome-wide associations studies informative for fasting glucose (FG), fasting insulin (FI) and indices of β-cell function (HOMA-B) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in up to 46,186 non-diabetic participants. Follow-up of 25 loci in up to 76,558 additional subjects identified 16 loci associated with FG/HOMA-B and two associated with FI/HOMA-IR. These include nine new FG loci (in or near ADCY5, MADD, ADRA2A, CRY2, FADS1, GLIS3, SLC2A2, PROX1 and FAM148B) and one influencing FI/HOMA-IR (near IGF1). We also demonstrated association of ADCY5, PROX1, GCK, GCKR and DGKB/TMEM195 with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Within these loci, likely biological candidate genes influence signal transduction, cell proliferation, development, glucose-sensing and circadian regulation. Our results demonstrate that genetic studies of glycemic traits can identify T2D risk loci, as well as loci that elevate FG modestly, but do not cause overt diabetes.
doi:10.1038/ng.520
PMCID: PMC3018764  PMID: 20081858
7.  Genetic evidence that raised sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes 
Human Molecular Genetics  2009;19(3):535-544.
Epidemiological studies consistently show that circulating sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels are lower in type 2 diabetes patients than non-diabetic individuals, but the causal nature of this association is controversial. Genetic studies can help dissect causal directions of epidemiological associations because genotypes are much less likely to be confounded, biased or influenced by disease processes. Using this Mendelian randomization principle, we selected a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) near the SHBG gene, rs1799941, that is strongly associated with SHBG levels. We used data from this SNP, or closely correlated SNPs, in 27 657 type 2 diabetes patients and 58 481 controls from 15 studies. We then used data from additional studies to estimate the difference in SHBG levels between type 2 diabetes patients and controls. The SHBG SNP rs1799941 was associated with type 2 diabetes [odds ratio (OR) 0.94, 95% CI: 0.91, 0.97; P = 2 × 10−5], with the SHBG raising allele associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. This effect was very similar to that expected (OR 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.96), given the SHBG-SNP versus SHBG levels association (SHBG levels are 0.2 standard deviations higher per copy of the A allele) and the SHBG levels versus type 2 diabetes association (SHBG levels are 0.23 standard deviations lower in type 2 diabetic patients compared to controls). Results were very similar in men and women. There was no evidence that this variant is associated with diabetes-related intermediate traits, including several measures of insulin secretion and resistance. Our results, together with those from another recent genetic study, strengthen evidence that SHBG and sex hormones are involved in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddp522
PMCID: PMC2798726  PMID: 19933169
8.  A common genetic variant in the 15q24 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster (CHRNA5–CHRNA3–CHRNB4) is associated with a reduced ability of women to quit smoking in pregnancy 
Human Molecular Genetics  2009;18(15):2922-2927.
Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Women are more likely to quit smoking during pregnancy than at any other time in their lives, but some pregnant women continue to smoke. A recent genome-wide association study demonstrated an association between a common polymorphism (rs1051730) in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster (CHRNA5–CHRNA3–CHRNB4) and both smoking quantity and nicotine dependence. We aimed to test whether the same polymorphism that predisposes to greater cigarette consumption would also reduce the likelihood of smoking cessation in pregnancy. We studied 7845 pregnant women of European descent from the South-West of England. Using 2474 women who smoked regularly immediately pre-pregnancy, we analysed the association between the rs1051730 risk allele and both smoking cessation during pregnancy and smoking quantity. Each additional copy of the risk allele was associated with a 1.27-fold higher odds (95% CI 1.11–1.45) of continued smoking during pregnancy (P = 0.0006). Adjustment for pre-pregnancy smoking quantity weakened, but did not remove this association [odds ratio (OR) 1.20 (95% CI 1.03–1.39); P = 0.018]. The same risk allele was also associated with heavier smoking before pregnancy and in the first, but not the last, trimester [OR for smoking 10+ cigarettes/day versus 1–9/day in first trimester = 1.30 (95% CI 1.13–1.50); P = 0.0003]. To conclude, we have found strong evidence of association between the rs1051730 variant and an increased likelihood of continued smoking in pregnancy and have confirmed the previously observed association with smoking quantity. Our data support the role of genetic factors in influencing smoking cessation during pregnancy.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddp216
PMCID: PMC2706684  PMID: 19429911
9.  A study of association between common variation in the growth hormone-chorionic somatomammotropin hormone gene cluster and adult fasting insulin in a UK Caucasian population 
Background
Reduced growth during infancy is associated with adult insulin resistance. In a UK Caucasian cohort, the CSH1.01 microsatellite polymorphism in the growth hormone-chorionic somatomammotropin hormone gene cluster was recently associated with increases in adult fasting insulin of approximately 23 pmol/l for TT homozygote males compared to D1D1 or D2D2 homozygotes (P = 0.001 and 0.009; n = 206 and 92, respectively), but not for females. TT males additionally had a 547-g lower weight at 1 year (n = 270; P = 0.008) than D2D2 males. We sought to replicate these data in healthy UK Caucasian subjects. We genotyped 1396 subjects (fathers, mothers and children) from a consecutive birth study for the CSH1.01 marker and analysed genotypes for association with 1-year weight in boys and fasting insulin in fathers.
