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1.  Incidence and Risk Factors of Steroid-induced Diabetes in Patients with Respiratory Disease 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2011;26(2):264-267.
Glucocorticoids are effective for treating several respiratory diseases. However, they can cause hyperglycemia. This study determined the incidence and risk factors of steroidinduced diabetes mellitus (S-DM) in patients treated with glucocorticoid for respiratory diseases. A retrospective study examined patients with respiratory diseases treated with a prednisolone-equivalent glucocorticoid dose exceeding 20 mg/day for at least 4 weeks between January 2003 and December 2008. Patients whose initial random glucose level exceeded 200 mg/dL or who had pre-existing diabetes were excluded. S-DM was defined as a fasting glucose concentration exceeding 126 mg/dL or a random glucose concentration exceeding 200 mg/dL at least twice after beginning steroid treatment. A total of 231 patients with respiratory diseases met the inclusion criteria. Their median age was 55 yr, and 139 were female. The median cumulative prednisolone-equivalent glucocorticoid dose was 4,965 mg, and the median duration of steroid treatment was 193 days. S-DM was diagnosed in 34 (14.7%) of 231 patients. Multivariate logistic regression identified older age (odds ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.09) as a risk factor for S-DM. S-DM is frequent among patients with respiratory diseases treated with glucocorticoid. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of S-DM, especially among elderly patients.
PMCID: PMC3031012  PMID: 21286019
Diabetes; Glucocorticoids; Hyperglycemia; Respiration Disorders; Steroids
2.  Impact of Parenchymal Tuberculosis Sequelae on Mediastinal Lymph Node Staging in Patients with Lung Cancer 
Because tuberculous (TB) involvement of mediastinal lymph nodes (LN) could cause false positive results in nodal staging of lung cancer, we examined the accuracy of nodal staging in lung cancer patients with radiographic sequelae of healed TB. A total of 54 lung cancer patients with radiographic TB sequelae in the lung parenchyma ipsilateral to the resected lung, who had undergone at least ipsilateral 4- and 7-lymph node dissection after both chest computed tomography (CT) and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/CT were included for the analysis. The median age of 54 subjects was 66 yr and 48 were males. Calcified nodules and fibrotic changes were the most common forms of healed parenchymal pulmonary TB. Enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes (short diameter > 1 cm) were identified in 21 patients and positive mediastinal lymph nodes were identified using FDG-PET/CT in 19 patients. The overall sensitivity and specificity for mediastinal node metastasis were 60.0% and 69.2% with CT and 46.7% and 69.2% with FDG-PET/CT, respectively. In conclusion, the accuracy of nodal staging using CT or FDG-PET/CT might be low in lung cancer patients with parenchymal TB sequelae, because of inactive TB lymph nodes without viable TB bacilli.
PMCID: PMC3012852  PMID: 21218032
Latent Tuberculosis; Lung Neoplasms; Mediastinum; Tuberculosis; Lymph Node
3.  Achievements in and Challenges of Tuberculosis Control in South Korea 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2015;21(11):1913-1920.
Despite astounding economic growth and TB control efforts, incidence remains the highest among high-income countries.
After the Korean War (1950–1953), nearly 6.5% of South Korea’s population had active tuberculosis (TB). In response, South Korea implemented the National Tuberculosis Program in 1962. From 1965 to 1995, the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB in South Korea decreased from 940 to 219 cases per 100,000 population. Astounding economic growth might have contributed to this result; however, TB incidence in South Korea remains the highest among high-income countries. The rate of decrease in TB incidence seems to have slowed over the past 15 years. A demographic shift toward an older population, many of whom have latent TB and various concurrent conditions, is challenging TB control efforts in South Korea. The increasing number of immigrants also plays a part in the prolonged battle against TB. A historical review of TB in South Korea provides an opportunity to understand national TB control efforts that are applicable to other parts of the world.
PMCID: PMC4622233  PMID: 26485188
tuberculosis; South Korea; public–private mix; control measures; bacteria; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; demographics
4.  Changes in Diagnostic Methods for Pulmonary Tuberculosis between 2005 and 2013 
Diagnostic methods for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) have recently advanced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in TB diagnostic tests that prompted the initiation of anti-TB treatment over time in South Korea, an industrialized country with an intermediate TB burden.
Patients diagnosed with pulmonary TB in the first halves of 2005 and 2013 at a tertiary referral hospital were included. Diagnostic methods that prompted the initiation of anti-TB treatment were compared between the 2 groups of patients.
