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1.  AKT1 polymorphisms are associated with risk for metabolic syndrome 
Human Genetics  2010;129(2):129-139.
Converging lines of evidence suggest that AKT1 is a major mediator of the responses to insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), and glucose. AKT1 also plays a key role in the regulation of both muscle cell hypertrophy and atrophy. We hypothesized that AKT1 variants may play a role in the endophenotypes that make up metabolic syndrome. We studied a 12-kb region including the first exon of the AKT1 gene for association with metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes in four study populations [FAMUSS cohort (n = 574; age 23.7 ± 5.7 years), Strong Heart Study (SHS) (n = 2,134; age 55.5 ± 7.9 years), Dynamics of Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) (n = 3,075; age 73.6 ± 2.9 years), and Studies of a Targeted Risk Reduction Intervention through Defined Exercise (STRRIDE) (n = 175; age 40–65 years)]. We identified a three SNP haplotype that we call H1, which represents the ancestral alleles at the three loci and H2, which represents the derived alleles at the three loci. In young adult European Americans (FAMUSS), H1 was associated with higher fasting glucose levels in females. In middle age Native Americans (SHS), H1 carriers showed higher fasting insulin and HOMA in males, and higher BMI in females. In older African-American and European American subjects (Health ABC) H1 carriers showed a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome. Homozygotes for the H1 haplotype showed about twice the risk of metabolic syndrome in both males and females (p < 0.001). In middle-aged European Americans with insulin resistance (STRRIDE) studied by intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), H1 carriers showed increased insulin resistance due to the Sg component (p = 0.021). The 12-kb haplotype is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance that needs to be explored in further populations.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00439-010-0910-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC3020305  PMID: 21061022
2.  A polymorphism near IGF1 is associated with body composition and muscle function in women from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study 
Previous studies have reported associations of polymorphisms in the IGF1 gene with phenotypes of body composition (BC). The purpose of this study was to identify phenotypes of BC and physical function that were associated with the IGF1 promoter polymorphism (rs35767, −C1245T). Subjects from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study, white males and females (n = 925/836) and black males and females (533/705) aged 70–79 years were genotyped for the polymorphism. Phenotypes of muscle size and function, bone mineral density, and BC were analyzed for associations with this polymorphism. To validate and compare these findings, a cohort of young (mean age = 24.6, SD = 5.9) white men and women (n = 173/296) with similar phenotypic measurements were genotyped. An association with BC was identified in elderly females when significant covariates (physical activity, age, smoking status, body mass index) were included. White women with C/C genotype had 3% more trunk fat and 2% more total fat than those with C/T (P < 0.05). Black women with C/C genotype had 3% less total lean mass and 3% less muscle mass than their T/T counterparts (P < 0.05). Associations were identified with muscle strength in white women (P < 0.01) that were in agreement with the C/C genotype having lower muscle function. Thus, in an elderly population but not a young population, a polymorphism in the IGF1 gene may be predictive of differences in body composition, primarily in black females.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00421-010-1500-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC2928925  PMID: 20490824
IGF1; Muscle; Body composition; Bone mineral density; Elderly; SNP
3.  Rationality and emotionality: serotonin transporter genotype influences reasoning bias 
Reasoning often occurs under emotionally charged, opinion-laden circumstances. The belief-bias effect indexes the extent to which reasoning is based upon beliefs rather than logical structure. We examined whether emotional content increases this effect, particularly for adults genetically predisposed to be more emotionally reactive. SS/SLG carriers of the serotonin transporter genotype (5-HTTLPR) were less accurate selectively for evaluating emotional relational reasoning problems with belief-logic conflict relative to LALA carriers. Trait anxiety was positively associated with emotional belief-bias, and the 5-HTTLPR genotype significantly accounted for the variance in this association. Thus, deductive reasoning, a higher cognitive ability, is sensitive to differences in emotionality rooted in serotonin neurotransmitter function.
