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1.  Selective Effects of Curcumin on CdSe/ZnS Quantum-dot-induced Phototoxicity Using UVA Irradiation in Normal Human Lymphocytes and Leukemia Cells 
Toxicological Research  2013;29(1):35-42.
Quantum dots (QDs) have received considerable attention due to their potential role in photosensitization during photodynamic therapy. Although QDS are attractive nanomaterials due to their novel and unique physicochemical properties, concerns about their toxicity remain. We suggest a combination strategy, CdSe/ZnS QDs together with curcumin, a natural yellow pigment from turmeric, to reduce QD-induced cytotoxicity. The aim of this study was to explore a potentially effective cancer treatment: co-exposure of HL-60 cells and human normal lymphocytes to CdSe/ZnS QDs and curcumin. Cell viability, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and DNA damage induced by QDs and/or curcumin with or without ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation were evaluated in both HL-60 cells and normal lymphocytes. In HL-60 cells, cell death, apoptosis, ROS generation, and single/double DNA strand breaks induced by QDs were enhanced by treatment with curcumin and UVA irradiation. The protective effects of curcumin on cell viability, apoptosis, and ROS generation were observed in normal lymphocytes, but not leukemia cells. These results demonstrated that treatment with QD combined with curcumin increased cell death in HL-60 cells, which was mediated by ROS generation. However, curcumin acted as an antioxidant in cultured human normal lymphocytes.
PMCID: PMC3834438  PMID: 24278627
CdSe/ZnS QDs; Curcumin; Apoptosis; Reactive oxygen species; DNA damage
2.  The Association of LINE-1 Hypomethylation with Age and Centromere Positive Micronuclei in Human Lymphocytes 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(7):e0133909.
Global hypomethylation in white blood cell (WBC) DNA has recently been proposed as a potential biomarker for determining cancer risk through genomic instability. However, the amplitude of the changes associated with age and the impacts of environmental factors on DNA methylation are unclear. In this study, we investigated the association of genomic hypomethylation with age, cigarette use, drinking status and the presence of centromere positive micronuclei (MNC+)—a biomarker for age-dependent genomic instability. Genomic hypomethylation of the repetitive element LINE-1 was measured in WBC DNA from 32 healthy male volunteers using the pyrosequencing assay. We also measured MNC+ with the micronucleus-centromere assay using a pan-centromeric probe. Possibly due to the small sample size and resulting low statistical power, smoking and drinking status had no significant effect on LINE-1 hypomethylation or the occurrence of MNC+. Consequently, we did not include them in further analyses. In contrast, LINE-1 hypomethylation and age significantly predicted MNC+; therefore, we examined whether LINE-1 hypomethylation plays a role in MNC+ formation by age, since genomic hypomethylation is associated with genomic instability. However, LINE-1 hypomethylation did not significantly mediate the effect of age on MNC+. Our data indicate that the repetitive element LINE-1 is demethylated with age and increasing MNC+ frequency, but additional studies are needed to fully understand the relation between genomic DNA hypomethylation, age and genomic instability.
PMCID: PMC4510364  PMID: 26196382
3.  Human AP Endonuclease 1: A Potential Marker for the Prediction of Environmental Carcinogenesis Risk 
Human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) functions mainly in DNA repair as an enzyme removing AP sites and in redox signaling as a coactivator of various transcription factors. Based on these multifunctions of APE1 within cells, numerous studies have reported that the alteration of APE1 could be a crucial factor in development of human diseases such as cancer and neurodegeneration. In fact, the study on the combination of an individual's genetic make-up with environmental factors (gene-environment interaction) is of great importance to understand the development of diseases, especially lethal diseases including cancer. Recent reports have suggested that the human carcinogenic risk following exposure to environmental toxicants is affected by APE1 alterations in terms of gene-environment interactions. In this review, we initially outline the critical APE1 functions in the various intracellular mechanisms including DNA repair and redox regulation and its roles in human diseases. Several findings demonstrate that the change in expression and activity as well as genetic variability of APE1 caused by environmental chemical (e.g., heavy metals and cigarette smoke) and physical carcinogens (ultraviolet and ionizing radiation) is likely associated with various cancers. These enable us to ultimately suggest APE1 as a vital marker for the prediction of environmental carcinogenesis risk.
PMCID: PMC4158471  PMID: 25243052
4.  International study of factors affecting human chromosome translocations 
Mutation research  2008;652(2):112-121.
Chromosome translocations in peripheral blood lymphocytes of normal, healthy humans increase with age, but the effects of gender, race, and cigarette smoking on background translocation yields have not been examined systematically. Further, the shape of the relationship between age and translocation frequency (TF) has not been definitively determined. We collected existing data from sixteen laboratories in North America, Europe, and Asia on TFs measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes by fluorescence in situ hybridization whole chromosome painting among 1933 individuals. In Poisson regression models, age, ranging from newborns (cord blood) to 85 years, was strongly associated with TF and this relationship showed significant upward curvature at older ages vs. a linear relationship (p <0.001). Ever smokers had significantly higher TFs than non-smokers (rate ratio (RR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09–1.30) and smoking modified the effect of age on TFs with a steeper age-related increase among ever smokers compared to non-smokers (p<0.001). TFs did not differ by gender. Interpreting an independent effect of race was difficult owing to laboratory variation. Our study is three times larger than any pooled effort to date, confirming a suspected curvilinear relationship of TF with age. The significant effect of cigarette smoking has not been observed with previous pooled studies of TF in humans. Our data provide stable estimates of background TF by age, gender, race, and smoking status and suggest an acceleration of chromosome damage above age 60 and among those with a history of smoking cigarettes.
PMCID: PMC2696320  PMID: 18337160
chromosome translocations; background frequency; controls; fluorescence in situ hybridization

Results 1-4 (4)