A greater proportion of patients were diagnosed with pulmonary TB using bronchoscopy in 2013 than in 2005 (26.7% vs. 6.6%, respectively; p<0.001), while the proportion of patients clinically diagnosed with pulmonary TB was lower in 2013 than in 2005 (24.7% vs. 49.0%, respectively; p<0.001). Additionally, more patients started anti-TB treatment based on positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results for Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in 2013 than in 2005 (47.3% vs. 7.9%, respectively; p<0.001).
The initiation of treatment for pulmonary TB in South Korea has become more frequently based on PCR and the use of bronchoscopic specimens.
PMCID: PMC4499590  PMID: 26175776
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary; Diagnosis; Bronchoscopy; Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
5.  Effect of Prolonged Incubation Time on Results of the QuantiFERON TB Gold In-Tube Assay for Diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis Infection 
Previous reports have shown that the sensitivity of the 6-day lymphocyte stimulation test is much higher than those of commercially available gamma interferon release assays (IGRAs). The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of prolonged incubation on the results of the QuantiFERON TB Gold in-tube (QFT-GIT) assay. Patients aged >20 years with suspected tuberculosis (TB) were recruited prospectively from 1 May 2009 to 31 December 2010. In addition, healthy volunteers with no history of TB treatment were included as controls. For each participant, three sets of the QFT-GIT assay were performed using 24-, 48-, and 72-h incubation tests, and the results were compared. Thirty-seven patients with suspected pulmonary TB and 33 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Of the 37 patients with suspected TB, the QFT-GIT assay results were positive for 28 (75.7%) after a 24-h incubation period. After prolonged incubation, the results differed in four (10.8%) of the 37 patients suspected of having TB. Among 27 patients with culture-confirmed TB, the sensitivities of the QFT-GIT assay after the 24-, 48-, and 72-h incubation tests were 85.2%, 81.5%, and 81.5%, respectively. Among the 33 healthy controls, the QFT-GIT assay results were positive in two (6.1%) after a 24-h incubation period. The results changed for two (6.1%) of the 33 healthy controls after prolonged incubation. The specificities of the QFT-GIT assay after 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation were 93.9%, 87.9%, and 90.9%, respectively. Prolonging the incubation time did not increase the sensitivity of the QFT-GIT assay. The manufacturer-recommended incubation time of 16 to 24 h should be respected because prolonged incubation can cause indeterminate or false-positive results.
PMCID: PMC3889582  PMID: 23825190
6.  18F-FDG Positron-Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Findings of Radiographic Lesions Suggesting Old Healed Tuberculosis 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2014;29(3):386-391.
The presence of radiographic lesions suggesting old healed tuberculosis (TB) is one of the strongest risk factors for the subsequent development of active TB. We elucidated the metabolic activity of radiographic lesions suggesting old healed TB using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT). This cross-sectional study included 63 participants with radiographic lesions suggesting old healed TB and with available 18F-FDG PET/CT scans. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) measured in the lesions, the clinical characteristics, results of the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) were analyzed. The SUVmax in old healed TB was 1.5 or higher among nine (14.3%) participants. Age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.23; 95% CI, 1.03-1.46), history of previous TB (aOR, 60.43; 95% CI, 1.71-2131.65), and extent of the lesions (aOR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.02-1.75) were associated with higher SUVmax. The positive rates for the TST and IGRA were not different between groups with and without increased FDG uptake. Increased FDG uptake on 18F-FDG PET/CT was observed in a subset of patients with radiographic lesions suggesting old healed TB. Given that the factors associated with increased FDG uptake are known risk factors for TB development, the possibility exists that participants with old healed TB lesions with higher SUV on 18F-FDG PET/CT scans might be at higher risk for active TB.
Graphical Abstract
PMCID: PMC3945134  PMID: 24616588
Positron-Emission Tomography; Tomography, X-Ray Computed; Tuberculosis, Pulmonary; Latent Tuberculosis; Interferon-gamma Release Tests
7.  Impact of outdoor air pollution on the incidence of tuberculosis in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea 
Although indoor air pollution is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB), the possible link between outdoor air pollution and TB development has not been examined fully. We assessed the impact of outdoor air pollution on TB development in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea.
The mean concentrations of ambient particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 µm (PM10), O3, CO, NO2, and SO2 levels in Seoul, between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2006, were determined. Furthermore, their association with the risk of developing TB after adjusting for socioeconomic status, between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2006, was investigated.
