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1.  Boning up on autophagy 
Autophagy  2013;10(1):7-19.
From an evolutionary perspective, the major function of bone is to provide stable sites for muscle attachment and affording protection of vital organs, especially the heart and lungs (ribs) and spinal cord (vertebrae and intervertebral discs). However, bone has a considerable number of other functions: serving as a store for mineral ions, providing a site for blood cell synthesis and participating in a complex system-wide endocrine system. Not surprisingly, bone and cartilage cell homeostasis is tightly controlled, as is the maintenance of tissue structure and mass. While a great deal of new information is accruing concerning skeletal cell homeostasis, one relatively new observation is that the cells of bone (osteoclasts osteoblasts and osteocytes) and cartilage (chondrocytes) exhibit autophagy. The focus of this review is to examine the significance of this process in terms of the functional demands of the skeleton in health and during growth and to provide evidence that dysregulation of the autophagic response is involved in the pathogenesis of diseases of bone (Paget disease of bone) and cartilage (osteoarthritis and the mucopolysaccharidoses). Delineation of molecular changes in the autophagic process is uncovering new approaches for the treatment of diseases that affect the axial and appendicular skeleton.
doi:10.4161/auto.26679
PMCID: PMC4028324  PMID: 24225636
bone; cartilage; growth plate; autophagy; remodeling; osteoarthritis; Paget disease of bone; osteoclasts; chondrocytes; stem cells; mucopolysaccharidosis
2.  MAP1B Interaction with the FW Domain of the Autophagic Receptor Nbr1 Facilitates Its Association to the Microtubule Network 
Selective autophagy is a process whereby specific targeted cargo proteins, aggregates, or organelles are sequestered into double-membrane-bound phagophores before fusion with the lysosome for protein degradation. It has been demonstrated that the microtubule network is important for the formation and movement of autophagosomes. Nbr1 is a selective cargo receptor that through its interaction with LC3 recruits ubiquitinated proteins for autophagic degradation. This study demonstrates an interaction between the evolutionarily conserved FW domain of Nbr1 with the microtubule-associated protein MAP1B. Upon autophagy induction, MAP1B localisation is focused into discrete vesicles with Nbr1. This colocalisation is dependent upon an intact microtubule network as depolymerisation by nocodazole treatment abolishes starvation-induced MAP1B recruitment to these vesicles. MAP1B is not recruited to autophagosomes for protein degradation as blockage of lysosomal acidification does not result in significant increased MAP1B protein levels. However, the protein levels of phosphorylated MAP1B are significantly increased upon blockage of autophagic degradation. This is the first evidence that links the ubiquitin receptor Nbr1, which shuttles ubiquitinated proteins to be degraded by autophagy, to the microtubule network.
doi:10.1155/2012/208014
PMCID: PMC3357945  PMID: 22654911
3.  Chromosome analysis in childhood cancer survivors and their offspring—No evidence for radiotherapy-induced persistent genomic instability 
Mutation research  2005;583(2):198-206.
Suggestions that the induction of genomic instability could play a role in radiation-induced carcinogenesis and heritable disease prompted the investigation of chromosome instability in relation to radiotherapy for childhood cancer. Chromosome analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes at their first in vitro division was undertaken on 25 adult survivors of childhood cancer treated with radiation, 26 partners who acted as the non-irradiated control group and 43 offspring. A statistically significant increase in the frequency of dicentrics in the cancer survivor group compared with the partner control group was attributed to the residual effect of past radiation therapy. However, chromatid aberrations plus chromosome gaps, the aberrations most associated with persistent instability, were not increased. Therefore, there was no evidence that irradiation of the bone marrow had resulted in instability being transmitted to descendant cells. Frequencies of all aberration categories were significantly lower in the offspring group, compared to the partner group, apart from dicentrics for which the decrease did not reach statistical significance. The lower frequencies in the offspring provide no indication of transmissible instability being passed through the germline to the somatic cells of the offspring. Thus, in this study, genomic instability was not associated with radiotherapy in those who had received such treatment, nor was it found to be a transgenerational radiation effect.
doi:10.1016/j.mrgentox.2005.03.007
PMCID: PMC2754217  PMID: 15914077
Chromosome aberrations; Genomic instability; Radiotherapy; Carcinogenesis
4.  International study of factors affecting human chromosome translocations 
Mutation research  2008;652(2):112-121.
