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1.  Assessment of Targeted and Non-Targeted Responses in Cells Deficient in ATM Function following Exposure to Low and High Dose X-Rays 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e93211.
Radiation sensitivity at low and high dose exposure to X-rays was investigated by means of chromosomal aberration (CA) analysis in heterozygous ATM mutation carrier and A-T patient (biallelic ATM mutation) lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). Targeted and non-targeted responses to acutely delivered irradiation were examined by applying a co-culture system that enables study of both directly irradiated cells and medium-mediated bystander effects in the same experimental setting. No indication of radiation hypersensitivity was observed at doses of 0.01 Gy or 0.1 Gy for the ATM mutation carrier LCL. The A-T patient cells also did not show low-dose response. There was significant increase in unstable CA yields for both ATM mutation carrier and A-T LCLs at 1 and 2 Gy, the A-T cells displaying more distinct dose dependency. Both chromosome and chromatid type aberrations were induced at an increased rate in the irradiated A-T cells, whereas for ATM carrier cells, only unstable chromosomal aberrations were increased above the level observed in the wild type cell line. No bystander effect could be demonstrated in any of the cell lines or doses applied. Characteristics typical for the A-T cell line were detected, i.e., high baseline frequency of CA that increased with dose. In addition, dose-dependent loss of cell viability was observed. In conclusion, CA analysis did not demonstrate low-dose (≤100 mGy) radiosensitivity in ATM mutation carrier cells or A-T patient cells. However, both cell lines showed increased radiosensitivity at high dose exposure.
PMCID: PMC3969311  PMID: 24681528
2.  Profiling of low molecular weight proteins in plasma from locally irradiated individuals 
Journal of Radiation Research  2014;55(4):674-682.
In studies reported in the 1960s and since, blood plasma from radiation-exposed individuals has been shown to induce chromosome damage when transferred into lymphocyte cultures of non-irradiated persons. This effect has been described to occur via clastogenic factors, whose nature is still mostly unknown. We have previously examined clastogenic factors from irradiated individuals by looking at plasma-induced DNA damage in reporter cells. Plasma was tested from ca. 30 locally exposed clinical patients receiving fractionated radiation treatment, as well as from three radiological accident victims exposed in 1994, albeit sampled 14 years post-accident. In the current work, proteome changes in the plasma from all subjects were examined with 2D gel electrophoresis-based proteomics techniques, in order to evaluate the level of protein expression with respect to the findings of a clastogenic factor effect. No differences were observed in protein expression due to local radiation exposure (pre- vs post-exposure). In contrast, plasma from the radiation accident victims showed alterations in the expression of 18 protein spots (in comparison with plasma from the control group). Among these, proteins such as haptoglobin, serotransferrin/transferrin, fibrinogen and ubiquitin-60S ribosomal protein L40 were observed, none of them likely to be clastogenic factors. In conclusion, the proteomics techniques applied were unable to identify changes in the proteome of the locally irradiated patients, whereas such differences were observed for the accident victims. However, association with the clastogenic effect or any specific clastogenic factor remains unresolved and thus further studies with more sensitive techniques are warranted.
PMCID: PMC4099999  PMID: 24570173
ionizing radiation; radiation proteomics; clastogenic factors; low molecular weight plasma proteins; two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2DE-DIGE)
3.  International study of factors affecting human chromosome translocations 
Mutation research  2008;652(2):112-121.
Chromosome translocations in peripheral blood lymphocytes of normal, healthy humans increase with age, but the effects of gender, race, and cigarette smoking on background translocation yields have not been examined systematically. Further, the shape of the relationship between age and translocation frequency (TF) has not been definitively determined. We collected existing data from sixteen laboratories in North America, Europe, and Asia on TFs measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes by fluorescence in situ hybridization whole chromosome painting among 1933 individuals. In Poisson regression models, age, ranging from newborns (cord blood) to 85 years, was strongly associated with TF and this relationship showed significant upward curvature at older ages vs. a linear relationship (p <0.001). Ever smokers had significantly higher TFs than non-smokers (rate ratio (RR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09–1.30) and smoking modified the effect of age on TFs with a steeper age-related increase among ever smokers compared to non-smokers (p<0.001). TFs did not differ by gender. Interpreting an independent effect of race was difficult owing to laboratory variation. Our study is three times larger than any pooled effort to date, confirming a suspected curvilinear relationship of TF with age. The significant effect of cigarette smoking has not been observed with previous pooled studies of TF in humans. Our data provide stable estimates of background TF by age, gender, race, and smoking status and suggest an acceleration of chromosome damage above age 60 and among those with a history of smoking cigarettes.
PMCID: PMC2696320  PMID: 18337160
chromosome translocations; background frequency; controls; fluorescence in situ hybridization

Results 1-3 (3)