Between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2006, a total of 41,185 TB cases were reported in Seoul. Concentrations of PM10, O3, CO, and NO2 were not associated with TB incidence in males or females. However, the interquartile increase in SO2 concentration was associated with a 7% increment in TB incidence (relative risk [RR], 1.07; 95% credible interval [CrI], 1.03 to 1.12) in males but not in females (RR, 1.02; 95% CrI, 0.98 to 1.07).
Long-term exposure to ambient SO2 increased the risk of TB in males.
PMCID: PMC3956988  PMID: 24648801
Air pollution; Tuberculosis; Sulfur dioxide
8.  Clinical characteristics and treatment responses of patients who developed tuberculosis following use of a tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor 
Individuals being treated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors are at increased risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). We determined the clinical characteristics and treatment response of patients who developed TB after using TNF-α inhibitors.
Patients with TB detected within 12 months of the initiation of TNF-α inhibitor treatment were included, if seen from January 1, 2000 to August 31, 2011. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records, results of bacteriological examinations, and radiographs of the included patients and the response to anti-TB treatment.
We indentified seven cases of TB in 457 patients treated with TNF-α inhibitors during the study period. TB developed a median of 123 days (range, 48 to 331) after the first dose of TNF-α inhibitor. Pulmonary TB, including TB pleuritis, was diagnosed in three patients and extrapulmonary TB in four. Favorable treatment outcomes were achieved in six of seven patients.
Among the TNF-α inhibitor users who contracted TB, extrapulmonary sites were common and the treatment response was satisfactory.
PMCID: PMC3604607  PMID: 23525649
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha; Tuberculosis; Mycobacterium
9.  Positive Tuberculin Skin Test or Interferon-Gamma Release Assay in Patients with Radiographic Lesion Suggesting Old Healed Tuberculosis 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2012;27(7):761-766.
Radiographic lesions suggesting old healed tuberculosis (TB) is considered a risk factor for the subsequent development of active TB. The aim of this study was to estimate the positive rates of tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) in persons with old healed TB. Participants with lesions suggesting old healed TB on chest images and controls without such lesions were prospectively enrolled between January 1, 2010, and January 31, 2011. TST and the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-GIT) were performed. In total, 193 participants with old healed TB and 126 controls were recruited. The rates of positive TST and QFT-GIT among patients with old healed TB were 54.6% and 77.7%, respectively. The rates of positive TST and QFT-GIT among patients without old healed TB were 38.9% and 61.9%. Sixteen percent of participants with old healed TB showed negative results by both TST and QFT-GIT. The positive rate of TST waned among participants with old healed TB who were older than 60 yr, whereas QFT-GIT positivity was unaffected by age. The positive rates of TST and IGRA among participants with radiographic lesions suggesting old healed TB was higher than without those lesions. In addition, IGRA may be more accurate than TST for the detection of latent TB infection, especially in populations of individuals older than 60 yr.
PMCID: PMC3390724  PMID: 22787371
Radiology and Other Imaging; Tuberculosis; Pulmonary
10.  Bacterial Yield from Quantitative Cultures of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Patients with Pneumonia on Antimicrobial Therapy 
Early diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial choice are crucial when managing pneumonia patients, and quantitative culture of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is considered a useful method for identifying pneumonia pathogens. We evaluated the quantitative yield of BAL fluid bacterial cultures in patients being treated with antimicrobials and attempted to identify factors predictive of positive BAL cultures.
Patients over 18 years old and whose BAL fluid was subjected to quantitative culture to identify the organism causative of pneumonia between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2009, were included. We reviewed the results of BAL fluid bacterial cultures and the clinical records, laboratory tests, and radiographic findings of the patients.
BAL was performed on 340 patients with pneumonia. A positive BAL culture, defined as isolation of more than 104 colony forming units/mL bacteria, was documented in 18 (5.29%) patients. Of these, 9 bacteria isolated from 10 patients were classified as probable pathogens. The most frequently isolated bacteria were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. No independent predictive factor for positive BAL cultures was identified.
The yield of quantitative BAL fluid bacterial culture in patients already on antimicrobials was low. Clinicians should be cautious when performing a BAL culture in patients with pneumonia who are already on antimicrobials.