Chromosome translocations in peripheral blood lymphocytes of normal, healthy humans increase with age, but the effects of gender, race, and cigarette smoking on background translocation yields have not been examined systematically. Further, the shape of the relationship between age and translocation frequency (TF) has not been definitively determined. We collected existing data from sixteen laboratories in North America, Europe, and Asia on TFs measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes by fluorescence in situ hybridization whole chromosome painting among 1933 individuals. In Poisson regression models, age, ranging from newborns (cord blood) to 85 years, was strongly associated with TF and this relationship showed significant upward curvature at older ages vs. a linear relationship (p <0.001). Ever smokers had significantly higher TFs than non-smokers (rate ratio (RR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09–1.30) and smoking modified the effect of age on TFs with a steeper age-related increase among ever smokers compared to non-smokers (p<0.001). TFs did not differ by gender. Interpreting an independent effect of race was difficult owing to laboratory variation. Our study is three times larger than any pooled effort to date, confirming a suspected curvilinear relationship of TF with age. The significant effect of cigarette smoking has not been observed with previous pooled studies of TF in humans. Our data provide stable estimates of background TF by age, gender, race, and smoking status and suggest an acceleration of chromosome damage above age 60 and among those with a history of smoking cigarettes.
doi:10.1016/j.mrgentox.2008.01.005
PMCID: PMC2696320  PMID: 18337160
chromosome translocations; background frequency; controls; fluorescence in situ hybridization
5.  A Transfected Sialyltransferase That Is Elevated in Breast Cancer and Localizes to the medial/trans-Golgi Apparatus Inhibits the Development of core-2–based O-Glycans 
The Journal of Cell Biology  1997;137(6):1229-1241.
The α2,3 sialyltransferase, α2,3 SAT (O), catalyzes the transfer of sialic acid to Galβ1,3 N-acetyld-galactosamine (GalNAc) (core-1) in mucin type O-glycosylation, and thus terminates chain extension. A Core-2 branch can also be formed from core-1 by the core-2 β1,6 N-acetyl-d-glucosamine transferase (β1,6 GlcNAc T) that leads to chain extension. Increased levels of the α2,3 SAT (O) and decreased levels of the core-2 β1,6 GlcNAc T are seen in breast cancer cells and correlate with differences in the structure of the O-glycans synthesized (Brockhausen et al., 1995; Lloyd et al., 1996). Since in mucin type O-glycosylation sugars are added individually and sequentially in the Golgi apparatus, the position of the transferases, as well as their activity, can determine the final structure of the O-glycans synthesized. A cDNA coding for the human α2,3 SAT (O) tagged with an immunoreactive epitope from the myc gene has been used to map the position of the glycosyltransferase in nontumorigenic (MTSV1-7) and malignant (T47D) breast epithelial cell lines. Transfectants were analyzed for expression of the enzyme at the level of message and protein, as well as for enzymic activity. In T47D cells, which do not express core-2 β1,6 GlcNAc T, the increased activity of the sialyltransferase correlated with increased sialylation of core-1 O-glycans on the epithelial mucin MUC1. Furthermore, in MTSV1-7 cells, which do express core-2 β1,6 GlcNAc T, an increase in sialylated core-1 structures is accompanied by a reduction in the ratio of GlcNAc: GalNAc in the O-glycans attached to MUC1, implying a decrease in branching. Using quantitative immunoelectron microscopy, the sialyltransferase was mapped to the medial- and trans-Golgi cisternae, with some being present in the TGN. The data represent the first fine mapping of a sialyltransferase specifically active in O-glycosylation and demonstrate that the structure of O-glycans synthesized by a cell can be manipulated by transfecting with recombinant glycosyltransferases.
PMCID: PMC2132526  PMID: 9182658

Results 1-5 (5)