PMCID: PMC3624950  PMID: 22275169
4.  Genomics In Premature Infants: A Non-Invasive Strategy To Obtain High-Quality DNA 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:4286.
We used a cost-effective, non-invasive method to obtain high-quality DNA from buccal epithelial-cells (BEC) of premature infants for genomic analysis. DNAs from BEC were obtained from premature infants with gestational age ≤ 36 weeks. Short terminal repeats (STRs) were performed simultaneously on DNA obtained from the buccal swabs and blood from the same patient. The STR profiles demonstrated that the samples originated from the same individual and exclude any contamination by external DNAs. Whole exome sequencing was performed on DNAs obtained from BEC on premature infants with and without necrotizing enterocolitis, and successfully provided a total number of reads and variants corroborating with those obtained from healthy blood donors. We provide a proof of concept that BEC is a reliable and preferable source of DNA for high-throughput sequencing in premature infants.
PMCID: PMC3944721  PMID: 24598548
5.  Highlights from the Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Human Muscle Size and Strength or FAMuSS Study 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:643575.
The purpose of the Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Human Muscle Size and Strength study or FAMuSS was to identify genetic factors that dictated the response of health-related fitness phenotypes to resistance exercise training (RT). The phenotypes examined were baseline muscle strength and muscle, fat, and bone volume and their response to RT. FAMuSS participants were 1300 young (24 years), healthy men (42%) and women (58%) that were primarily of European-American descent. They were genotyped for ~500 polymorphisms and completed the Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess energy expenditure and time spent in light, moderate, and vigorous intensity habitual physical activity and sitting. Subjects then performed a 12-week progressive, unilateral RT program of the nondominant arm with the dominant arm used as a comparison. Before and after RT, muscle strength was measured with the maximum voluntary contraction and one repetition maximum, while MRI measured muscle, fat, and bone volume. We will discuss the history of how FAMuSS originated, provide a brief overview of the FAMuSS methods, and summarize our major findings regarding genotype associations with muscle strength and size, body composition, cardiometabolic biomarkers, and physical activity.
PMCID: PMC3885233  PMID: 24455711
6.  Effect of Dopamine Transporter Genotype on Intrinsic Functional Connectivity Depends on Cognitive State 
Cerebral Cortex (New York, NY)  2011;22(9):2182-2196.
Functional connectivity between brain regions can define large-scale neural networks and provide information about relationships between those networks. We examined how relationships within and across intrinsic connectivity networks were 1) sensitive to individual differences in dopaminergic function, 2) modulated by cognitive state, and 3) associated with executive behavioral traits. We found that regardless of cognitive state, connections between frontal, parietal, and striatal nodes of Task-Positive networks (TPNs) and Task-Negative networks (TNNs) showed higher functional connectivity in 10/10 homozygotes of the dopamine transporter gene, a polymorphism influencing synaptic dopamine, than in 9/10 heterozygotes. However, performance of a working memory task (a state requiring dopamine release) modulated genotype differences selectively, such that cross-network connectivity between TPNs and TNNs was higher in 10/10 than 9/10 subjects during working memory but not during rest. This increased cross-network connectivity was associated with increased self-reported measures of impulsivity and inattention traits. By linking a gene regulating synaptic dopamine to a phenotype characterized by inefficient executive function, these findings validate cross-network connectivity as an endophenotype of executive dysfunction.
PMCID: PMC3412445  PMID: 22047966
DAT1; fMRI; functional connectivity; resting state; working memory
7.  An Exploration of Heat Tolerance in Mice Utilizing mRNA and microRNA Expression Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e72258.
Individuals who rapidly develop hyperthermia during heat exposure (heat-intolerant) are vulnerable to heat associated illness and injury. We recently reported that heat intolerant mice exhibit complex alterations in stress proteins in response to heat exposure. In the present study, we further explored the role of genes and molecular networks associated with heat tolerance in mice.
Heat-induced physiological and biochemical changes were assessed to determine heat tolerance levels in mice. We performed RNA and microRNA expression profiling on mouse gastrocnemius muscle tissue samples to determine novel biological pathways associated with heat tolerance.
