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1.  Feeling Blue or Turquoise? Emotional Differentiation in Major Depressive Disorder 
Psychological science  2012;23(11):1410-1416.
Some individuals have very specific and differentiated emotional experiences, such as anger, shame, excitement, and happiness, whereas others have more general affective experiences of pleasure or discomfort that are not as highly differentiated. Considering that individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) have cognitive deficits for negative information, we predicted that people with MDD would have less differentiated negative emotional experiences than would healthy people. To test this hypothesis, we assessed participants' emotional experiences using a 7-day experience-sampling protocol. Depression was assessed using structured clinical interviews and the Beck Depression Inventory-II. As predicted, individuals with MDD had less differentiated emotional experiences than did healthy participants, but only for negative emotions. These differences were above and beyond the effects of emotional intensity and variability.
doi:10.1177/0956797612444903
PMCID: PMC4004625  PMID: 23070307
emotions; depression; happiness; emotional control; individual differences
2.  Interacting with Nature Improves Cognition and Affect for Individuals with Depression 
Journal of Affective Disorders  2012;140(3):300-305.
Background
This study aimed to explore whether walking in nature may be beneficial for individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). Healthy adults demonstrate significant cognitive gains after nature walks, but it was unclear whether those same benefits would be achieved in a depressed sample as walking alone in nature might induce rumination, thereby worsening memory and mood.
Methods
Twenty individuals diagnosed with MDD participated in this study. At baseline, mood and short term memory span were assessed using the PANAS and the backwards digit span (BDS) task, respectively. Participants were then asked to think about an unresolved negative autobiographical event to prime rumination, prior to taking a 50 minute walk in either a natural or urban setting. After the walk, mood and short-term memory span were reassessed. The following week, participants returned to the lab and repeated the entire procedure, but walked in the location not visited in the first session (i.e., a counterbalanced within-subjects design).
Results
Participants exhibited significant increases in memory span after the nature walk relative to the urban walk, p < .001, ηp2= .53 (a large effect-size). Participants also showed increases in mood, but the mood effects did not correlate with the memory effects, suggesting separable mechanisms and replicating previous work.
Limitations
Sample size and participants’ motivation.
Conclusions
These findings extend earlier work demonstrating the cognitive and affective benefits of interacting with nature to individuals with MDD. Therefore, interacting with nature may be useful clinically as a supplement to existing treatments for MDD.
doi:10.1016/j.jad.2012.03.012
PMCID: PMC3393816  PMID: 22464936
Major Depressive Disorder; memory; nature; intervention; mood; attention restoration
3.  Depression, rumination and the default network 
Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been characterized by excessive default-network activation and connectivity with the subgenual cingulate. These hyper-connectivities are often interpreted as reflecting rumination, where MDDs perseverate on negative, self-referential thoughts. However, the relationship between connectivity and rumination has not been established. Furthermore, previous research has not examined how connectivity with the subgenual cingulate differs when individuals are engaged in a task or not. The purpose of the present study was to examine connectivity of the default network specifically in the subgenual cingulate both on- and off-task, and to examine the relationship between connectivity and rumination. Analyses using a seed-based connectivity approach revealed that MDDs show more neural functional connectivity between the posterior-cingulate cortex and the subgenual-cingulate cortex than healthy individuals during rest periods, but not during task engagement. Importantly, these rest-period connectivities correlated with behavioral measures of rumination and brooding, but not reflection.
doi:10.1093/scan/nsq080
PMCID: PMC3190207  PMID: 20855296
depression; rumination; default network; subgenual cingulate; functional magnetic resonance imaging
4.  Gender Specific Disruptions in Emotion Processing in Younger Adults with Depression 
Depression and anxiety  2009;26(2):182-189.
Background
One of the principal theories regarding the biological basis of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) implicates a dysregulation of emotion processing circuitry. Gender differences in how emotions are processed and relative experience with emotion processing might help to explain some of the disparities in the prevalence of MDD between women and men. The current study sought to explore how gender and depression status relate to emotion processing.
Methods
This study employed a 2 (MDD status) × 2 (gender) factorial design to explore differences in classifications of posed facial emotional expressions (N = 151).
Results
For errors, there was an interaction between gender and depression status. Women with MDD made more errors than did non-depressed women and men with MDD, particularly for fearful and sad stimuli (ps < .02), which they were likely to misinterpret as angry (ps < .04). There was also an interaction of diagnosis and gender for response cost for negative stimuli, with significantly greater interference from negative faces present in women with MDD compared with non-depressed women (p = .01). Men with MDD, conversely, performed similarly to control men (p = .61).
Conclusions
These results provide novel and intriguing evidence that depression in younger adults (< 35 years) differentially disrupts emotion processing in women as compared to men. This interaction could be driven by neurobiological and social learning mechanisms, or interactions between them, and may underlie differences in the prevalence of depression in women and men.
doi:10.1002/da.20502
PMCID: PMC3013355  PMID: 18800371
psychiatric disorders; affect perception; sex differences
5.  Anticipation of Affect in Dysthymia: Behavioral and Neurophysiological Indicators 
Biological psychology  2007;77(2):197-204.
Anticipation for future affective events and prediction uncertainty were examined in healthy controls and individuals with dysthymia (DYS) using behavioral responses and the contingent negative variation (CNV) and post-imperative negative variation (PINV) event related potential (ERP) components. Warning stimuli forecasted the valence of subsequently presented adjectives (“+”, positive; “=”, neutral; “-”, negative), and participants indicated whether each adjective would describe them over the next two weeks. Controls expected fewer negative, and individuals with DYS expected fewer positive, adjectives to apply to them. CNV amplitudes were enhanced in controls prior to positive versus other adjectives. Response times and PINV amplitudes were greater following neutral compared to other adjectives, and PINV was larger overall in dysthymics compared to controls. In sum, healthy controls and individuals with DYS exhibit different behavioral and neurophysiological biases in anticipation for future affective events. These results are discussed in the context of cognitive theories of depression.
doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2007.10.007
PMCID: PMC2709790  PMID: 18063468
dysthymia; affective bias; anticipation; event-related potentials

Results 1-5 (5)