PMCID: PMC3372799  PMID: 22707887
Bronchoalveolar lavage; Pneumonia; Antimicrobials
11.  Risk Factors of Postoperative Pneumonia after Lung Cancer Surgery 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2011;26(8):979-984.
The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors of postoperative pneumonia (POP) after lung cancer surgery. The 417 lung cancer patients who underwent surgical resection in a tertiary referral hospital were included. Clinical, radiological and laboratory data were reviewed retrospectively. Male and female ratio was 267:150 (median age, 65 yr). The incidence of POP was 6.2% (26 of 417) and in-hospital mortality was 27% among those patients. By univariate analysis, age ≥ 70 yr (P < 0.001), male sex (P = 0.002), ever-smoker (P < 0.001), anesthesia time ≥ 4.2 hr (P = 0.043), intraoperative red blood cells (RBC) transfusion (P = 0.004), presence of postoperative complications other than pneumonia (P = 0.020), forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) < 70% (P = 0.002), diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide < 80% predicted (P = 0.015) and preoperative levels of serum C-reactive protein ≥ 0.15 mg/dL (P = 0.001) were related with risk of POP. Multivariate analysis showed that age ≥ 70 yr (OR = 3.563, P = 0.014), intraoperative RBC transfusion (OR = 4.669, P = 0.033), the presence of postoperative complications other than pneumonia (OR = 3.032, P = 0.046), and FEV1/FVC < 70% (OR = 3.898, P = 0.011) were independent risk factors of POP. In conclusion, patients with advanced age, intraoperative RBC transfusion, postoperative complications other than pneumonia and a decreased FEV1/FVC ratio have a higher risk for pneumonia after lung cancer surgery.
PMCID: PMC3154353  PMID: 21860545
Complications; Lung Neoplasms; Pneumonia; Risk Factors; Surgery
12.  Impact of Visceral Adiposity Measured by Abdominal Computed Tomography on Pulmonary Function 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2011;26(6):771-777.
Although an inverse relationship between abdominal adiposity and pulmonary function has been suggested, direct measurement of abdominal adipose tissue has rarely been attempted. Our object is to determine the impact of abdominal adiposity on pulmonary function by directly measuring abdominal adipose tissue with abdominal computed tomography (CT). In this cross-sectional study, we included never-smokers between the ages of 18 and 85 yr, who had undergone spirometry and abdominal adipose tissue analysis with CT scans during November 1, 2005 to October 31, 2009 as part of the comprehensive health examination. Among a total of 3,469 participants, 890 (25.7%) were male. The mean body mass index and waist circumference among males and females were 24.6 kg/m2 and 87.8 cm and 23.0 kg/m2 and 83.0 cm, respectively. Although total adipose tissue (TAT) of the abdomen in males (269.1 cm2) was similar to that in females (273.6 cm2), the ratio of visceral adipose tissue (VAT)/subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) was different; 0.99 in males and 0.50 in females. In males, TAT, SAT, and VAT were inversely associated with the absolute value of forced vital capacity (FVC), and TAT and VAT were inversely associated with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). However, in females, TAT and VAT, but not SAT, were inversely associated with absolute FVC and FEV1 values. In conclusion, the amount of abdominal adipose tissue directly measured using CT is inversely associated with lung function.
PMCID: PMC3102871  PMID: 21655063
Obesity; Intra-Abdominal Fat; Pulmonary function; CT scan
13.  Retrospective Comparison of Levofloxacin and Moxifloxacin on Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Treatment Outcomes 
To compare the effect of levofloxacin and moxifloxacin on treatment outcomes among patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB).
A retrospective analysis of 171 patients with MDR-TB receiving either levofloxacin or moxifloxacin was performed. Treatment responses were categorized into treatment success (cured and treatment completed) or adverse treatment outcome (death, failure, and relapsed).
The median age of the patients was 42.0 years. Approximately 56% of the patients were male. Seventeen patients had extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, and 20 had a surgical resection. A total of 123 patients (71.9%) received levofloxacin for a median 594 days, and 48 patients (28.1%) received moxifloxacin for a median 673 days. Other baseline demographic, clinical, and radiographic characteristics were similar between the two groups. The moxifloxacin group had a significantly higher number of resistant drugs (p < 0.001) and a higher incidence of resistance to ofloxacin (p = 0.005) in the drug sensitivity test. The treatment success rate was 78.9% in the levofloxacin group and 83.3% in the moxifloxacin group (p = 0.42). Adverse reactions occurred at similar rates in the groups (p = 0.44). Patients in the moxifloxacin group were not more likely to have treatment success than those in the levofloxacin group (adjusted odds ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.24 to 2.43; p = 0.65).