Principal Findings
Mice (n = 18) were assigned to heat-tolerant (TOL) and heat-intolerant (INT) groups based on peak core temperatures during heat exposures. This was followed by biochemical assessments (Hsp40, Hsp72, Hsp90 and Hsf1 protein levels). Microarray analysis identified a total of 3,081 mRNA transcripts that were significantly misregulated in INT compared to TOL mice (p<0.05). Among them, Hspa1a, Dnajb1 and Hspb7 were differentially expressed by more than two-fold under these conditions. Furthermore, we identified 61 distinct microRNA (miRNA) sequences significantly associated with TOL compared to INT mice; eight miRNAs corresponded to target sites in seven genes identified as being associated with heat tolerance pathways (Hspa1a, Dnajb1, Dnajb4, Dnajb6, Hspa2, Hspb3 and Hspb7).
The combination of mRNA and miRNA data from the skeletal muscle of adult mice following heat stress provides new insights into the pathophysiology of thermoregulatory disturbances of heat intolerance.
PMCID: PMC3744453  PMID: 23967293
8.  Genetic Influences on Vitamin D Status and Forearm Fracture Risk in African American Children 
Journal of Investigative Medicine  2012;60(6):902-906.
We sought to investigate the relationship between newly identified genetic variants and vitamin D levels and fracture risk in healthy African American (Black) children. This case-control study included children of both sexes, ages 5 to 9 years, with and without forearm fractures. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels, bone mineral density, body mass index and calcium/vitamin D intake were measured in 130 individuals (n = 60 cases and n = 70 controls). The five variants tested were located in the GC gene (rs2282679), in the NADSYN1 gene (rs12785878 and rs3829251), and in the promoter region of the CYP2R1 gene (rs2060793 and rs104741657). Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and vitamin D levels were tested using an ANCOVA. Associations between SNPs and fracture status were tested using logistic regression. The GC gene variant was associated with vitamin D levels (p = 0.038). None of the SNPs were associated with fracture status in young Blacks. These results suggest that the variants tested, which are associated with circulating vitamin D levels in Whites, are not associated with fracture status in healthy Black children. Additional research is required to discover the genetics of fracture risk in Blacks.
PMCID: PMC3404230  PMID: 22613962
fracture risk; single nucleotide polymorphism; vitamin D levels; body mass index; bone mineral density
9.  The 1p13.3 LDL (C)-Associated Locus Shows Large Effect Sizes in Young Populations 
Pediatric research  2011;69(6):538-543.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified polymorphic loci associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors (i. e. serum lipids) in adult populations (42–69 yrs). We hypothesized that younger populations would show a greater relative genetic component due to fewer confounding variables. We examined the influence of 20 GWAS loci associated with serum lipids and insulin metabolism, in a university student cohort (n=548; mean age= 24 yrs), and replicated statistically associated results in a second study cohort of primary school students (n=810, mean age= 11.5 yrs). 19 loci showed no relationship with studied risk factors in young adults. However, the ancestral allele of the rs646776 (SORT1) locus was strongly associated with increased low density lipoprotein cholesterol {LDL (C)} in young adults (TT: 97.6 ± 1.0 mg/dL {n=345}, vs. CT/CC: 87.3 ± 1.0 mg/dL {n=203}; p = 3 × 10−6) and children (TT: 94.0 ± 1.3 mg/dL {n=551}, vs. CT/CC: 84.7 ± 1.4 mg/dL {n=259}; p = 4 × 10−6). This locus is responsible for 3.6% of population variance in young adults and 2.5% of population variance in children. The effect size of the SORT1 locus is considerably higher in young populations (2.5%–4.1%) compared to older subjects (1%).
