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1.  Selective Effects of Curcumin on CdSe/ZnS Quantum-dot-induced Phototoxicity Using UVA Irradiation in Normal Human Lymphocytes and Leukemia Cells 
Toxicological Research  2013;29(1):35-42.
Quantum dots (QDs) have received considerable attention due to their potential role in photosensitization during photodynamic therapy. Although QDS are attractive nanomaterials due to their novel and unique physicochemical properties, concerns about their toxicity remain. We suggest a combination strategy, CdSe/ZnS QDs together with curcumin, a natural yellow pigment from turmeric, to reduce QD-induced cytotoxicity. The aim of this study was to explore a potentially effective cancer treatment: co-exposure of HL-60 cells and human normal lymphocytes to CdSe/ZnS QDs and curcumin. Cell viability, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and DNA damage induced by QDs and/or curcumin with or without ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation were evaluated in both HL-60 cells and normal lymphocytes. In HL-60 cells, cell death, apoptosis, ROS generation, and single/double DNA strand breaks induced by QDs were enhanced by treatment with curcumin and UVA irradiation. The protective effects of curcumin on cell viability, apoptosis, and ROS generation were observed in normal lymphocytes, but not leukemia cells. These results demonstrated that treatment with QD combined with curcumin increased cell death in HL-60 cells, which was mediated by ROS generation. However, curcumin acted as an antioxidant in cultured human normal lymphocytes.
PMCID: PMC3834438  PMID: 24278627
CdSe/ZnS QDs; Curcumin; Apoptosis; Reactive oxygen species; DNA damage
2.  International study of factors affecting human chromosome translocations 
Mutation research  2008;652(2):112-121.
Chromosome translocations in peripheral blood lymphocytes of normal, healthy humans increase with age, but the effects of gender, race, and cigarette smoking on background translocation yields have not been examined systematically. Further, the shape of the relationship between age and translocation frequency (TF) has not been definitively determined. We collected existing data from sixteen laboratories in North America, Europe, and Asia on TFs measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes by fluorescence in situ hybridization whole chromosome painting among 1933 individuals. In Poisson regression models, age, ranging from newborns (cord blood) to 85 years, was strongly associated with TF and this relationship showed significant upward curvature at older ages vs. a linear relationship (p <0.001). Ever smokers had significantly higher TFs than non-smokers (rate ratio (RR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09–1.30) and smoking modified the effect of age on TFs with a steeper age-related increase among ever smokers compared to non-smokers (p<0.001). TFs did not differ by gender. Interpreting an independent effect of race was difficult owing to laboratory variation. Our study is three times larger than any pooled effort to date, confirming a suspected curvilinear relationship of TF with age. The significant effect of cigarette smoking has not been observed with previous pooled studies of TF in humans. Our data provide stable estimates of background TF by age, gender, race, and smoking status and suggest an acceleration of chromosome damage above age 60 and among those with a history of smoking cigarettes.
PMCID: PMC2696320  PMID: 18337160
chromosome translocations; background frequency; controls; fluorescence in situ hybridization

Results 1-2 (2)