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1.  Variation in the Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor 1 (CRHR1) Gene influences fMRI Signal Responses during Emotional Stimulus Processing 
The Journal of Neuroscience  2012;32(9):3253-3260.
The corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) system coordinates neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stress and has been implicated in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). Recent reports suggest that GG-homozygous individuals of a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs110402) in the CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1) gene show behavioral and neuroendocrine evidence of stress vulnerability. The present study explores whether those observations extend to the neuronal processing of emotional stimuli in humans. CRHR1 was genotyped in 83 controls and preliminary sample of 16 unmedicated patients with MDD who completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan while viewing blocks of positive, negative, and neutral words. In addition, potential mediating factors such as early life stress, sex, personality traits, and negative memory bias were examined. Robust differences in blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signal were found in healthy controls (A allele carriers > GG-homozygotes) while viewing negative versus neutral words in the right middle temporal/angular gyrus. Among GG-homozygotes, BOLD signal in the subgenual cingulate was greater in MDD participants (n = 9) compared to controls (n = 33). Conversely, among A-carriers, BOLD signal was smaller in MDD (n = 7) compared to controls (n = 50) in the hypothalamus, bilateral amygdala, and left nucleus accumbens. Early life stress, personality traits, and levels of negative memory bias were associated with brain activity depending on genotype. Results from healthy controls and a preliminary sample of MDD participants show that CRHR1 SNP rs110402 moderates neural responses to emotional stimuli, suggesting a potential mechanism of vulnerability for the development of MDD.
doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5533-11.2012
PMCID: PMC3297975  PMID: 22378896
2.  FMRI BOLD responses to negative stimuli in the prefrontal cortex are dependent on levels of recent negative life stress in major depressive disorder 
Psychiatry research  2010;183(3):202-208.
It is poorly understood how stressors modulate neurobiological mechanisms that may contribute to the heterogeneity of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Unmedicated patients diagnosed with MDD (n = 15) and individually matched healthy controls (n = 15) completed stress questionnaires and were studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging while viewing emotional words. Significant effects of recent negative life stressors, but not early life stress/trauma, were observed on regional blood oxygen level dependent activity during presentation of negative words in patients with MDD. No significant effects of stress on brain activation to negative words were found in controls. In MDD patients, positive correlations were found bilaterally in orbitofrontal areas 11l/47/12m, which are involved in representing negatively-valenced stimuli. Negative correlations were also found in the right ventrolateral prefrontal area 45, subgenual cingulate area 25, and nucleus accumbens, all of which are implicated in the pathophysiology of MDD. Negative memory bias was additionally positively associated with recent negative life stress and negatively associated with subgenual cingulate activation, suggesting a mechanism by which stress may contribute to these abnormalities. The severity of recent negative life stressors is an important modifier of neurobiological and cognitive function in MDD and may help explain heterogeneity in the disorder.
doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2009.12.002
PMCID: PMC2938037  PMID: 20685091
orbital; subgenual; ventrolateral; accumbens; memory; depression
3.  Frontal and Limbic Activation During Inhibitory Control Predicts Treatment Response in Major Depressive Disorder 
Biological psychiatry  2007;62(11):1272-1280.
Background
Inhibitory control or regulatory difficulties have been explored in major depressive disorder (MDD) but typically in the context of affectively salient information. Inhibitory control is addressed specifically by using a task devoid of affectively-laden stimuli, to disentangle the effects of altered affect and altered inhibitory processes in MDD.
Methods:
Twenty MDD and 22 control volunteer participants matched by age and gender completed a contextual inhibitory control task, the Parametric Go/No-go (PGNG) task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The PGNG includes three levels of difficulty, a typical continuous performance task and two progressively more difficult versions including Go/No-go hit and rejection trials. After this test, 15 of 20 MDD patients completed a full 10-week treatment with s-citalopram.
Results:
There was a significant interaction among response time (control subjects better), hits (control subjects better), and rejections (patients better). The MDD participants had greater activation compared with the control group in frontal and anterior temporal areas during correct rejections (inhibition). Activation during successful inhibitory events in bilateral inferior frontal and left amygdala, insula, and nucleus accumbens and during unsuccessful inhibition (commission errors) in rostral anterior cingulate predicted post-treatment improvement in depression symptoms.
Conclusions:
The imaging findings suggest that in MDD subjects, greater neural activation in frontal, limbic, and temporal regions during correct rejection of lures is necessary to achieve behavioral performance equivalent to control subjects. Greater activation in similar regions was further predictive of better treatment response in MDD.
doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2007.02.019
PMCID: PMC2860742  PMID: 17585888
Depression; executive functioning; fMRI; imaging; inhibitory control; mood disorders; SSRIs; treatment response

Results 1-3 (3)