PMCID: PMC3606915  PMID: 21297524
10.  Individual differences in emotion-cognition interactions: emotional valence interacts with serotonin transporter genotype to influence brain systems involved in emotional reactivity and cognitive control 
The serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) influences emotional reactivity and attentional bias toward or away from emotional stimuli, and has been implicated in psychopathological states, such as depression and anxiety disorder. The short allele is associated with increased reactivity and attention toward negatively-valenced emotional information, whereas the long allele is associated with increased reactivity and attention toward positively-valenced emotional information. The neural basis for individual differences in the ability to exert cognitive control over these bottom-up biases in emotional reactivity and attention is unknown, an issue investigated in the present study. Healthy adult participants were divided into two groups, either homozygous carriers of the 5-HTTLPR long allele or homozygous carriers of the short allele, and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while completing an Emotional Stroop-like task that varied in the congruency of task-relevant and task-irrelevant information and the emotional valence of the task-irrelevant information. Behaviorally, participants demonstrated the classic “Stroop effect” (responses were slower for incongruent than congruent trials), which did not differ by 5-HTTLPR genotype. However, fMRI results revealed that genotype influenced the degree to which neural systems were engaged depending on the valence of the conflicting task-irrelevant information. While the “Long” group recruited prefrontal control regions and superior temporal sulcus during conflict when the task-irrelevant information was positively-valenced, the “Short” group recruited these regions during conflict when the task-irrelevant information was negatively-valenced. Thus, participants successfully engaged cognitive control to overcome conflict in an emotional context using similar neural circuitry, but the engagement of this circuitry depended on emotional valence and 5-HTTLPR status. These results suggest that the interplay between emotion and cognition is modulated, in part, by a genetic polymorphism that influences serotonin neurotransmission.
PMCID: PMC3701233  PMID: 23847500
5-HTTLPR; Stroop; fMRI; prefrontal cortex (PFC); eye-gaze; anxiety; positive affect
11.  Identification of ADAMTS7 as a novel locus for coronary atherosclerosis and association of ABO with myocardial infarction in the presence of coronary atherosclerosis: two genome-wide association studies 
Lancet  2011;377(9763):383-392.
We tested whether genetic factors distinctly contribute to either development of coronary atherosclerosis or, specifically, to myocardial infarction in existing coronary atherosclerosis.
We did two genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with coronary angiographic phenotyping in participants of European ancestry. To identify loci that predispose to angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD), we compared individuals who had this disorder (n=12 393) with those who did not (controls, n=7383). To identify loci that predispose to myocardial infarction, we compared patients who had angiographic CAD and myocardial infarction (n=5783) with those who had angiographic CAD but no myocardial infarction (n=3644).
In the comparison of patients with angiographic CAD versus controls, we identified a novel locus, ADAMTS7 (p=4·98×10−13). In the comparison of patients with angiographic CAD who had myocardial infarction versus those with angiographic CAD but no myocardial infarction, we identified a novel association at the ABO locus (p=7·62×10−9). The ABO association was attributable to the glycotransferase-deficient enzyme that encodes the ABO blood group O phenotype previously proposed to protect against myocardial infarction.
Our findings indicate that specific genetic predispositions promote the development of coronary atherosclerosis whereas others lead to myocardial infarction in the presence of coronary atherosclerosis. The relation to specific CAD phenotypes might modify how novel loci are applied in personalised risk assessment and used in the development of novel therapies for CAD.
The PennCath and MedStar studies were supported by the Cardiovascular Institute of the University of Pennsylvania, by the MedStar Health Research Institute at Washington Hospital Center and by a research grant from GlaxoSmithKline. The funding and support for the other cohorts contributing to the paper are described in the webappendix.
PMCID: PMC3297116  PMID: 21239051
12.  Common Variants at 10 Genomic Loci Influence Hemoglobin A1C Levels via Glycemic and Nonglycemic Pathways 
Diabetes  2010;59(12):3229-3239.
Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), used to monitor and diagnose diabetes, is influenced by average glycemia over a 2- to 3-month period. Genetic factors affecting expression, turnover, and abnormal glycation of hemoglobin could also be associated with increased levels of HbA1c. We aimed to identify such genetic factors and investigate the extent to which they influence diabetes classification based on HbA1c levels.