Both levofloxacin and moxifloxacin showed equivalent efficacy for treating MDR-TB.
PMCID: PMC3110847  PMID: 21716591
Levofloxacin; Moxifloxacin; Tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant; Quinolones; Tuberculosis
14.  Sequential Bilateral Lung Resection in a Patient with Mycobacterium Abscessus Lung Disease Refractory to Medical Treatment 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2009;51(1):141-144.
Mycobacterium abscessus (M. abscessus) is the second most common nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in South Korea. Nevertheless, the diagnosis and treatment of M. abscessus lung disease can be problematic. Surgical resection has been tried for patients with localized M. abscessus lung disease refractory to medical treatment. Here, we report on a 25-year-old woman with M. abscessus lung disease who had been diagnosed and treated three times for pulmonary tuberculosis. She was initially diagnosed as having M. intracellulare lung disease; however, M. abscessus was isolated after several months of medication. She had multiple bronchiectatic and cavitary lesions bilaterally, and M. abscessus was repeatedly isolated from her sputa despite prolonged treatment with clarithromycin, ethambutol, moxifloxacin, and amikacin. She improved only after sequential bilateral lung resection. Based on the experience with this patient, we suggest that, if medical treatment fails, surgical resection of a diseased lung should be considered even in patients with bilateral lesions.
PMCID: PMC2799965  PMID: 20046529
Atypical mycobacteria; surgery; therapeutics
15.  Prevalence and Its Predictors of Extrapulmonary Involvement in Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;24(2):237-241.
Extrapulmonary organ involvement in human immunodefiaency virus (HIV)-infected patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is reported to be 26%, however, the clinical predictors of extrapulmonary involvement in pulmonary TB patients has not been reported yet. We tried to determine the clinical predictors of presence of extrapulmonary involvement in patients with pulmonary TB. Cross-sectional study was performed including all adult patients with culture-proven pulmonary TB diagnosed between January 1, 2004 and July 30, 2006, at a tertiary referral hospital in South Korea. The presence of extra-pulmonary TB involvement was diagnosed based on bacteriological, pathological, or clinical evidence. Among 320 patients with a culture-proven pulmonary TB, 40 had extrapulmonary involvement. Patients with bilateral lung involvement were more likely to have extrapulmonary involvement, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 4.21 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.82-9.72), while patients older than 60 yr (adjusted OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.08-0.89), patients with cavitary lesions (adjusted OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16-0.84), and with higher levels of serum albumin (adjusted OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.25-0.78) had less frequent involvement. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of extrapulmonary involvement in TB patients with bilateral lung involvement without cavity formation or lower levels of serum albumin.
PMCID: PMC2672122  PMID: 19399264
Tuberculosis; Tuberculosis, Miliary; Diagnosis
16.  The Incidence and Clinical Implication of Sputum with Positive Acid-Fast Bacilli Smear But Negative in Mycobacterial Culture in a Tertiary Referral Hospital in South Korea 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2008;23(5):767-771.
Although it is not rare to find sputum that is positive acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear but subsequent culture fails to isolate mycobacteria in clinical practice, the incidence and clinical implication of those sputa from new patients has not been clearly elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and clinical implication of sputum with positive AFB smear but negative in mycobacterial culture. All sputa that were positive AFB smear requested during diagnostic work up for new patients visiting Seoul National University Hospital from 1 January 2005 through 31 December 2006 were included. Sputa producing a positive AFB smear but negative mycobacterial culture were classified into one of four categories: laboratory failure to isolate mycobacteria, false positive AFB smear, pathogen may show a positive AFB smear other than mycobacteria, and indeterminate results. Out of 447 sputa with a positive AFB smear, 29 (6.5%) failed to culture any organism. Among these 29 sputa, 18 were caused by laboratory failure to isolate mycobacteria, six were false positive smears, and five indeterminate. Although most sputum with a positive AFB smear but negative culture could be classified as a laboratory failure, clinicians should consider the possibility of false positive AFB smear.
PMCID: PMC2580011  PMID: 18955779
Tuberculosis; Diagnosis; Hospital Laboratories, Hospital
17.  Lack of Association between Matrix Metalloproteinase 8 Promoter Polymorphism and Bronchiectasis in Koreans 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2007;22(4):667-671.