Results
We found no evidence for association of CSH1.01 genotype with adult male fasting insulin concentrations (TT/D1D1 P = 0.38; TT/D2D2 P = 0.18) or weight at 1 year in boys (TT/D1D1 P = 0.76; TT/D2D2 P = 0.85). For fasting insulin, our data can exclude the previously observed effect sizes as the 95 % confidence intervals for the differences observed in our study exclude increases in fasting insulin of 9.0 and 12.6 pmol/l for TT relative to D1D1 and D2D2 homozygotes, respectively. Whilst we have fewer data on boys' 1-year weight than the original study, our data can exclude a reduction in 1-year weight greater than 557 g for TT relative to D2D2 homozygotes.
Conclusion
We have not found association of the CSH1.01 genotype with fasting insulin or weight at 1 year. We conclude that the original study is likely to have over-estimated the effect size for fasting insulin, or that the difference in results reflects the younger age of subjects in this study relative to those in the previous study.
doi:10.1186/1477-5751-5-18
PMCID: PMC1665461  PMID: 17125497
10.  Genetic variants in Apolipoprotein AV alter triglyceride concentrations in pregnancy 
Background
Triglyceride concentrations are raised in pregnancy and are considered a key fetal fuel. Several gene variants are known to alter triglyceride concentrations, including those in the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL), and most recently, the Apolipoprotein AV (ApoAV) gene. However, less is known about how variants in these genes alter triglyceride concentrations in pregnancy or affect fetal growth. We aimed to determine the effect of the recently identified ApoAV gene on triglycerides in pregnancy and fetal growth. We assessed the role of two ApoAV haplotypes, defined by the C and W alleles of the -1131T>C and S19W polymorphisms, in 483 pregnant women and their offspring from the Exeter Family Study of Childhood Health.
Results
The -1131T>C and S19W variants have rare allele frequencies of 6.7% and 4.9% and are present in 13.4% and 9.7% of subjects respectively. In carriers of the -1131C and 19W alleles triglyceride concentrations were raised by 11.0% (1.98 mmol/ l(1.92 – 2.04) to 2.20 mmol/l (2.01 – 2.42), p = 0.035; and 16.2% (1.97 mmol/l (1.91 – 2.03) to 2.29 mmol/l (2.12 – 2.48), p < 0.001 respectively. There is nominally significant evidence that the -1131T>C variant is having an effect on maternal height (164.9 cm (164.3 – 165.5) to 167.0 cm (165.2 – 168.8), p = 0.029). There was no evidence that ApoAV genotype alters any other anthropometric measurements or biochemistries such as High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) or Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C). There is nominally significant evidence that the presence of a maternal -1131C variant alters fetal birth length (50.2 cm (50.0 – 50.4) to 50.9 cm (50.3 – 51.4), p = 0.022), and fetal birth crown-rump length (34.0 cm (33.8 – 34.1) to 34.5 cm (34.1 – 35.0), p = 0.023). There is no evidence that ApoAV genotype alters fetal birth weight or other fetal growth measurements.
Conclusion
In conclusion variation in the ApoAV gene raises triglyceride concentrations in pregnancy, as well as normolipaemic states and there is preliminary evidence that it alters fetal growth parameters.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-2-9
PMCID: PMC280668  PMID: 14613578

Results 1-10 (10)