We studied associations with HbA1c in up to 46,368 nondiabetic adults of European descent from 23 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and 8 cohorts with de novo genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We combined studies using inverse-variance meta-analysis and tested mediation by glycemia using conditional analyses. We estimated the global effect of HbA1c loci using a multilocus risk score, and used net reclassification to estimate genetic effects on diabetes screening.
Ten loci reached genome-wide significant association with HbA1c, including six new loci near FN3K (lead SNP/P value, rs1046896/P = 1.6 × 10−26), HFE (rs1800562/P = 2.6 × 10−20), TMPRSS6 (rs855791/P = 2.7 × 10−14), ANK1 (rs4737009/P = 6.1 × 10−12), SPTA1 (rs2779116/P = 2.8 × 10−9) and ATP11A/TUBGCP3 (rs7998202/P = 5.2 × 10−9), and four known HbA1c loci: HK1 (rs16926246/P = 3.1 × 10−54), MTNR1B (rs1387153/P = 4.0 × 10−11), GCK (rs1799884/P = 1.5 × 10−20) and G6PC2/ABCB11 (rs552976/P = 8.2 × 10−18). We show that associations with HbA1c are partly a function of hyperglycemia associated with 3 of the 10 loci (GCK, G6PC2 and MTNR1B). The seven nonglycemic loci accounted for a 0.19 (% HbA1c) difference between the extreme 10% tails of the risk score, and would reclassify ∼2% of a general white population screened for diabetes with HbA1c.
GWAS identified 10 genetic loci reproducibly associated with HbA1c. Six are novel and seven map to loci where rarer variants cause hereditary anemias and iron storage disorders. Common variants at these loci likely influence HbA1c levels via erythrocyte biology, and confer a small but detectable reclassification of diabetes diagnosis by HbA1c.
PMCID: PMC2992787  PMID: 20858683
13.  Pathway-Wide Association Study Implicates Multiple Sterol Transport and Metabolism Genes in HDL Cholesterol Regulation 
Pathway-based association methods have been proposed to be an effective approach in identifying disease genes, when single-marker association tests do not have sufficient power. The analysis of quantitative traits may be benefited from these approaches, by sampling from two extreme tails of the distribution. Here we tested a pathway association approach on a small genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 653 subjects with extremely high high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and 784 subjects with low HDL-C levels. We identified 102 genes in the sterol transport and metabolism pathways that collectively associate with HDL-C levels, and replicated these association signals in an independent GWAS. Interestingly, the pathways include 18 genes implicated in previous GWAS on lipid traits, suggesting that genuine HDL-C genes are highly enriched in these pathways. Additionally, multiple biologically relevant loci in the pathways were not detected by previous GWAS, including genes implicated in previous candidate gene association studies (such as LEPR, APOA2, HDLBP, SOAT2), genes that cause Mendelian forms of lipid disorders (such as DHCR24), and genes expressing dyslipidemia phenotypes in knockout mice (such as SOAT1, PON1). Our study suggests that sampling from two extreme tails of a quantitative trait and examining genetic pathways may yield biological insights from smaller samples than are generally required using single-marker analysis in large-scale GWAS. Our results also implicate that functionally related genes work together to regulate complex quantitative traits, and that future large-scale studies may benefit from pathway-association approaches to identify novel pathways regulating HDL-C levels.
PMCID: PMC3268595  PMID: 22303337
GWAS; lipid; HDL-C; pathway analysis; cholesterol; sterol transport; sterol metabolism; genetic association
14.  Characterization of the ZBTB42 gene in humans and mice 
Human Genetics  2010;129(4):433-441.