The observation that human matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 is over-expressed in ectatic bronchi in patients with bronchiectasis suggests that polymorphisms altering the expression of MMP-8 may contribute to the susceptibility to development of bronchiectasis. We evaluated the association between the presence of bronchiectasis in a Korean population and two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (-799C/T and -381A/G) on the promoter region of the MMP-8 gene that are reported to alter the promoter activity and thereby the gene expression. Genotyping through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequent automatic sequencing was done in 167 patients with bronchiectasis and their age-, sex-matched healthy controls to reveal that only -799C/T is polymorphic among Koreans. In the patient group with bronchiectasis, the frequency of -799C/C, C/T, and T/T genotypes were 41.9%, 49.7%, and 8.4%, respectively. A similar distribution was observed in the control group: C/C (49.7%), C/T (43.1%), and T/T (7.2%) (p=0.36). In subgroup analysis, no significant difference was observed among the patients according to; the extent of disease (p=0.76), colonization of microorganisms (p=0.56), or association of mycobacteria (p=0.17). From these results, we conclude that -799C/T on the promoter region of MMP-8 lacks association with development of bronchiectasis in Koreans.
PMCID: PMC2693817  PMID: 17728507
Bronchiectasis; Genetic Predisposition to Disease; Koreans; Matrix-metalloproteinase; Neutrophil Collagenase; Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
18.  The Interval Between Initiation of Anti-tuberculosis Treatment in Patients with Culture-positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Receipt of Drug-susceptibility Test Results 
Although mycobacterial culture and the subsequent drug-susceptibility test (DST) for anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs take several months to complete using solid media, there are no reports on the turnaround times of these tests under clinical conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the interval between initiation of anti-TB treatment and receipt of DST requested at an outpatient clinic. We prospectively enrolled patients with culture-positive pulmonary TB at Seoul National University Hospital from September 2002 to December 2004. Patients were followed up monthly. Mycobacterial cultures were done using Ogawa media at Seoul National University Hospital. DST were performed at the Korean Institute of Tuberculosis. Of the 104 patients enrolled, 54 were male. The median age was 41 yr. The median interval from initiation of anti-TB treatment to receipt of mycobacterial culture results by clinicians was 37 days (range, 0-89 days). The median interval from initiation of treatment to confirmation of DST by requesting clinicians was 80.5 days (range, 28-145 days). Clinicians only received the results of DST more than two months after initiation of treatment when they followed up patients monthly and mycobacterial culture was performed using solid media.
PMCID: PMC2693564  PMID: 17297247
Tuberculosis; Microbial Sensitivity Tests; Treatment
19.  The Prevalence and Evolution of Anemia Associated with Tuberculosis 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2006;21(6):1028-1032.
Tuberculosis (TB) may produce abnormalities in the peripheral blood, including anemia. However, the evolution of TB-associated anemia with short-term combination anti-TB chemotherapy has not been well elucidated. The aim of this study was to characterize TB-associated anemia by clarifying its prevalence, characteristics, and evolution, through involving large numbers of patients with TB. The medical records of adult patients with TB diagnosed between June 2000 and May 2001 were reviewed. Among 880 patients with TB, 281 (31.9%) had anemia on diagnosis of TB, however, the hemoglobin concentration was less than 10 g/dL in only 45 patients (5.0%). Anemia was more frequently associated with the female and old age. Good treatment response, young age (≤65 yr-old) and initial high hemoglobin were the predictive factor for resolution of anemia. In 202 patients with anemia (71.9%), anemia was normocytic and normochromic. During or after anti-TB treatment, anemia was resolved in 175 (64.6%) out of 271 patients without iron intake. The mean duration of resolution from the initiation of anti-TB treatment was 118.8±113.2 days. In conclusion, anemia is a common hematological abnormality in patients with TB and close observation is sufficient for patients with TB-associated anemia, because TB-associated anemia is usually mild and resolves with anti-TB treatment.
PMCID: PMC2721923  PMID: 17179681
Tuberculosis; Anemia; Treatment; Treatment Outcome
20.  Bleeding complications in critically ill patients with liver cirrhosis 
Patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) are at risk for critical events leading to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission. Coagulopathy in cirrhotic patients is complex and can lead to bleeding as well as thrombosis. The aim of this study was to investigate bleeding complications in critically ill patients with LC admitted to a medical ICU (MICU).
