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1.  Karyopathological Traits of Thyrocytes and Exposure to Radioiodines in Belarusian Children and Adolescents following the Accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant 
Radiation and environmental biophysics  2012;51(2):10.1007/s00411-012-0407-z.
The Belarus-American (BelAm) Thyroid Study cohort consists of persons 0–18 years of age at the time of exposure to radioiodines from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident who have undergone serial thyroid screenings with referral for fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) using standardized criteria. We investigated thyrocyte nuclear abnormalities in cytological samples from FNABs in 50 BelAm subjects with thyroid nodules and 43 control patients from Leningrad, Russia, unexposed to Chernobyl fallout. Nuclear abnormalities such as internuclear chromosome bridges and derivative nuclei with broken bridges (i.e., “tailed” nuclei), formed from dicentric and ring chromosomes, may be cellular markers of radiation exposure. In the exposed BelAm cohort, thyrocytes with bridges were present in 80% of subjects with single-nodular goiters compared with 27% of unexposed controls. The average frequency of thyrocytes with bridges was also significantly higher in the BelAm subjects than in controls as was the mean frequency of thyrocytes with tailed nuclei. In the case of multi-nodular goiters, thyrocytes with bridges were present in 75.0% of exposed BelAm patients compared with 16.7% of unexposed controls. Thyrocytes with tailed nuclei were observed in all of the BelAm subjects but in only 35% of controls, and the mean frequency of tailed nuclei was significantly higher. Unusually long bridges were detected in 29% of BelAm patients with single-nodular goiters and 35% of cases with multi-nodular goiters, while no such abnormalities were observed in the follicular thyroid epithelium of patients from the Leningrad region. Further study is needed to understand whether these phenomena represent irradiation consequences in the human organism.
PMCID: PMC3857023  PMID: 22382464
thyroid gland; thyrocytes; nuclear abnormalities; Chernobyl accident
2.  International study of factors affecting human chromosome translocations 
Mutation research  2008;652(2):112-121.
Chromosome translocations in peripheral blood lymphocytes of normal, healthy humans increase with age, but the effects of gender, race, and cigarette smoking on background translocation yields have not been examined systematically. Further, the shape of the relationship between age and translocation frequency (TF) has not been definitively determined. We collected existing data from sixteen laboratories in North America, Europe, and Asia on TFs measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes by fluorescence in situ hybridization whole chromosome painting among 1933 individuals. In Poisson regression models, age, ranging from newborns (cord blood) to 85 years, was strongly associated with TF and this relationship showed significant upward curvature at older ages vs. a linear relationship (p <0.001). Ever smokers had significantly higher TFs than non-smokers (rate ratio (RR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09–1.30) and smoking modified the effect of age on TFs with a steeper age-related increase among ever smokers compared to non-smokers (p<0.001). TFs did not differ by gender. Interpreting an independent effect of race was difficult owing to laboratory variation. Our study is three times larger than any pooled effort to date, confirming a suspected curvilinear relationship of TF with age. The significant effect of cigarette smoking has not been observed with previous pooled studies of TF in humans. Our data provide stable estimates of background TF by age, gender, race, and smoking status and suggest an acceleration of chromosome damage above age 60 and among those with a history of smoking cigarettes.
PMCID: PMC2696320  PMID: 18337160
chromosome translocations; background frequency; controls; fluorescence in situ hybridization

Results 1-2 (2)