A 12 kb haplotype upstream of the key signaling protein gene, AKT1, has been associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (Devaney et al. 2010). The region contains the first exon and promoter sequences of AKT1, but also includes the complete transcript unit for a highly conserved yet uncharacterized zinc finger-containing protein (ZBTB42). One of the component SNPs of the 12 kb haplotype metabolic syndrome haplotype changes a conserved amino acid in the predicted ZBTB42 protein, increasing the potential significance of the ZBTB42 transcript unit for contributing to disease risk. Using RT-PCR of human and mouse cells, we verified that the two exon ZBTB42 was expressed and correctly spliced in human skeletal muscle, and murine C2C12 cells. Production of peptide antibodies showed the expected protein in human (47 kD) and mouse (49 kD) immunoblots, and murine tissue distribution showed strongest expression in muscle and ovary. Immunostaining showed nuclear localization of the ZBTB42 protein in human muscle. Confocal imaging analyses of murine muscle showed ZBTB42 distributed in the nucleoplasm, with particular enrichment in nuclei underlying the neuromuscular junctions. The genetic association data of metabolic syndrome, coupled with the molecular characterization of the ZBTB42 transcript unit and encoded protein presented here, suggests that ZBTB42 may be involved in metabolic syndrome phenotypes.
PMCID: PMC3057000  PMID: 21193930
Cytokine  2008;43(1):45-53.
The aims of this study were to examine associations between two SNPs in the human IL-15 gene and three SNPs in the IL-15Rα gene with predictors of metabolic syndrome and phenotypes in muscle, strength, and bone at baseline and in response to resistance training (RT). Subjects were Caucasians who had not performed RT in the previous year and consisted of a strength cohort (n=748), volumetric cohort (n=722), and serum cohort (n=544). Subjects completed 12 weeks of unilateral RT of the non-dominant arm, using their dominant arm as an untrained control. ANCOVA analyses revealed gender-specific associations with: 1) IL-15 SNP (rs1589241) and cholesterol (p=0.04), LDL (p=0.02), the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA; p=0.03), and BMI (p=0.002); 2) IL-15 SNP (rs1057972) and the pre- to post-training absolute difference in 1RM strength (p=0.02), BMI (p=0.008), and fasting glucose (p=0.03); 3) IL-15Rα SNP (rs2296135) and baseline total bone volume (p=0.04) and the pre- to post-training absolute difference in isometric strength (p=0.01); and 4) IL-15Rα SNP (rs2228059) and serum triglycerides (p=0.04), baseline whole muscle volume (p=0.04), baseline cortical bone volume (p=0.04), and baseline muscle quality (p=0.04). All associations were consistent in showing a potential involvement of the IL-15 pathway with muscle and bone phenotypes and predictors of metabolic syndrome.
PMCID: PMC2593832  PMID: 18514540
polymorphisms; cytokines; metabolic syndrome
16.  Large-scale association analyses identifies 13 new susceptibility loci for coronary artery disease 
Schunkert, Heribert | König, Inke R. | Kathiresan, Sekar | Reilly, Muredach P. | Assimes, Themistocles L. | Holm, Hilma | Preuss, Michael | Stewart, Alexandre F. R. | Barbalic, Maja | Gieger, Christian | Absher, Devin | Aherrahrou, Zouhair | Allayee, Hooman | Altshuler, David | Anand, Sonia S. | Andersen, Karl | Anderson, Jeffrey L. | Ardissino, Diego | Ball, Stephen G. | Balmforth, Anthony J. | Barnes, Timothy A. | Becker, Diane M. | Becker, Lewis C. | Berger, Klaus | Bis, Joshua C. | Boekholdt, S. Matthijs | Boerwinkle, Eric | Braund, Peter S. | Brown, Morris J. | Burnett, Mary Susan | Buysschaert, Ian | Carlquist, Cardiogenics, John F. | Chen, Li | Cichon, Sven | Codd, Veryan | Davies, Robert W. | Dedoussis, George | Dehghan, Abbas | Demissie, Serkalem | Devaney, Joseph M. | Do, Ron | Doering, Angela | Eifert, Sandra | El Mokhtari, Nour Eddine | Ellis, Stephen G. | Elosua, Roberto | Engert, James C. | Epstein, Stephen E. | Faire, Ulf de | Fischer, Marcus | Folsom, Aaron R. | Freyer, Jennifer | Gigante, Bruna | Girelli, Domenico | Gretarsdottir, Solveig | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Gulcher, Jeffrey R. | Halperin, Eran | Hammond, Naomi | Hazen, Stanley L. | Hofman, Albert | Horne, Benjamin D. | Illig, Thomas | Iribarren, Carlos | Jones, Gregory T. | Jukema, J.Wouter | Kaiser, Michael A. | Kaplan, Lee M. | Kastelein, John J.P. | Khaw, Kay-Tee | Knowles, Joshua W. | Kolovou, Genovefa | Kong, Augustine | Laaksonen, Reijo | Lambrechts, Diether | Leander, Karin | Lettre, Guillaume | Li, Mingyao | Lieb, Wolfgang | Linsel-Nitschke, Patrick | Loley, Christina | Lotery, Andrew J. | Mannucci, Pier M. | Maouche, Seraya | Martinelli, Nicola | McKeown, Pascal P. | Meisinger, Christa | Meitinger, Thomas | Melander, Olle | Merlini, Pier Angelica | Mooser, Vincent | Morgan, Thomas | Mühleisen, Thomas W. | Muhlestein, Joseph B. | Münzel, Thomas | Musunuru, Kiran | Nahrstaedt, Janja | Nelson, Christopher P. | Nöthen, Markus M. | Olivieri, Oliviero | Patel, Riyaz S. | Patterson, Chris C. | Peters, Annette | Peyvandi, Flora | Qu, Liming | Quyyumi, Arshed A. | Rader, Daniel J. | Rallidis, Loukianos S. | Rice, Catherine | Rosendaal, Frits R. | Rubin, Diana | Salomaa, Veikko | Sampietro, M. Lourdes | Sandhu, Manj S. | Schadt, Eric | Schäfer, Arne | Schillert, Arne | Schreiber, Stefan | Schrezenmeir, Jürgen | Schwartz, Stephen M. | Siscovick, David S. | Sivananthan, Mohan | Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh | Smith, Albert | Smith, Tamara B. | Snoep, Jaapjan D. | Soranzo, Nicole | Spertus, John A. | Stark, Klaus | Stirrups, Kathy | Stoll, Monika | Tang, W. H. Wilson | Tennstedt, Stephanie | Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | Tomaszewski, Maciej | Uitterlinden, Andre G. | van Rij, Andre M. | Voight, Benjamin F. | Wareham, Nick J. | Wells, George A. | Wichmann, H.-Erich | Wild, Philipp S. | Willenborg, Christina | Witteman, Jaqueline C. M. | Wright, Benjamin J. | Ye, Shu | Zeller, Tanja | Ziegler, Andreas | Cambien, Francois | Goodall, Alison H. | Cupples, L. Adrienne | Quertermous, Thomas | März, Winfried | Hengstenberg, Christian | Blankenberg, Stefan | Ouwehand, Willem H. | Hall, Alistair S. | Deloukas, Panos | Thompson, John R. | Stefansson, Kari | Roberts, Robert | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | O’Donnell, Christopher J. | McPherson, Ruth | Erdmann, Jeanette | Samani, Nilesh J.
Nature genetics  2011;43(4):333-338.
We performed a meta-analysis of 14 genome-wide association studies of coronary artery disease (CAD) comprising 22,233 cases and 64,762 controls of European descent, followed by genotyping of top association signals in 60,738 additional individuals. This genomic analysis identified 13 novel loci harboring one or more SNPs that were associated with CAD at P<5×10−8 and confirmed the association of 10 of 12 previously reported CAD loci. The 13 novel loci displayed risk allele frequencies ranging from 0.13 to 0.91 and were associated with a 6 to 17 percent increase in the risk of CAD per allele. Notably, only three of the novel loci displayed significant association with traditional CAD risk factors, while the majority lie in gene regions not previously implicated in the pathogenesis of CAD. Finally, five of the novel CAD risk loci appear to have pleiotropic effects, showing strong association with various other human diseases or traits.