All adult patients admitted to our MICU with a diagnosis of LC from January 2006 to December 2012 were retrospectively assessed. Patients with major bleeding at the time of MICU admission were excluded from the analysis.
A total of 205 patients were included in the analysis. The median patient age was 62 years, and 69.3% of the patients were male. The most common reason for MICU admission was acute respiratory failure (45.4%), followed by sepsis (27.3%). Major bleeding occurred in 25 patients (12.2%). The gastrointestinal tract was the most common site of bleeding (64%), followed by the respiratory tract (20%). In a multivariate analysis, a low platelet count at MICU admission (odds ratio [OR], 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97 to 0.99) and sepsis (OR, 8.35; 95% CI, 1.04 to 67.05) were independent risk factors for major bleeding. The ICU fatality rate was significantly greater among patients with major bleeding (84.0% vs. 58.9%, respectively; p = 0.015).
Major bleeding occurred in 12.2% of critically ill cirrhotic patients admitted to the MICU. A low platelet count at MICU admission and sepsis were associated with an increased risk of major bleeding during the MICU stay. Further study is needed to better understand hemostasis in critically ill patients with LC.
PMCID: PMC4773709  PMID: 26805633
Liver cirrhosis; Intensive care unit; Hemorrhage; Risk factors
21.  Impact of GOLD groups of chronic pulmonary obstructive disease on surgical complications 
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with increased postoperative complications. Recently, the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classified COPD patients into four groups based on spirometry results and the severity of symptoms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of GOLD groups on postoperative complications.
Patients and methods
We reviewed the medical records of COPD patients who underwent preoperative spirometry between April and August 2013 at a tertiary hospital in Korea. We divided the patients into GOLD groups according to the results of spirometry and self-administered questionnaires that assessed the symptom severity and exacerbation history. GOLD groups, demographic characteristics, and operative conditions were analyzed.
Among a total of 405 COPD patients, 70 (17.3%) patients experienced various postoperative complications, including infection, wound, or pulmonary complications. Thoracic surgery, upper abdominal surgery, general anesthesia, large estimated blood loss during surgery, and longer anesthesia time were significant risk factors for postoperative complications. Patients in high-risk group (GOLD groups C or D) had an increased risk of postoperative complications compared to those in low-risk group (GOLD groups A or B).
COPD patients in GOLD groups representing a high exacerbation risk have an increased risk of postoperative complications compared to those with low risk.
PMCID: PMC4755694  PMID: 26929613
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; dyspnea; postoperative complications; risk assessment; spirometry
22.  Age-related annual decline of lung function in patients with COPD 
According to the Fletcher–Peto curve, rate of decline in forced expiratory volume in 1-second (FEV1) accelerates as age increases. However, recent studies have not demonstrated that the rate of FEV1 decline accelerates with age among COPD patients. The objective of the study is to evaluate annual rate of FEV1 decline as age increases among COPD patients.
In this retrospective cohort study, we enrolled COPD patients who were followed up at two tertiary care university hospitals from January 2000 to August 2013. COPD was defined as post-bronchodilator (BD) FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) of <0.7. All participants had more than two spirometries, including BD response. Age groups were categorized as follows: below versus above median age or four quartiles.
A total of 518 participants (94.2% male; median age, 67 years; range, 42–90 years) were included. Mean absolute and predictive values of post-BD FEV1 were 1.57±0.62 L and 52.53%±18.29%, respectively. Distribution of Global initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease groups did not show statistical differences between age groups categorized by two different criteria. After grouping the population by age quartiles, the rate of FEV1 decline was faster among older patients than younger ones whether expressed as absolute value (−10.60±5.57 mL/year, −15.84±6.01 mL/year, −18.63±5.53 mL/year, 32.94±6.01 mL/year, respectively; P=0.048) or predicted value (−0.34%±0.19%/year, −0.53%±0.21%/year, −0.62%±0.19%/year, −1.26%±0.21%/year, respectively, P=0.010).
As suggested conceptually by the Fletcher−Peto curve, annual FEV1 decline among COPD patients is accelerated among older patients than younger ones.
PMCID: PMC4699592  PMID: 26766907
age; chronic obstructive lung disease; respiratory function tests
23.  Healthcare utilisation by pregnant patients with asthma in South Korea: a cohort study using nationwide claims data 
BMJ Open  2015;5(11):e008416.