PMCID: PMC3119261  PMID: 21378990
17.  Prospective study of insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3, genetic variants in the IGF1 and IGFBP3 genes and risk of coronary artery disease 
Although experimental studies have suggested that insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and its binding protein IGFBP-3 might have a role in the aetiology of coronary artery disease (CAD), the relevance of circulating IGFs and their binding proteins in the development of CAD in human populations is unclear. We conducted a nested case-control study, with a mean follow-up of six years, within the EPIC-Norfolk cohort to assess the association between circulating levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and risk of CAD in up to 1,013 cases and 2,055 controls matched for age, sex and study enrolment date. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, we found no association between circulating levels of IGF-I or IGFBP-3 and risk of CAD (odds ratio: 0.98 (95% Cl 0.90-1.06) per 1 SD increase in circulating IGF-I; odds ratio: 1.02 (95% Cl 0.94-1.12) for IGFBP-3). We examined associations between tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) at the IGF1 and IGFBP3 loci and circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels in up to 1,133 cases and 2,223 controls and identified three tSNPs (rs1520220, rs3730204, rs2132571) that showed independent association with either circulating IGF-I or IGFBP-3 levels. In an assessment of 31 SNPs spanning the IGF1 or IGFBP3 loci, none were associated with risk of CAD in a meta-analysis that included EPIC-Norfolk and eight additional studies comprising up to 9,319 cases and 19,964 controls. Our results indicate that IGF-I and IGFBP-3 are unlikely to be importantly involved in the aetiology of CAD in human populations.
PMCID: PMC3166154  PMID: 21915365
Epidemiology; Genetics of cardiovascular disease; Risk factors; IGF1; IGFBP3
18.  INSIG2 gene polymorphism is associated with increased subcutaneous fat in women and poor response to resistance training in men 
BMC Medical Genetics  2008;9:117.
A common SNP upstream of the INSIG2 gene, rs7566605 (g.-10,1025G>C, Chr2:118,552,255, NT_022135.15), was reported to be associated with obesity (Body Mass Index, [BMI]) in a genome-wide association scan using the Framingham Heart Study but has not been reproduced in other cohorts. As BMI is a relatively insensitive measure of adiposity that is subject to many confounding variables, we sought to determine the relationship between the INSIG2 SNP and subcutaneous fat volumes measured by MRI in a young adult population.
We genotyped the INSIG2 SNP rs7566605 in college-aged population enrolled in a controlled resistance-training program, (the Functional Polymorphism Associated with Human Muscle Size and Strength, FAMuSS cohort, n = 752 volunteers 18–40 yrs). In this longitudinal study, we examined the effect of the INSIG2 polymorphism on subcutaneous fat and muscle volumes of the upper arm measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after 12 wks of resistance training. Gene/phenotype associations were tested using an analysis of covariance model with age and weight as covariates. Further, the % variation in each phenotype attributable to genotype was determined using hierarchical models and tested with a likelihood ratio test.
Women with a copy of the C allele had higher levels of baseline subcutaneous fat (GG: n = 139; 243473 ± 5713 mm3 vs. GC/CC: n = 181; 268521 ± 5003 mm3; p = 0.0011); but men did not show any such association. Men homozygous for the G ancestral allele showed a loss of subcutaneous fat, while those with one or two copies of the C allele gained a greater percentage of subcutaneous fat with resistance training (GG: n = 103; 1.02% ± 1.74% vs. GC/CC: n = 93; 6.39% ± 1.82%; p = 0.035).
Our results show that the INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism underlies variation in subcutaneous adiposity in young adult women and suppresses the positive effects of resistance training on men. This supports and extends the original finding that there is an association between measures of obesity and INSIG2 rs7566605 and further implicates this polymorphism in fat regulation.
PMCID: PMC2646703  PMID: 19105843

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