Few nationwide population-based studies have examined the burden of asthma during pregnancy. Here, we investigated the burden and medical treatment of asthma during pregnancy requiring healthcare utilisation in South Korea.
Cohort study.
Nationwide insurance claims database.
A total of 1 306 281 pregnant women who delivered in South Korea in 2009–2011.
The prevalence and exacerbation rates of asthma requiring healthcare utilisation, and the prescription of antiasthmatic drugs during pregnancy.
The prevalence of asthma requiring healthcare utilisation was 0.43% among pregnant women. Among those with asthma requiring healthcare utilisation, 6.9% were hospitalised and treated with systemic steroids and short-acting β2-agonists during pregnancy. Oral drugs were prescribed less during the third trimester than during the first trimester (all p values for trends were <0.001). A significant number of patients with asthma were likely to stop taking antiasthmatic drugs after becoming pregnant.
The prevalence of asthma requiring healthcare utilisation during pregnancy was not very high. However, a significant number of women were likely to stop taking antiasthmatic drugs, and those who did tended to experience exacerbations.
PMCID: PMC4636627  PMID: 26546138
EPIDEMIOLOGY; pregnancy; inhaled respiratory drugs
24.  Clinical manifestations of pneumonia according to the causative organism in patients in the intensive care unit 
Whether the causative organism influences the clinical course of pneumonia in the intensive care unit (ICU) is controversial. We assessed the clinical manifestations and prognosis of pneumonia according to the causative pathogens in patients in a medical ICU.
A retrospective observational study was performed in a medical ICU. Among 242 patients who were admitted to the ICU, 103 who were treated for pneumonia were analyzed.
The causative pathogen was identified in 50 patients (49.0%); 22 patients (21.6%) had multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. The distribution of causative micro-organisms was Staphylococcus aureus (20%), Pseudomonas species (16%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (14%), and Acinetobacter baumannii (12%). No significant difference in ICU mortality rate, duration of ICU stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, or frequencies of re-intubation and tracheostomy were detected based on the identification of any pathogen. In sub-analyses according to the pneumonia classification, the number of pathogens identified did not differ between pneumonia types, and a higher incidence of identified MDR pathogens was detected in the hospital-acquired pneumonia group than in the community-acquired or healthcare- acquired pneumonia groups. However, the clinical outcomes of pneumonia according to identification status and type of pathogen did not differ significantly between the groups.
Neither the causative micro-organism nor the existence of MDR pathogens in critically ill patients with pneumonia was associated with the clinical outcome of pneumonia, including ICU mortality. This result was consistent regardless of the pneumonia classification.
PMCID: PMC4642012  PMID: 26552458
Pneumonia; Pathogenicity; Drug resistance, multiple; Intensive care units
25.  Effect of tiotropium on lung function decline in early-stage of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: propensity score-matched analysis of real-world data 
Tiotropium failed to slow the annual rate of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with <70% predicted FEV1. However, the rate of FEV1 decline is known to be faster at early stages, which suggests that the effects of tiotropium may be more prominent in early-stage of COPD patients. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that tiotropium modifies the rate of FEV1 decline in COPD patients with an FEV1≥70%.
We retrospectively reviewed the records of COPD patients diagnosed between January 1, 2004, and July 31, 2012, at Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, and Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center. The inclusion criteria were as follows: age ≥40 years, postbron-chodilator (BD) FEV1≥70% of predicted and FEV1/FVC (forced vital capacity) <0.70, and spirometry more than two times at certain times of the year. Conversely, the exclusion criteria were as follows: asthma, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, pulmonary resection, or long-term use of a short-acting muscarinic antagonist. The annual lung function decline in patients using tiotropium was compared with that in patients not using the drug.
Of the 587 patients enrolled in the study, 257 took tiotropium. Following propensity score matching, 404 patients were included in the analysis. The mean annual rate of post-BD FEV1 decline was 23.9 (tiotropium) and 22.5 (control) mL/yr (P=0.86); corresponding pre-BD values were 30.4 and 21.9 mL/yr (P=0.31), respectively. Mean annual rate of post-BD FVC decline was 55.1 (tiotropium) and 43.5 (control) mL/yr (P=0.33); corresponding pre-BD values were 37.1 and 33.3 mL/yr (P=0.13).
Therefore, tiotropium does not reduce the rate of lung function decline in COPD patients with FEV1≥70%.
PMCID: PMC4610709  PMID: 26508848
tiotropium; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; lung function decline

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