Health related quality of life (HRQOL) has increasingly emphasized on cancer patients. The psychometric properties of the standard Chinese version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30, version 3.0) in brain tumor patients wasn't proven, and there was no baseline HRQOL in brain tumor patients prior to surgery.
The questionnaire EORTC QLQ-C30 (version 3.0) was administered at three time points: T1, the first or the second day that patients were hospitalized after the brain tumor suspected or diagnosed by MRI or CT; T2, 1 to 2 days after T1, (T1 and T2 were both before surgery); T3, the day before discharge. Clinical variables included disease histologic types, cognitive function, and Karnofsky Performance Status.
Cronbach's alpha coefficients for multi-item scales were greater than .70 and multitrait scaling analysis showed that most of the item-scale correlation coefficients met the standards of convergent and discriminant validity, except for the cognitive functioning scale. All scales and items exhibited construct validity. Score changes over peri-operation were observed in physical and role functioning scales. Compared with mixed cancer patients assessed after surgery but before adjuvant treatment, brain tumor patients assessed pre-surgery presented better function and fewer symptoms.
The standard Chinese version of the EORTC QLQ-C30 was overall a valid instrument to assess HRQOL in brain tumor patients in China. The baseline HRQOL in brain tumor patients pre-surgery was better than that in mixed cancer patients post-surgery. Future study should modify cognitive functioning scale and examine test-retest reliability and response validity.
Longquan City, Zhejiang province, China, has been seriously affected by hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) since the first cases were registered in 1974. To understand the epidemiology and emergence of HFRS in Longquan, which may be indicative of large parts of rural China, we studied long-term incidence patterns and performed a molecular epidemiological investigation of the causative hantaviruses in human and rodent populations.
During 1974–2011, 1866 cases of HFRS were recorded in Longquan, including 20 deaths. In 2011, the incidence of HFRS remained high, with 19.61 cases/100,000 population, despite the onset of vaccination in 1997. During 1974–1998, HFRS cases in Longquan occurred mainly in winter, while in the past decade the peak of HFRS has shifted to the spring. Notably, the concurrent prevalence of rodent-borne hantaviruses in the region was also high. Phylogenetic analyses of viral sequences recovered from rodents in Longquan revealed the presence of novel genetic variants of Gou virus (GOUV) in Rattus sp. rats and Hantaan virus (HTNV) in the stripe field mice, respectively. Strikingly, viral sequences sampled from infected humans were very closely related to those from rodents.
HFRS represents an important public health problem in Longquan even after years of preventive measures. Our data suggest that continual spillover of the novel genetic variant of GOUV and the new genetic lineage of HTNV are responsible for the high prevalence of HFRS in humans. In addition, this is the first report of GOUV associated with human HFRS cases, and our data suggest that GOUV is now the major cause of HFRS in this region.
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a major public health problem in China despite human vaccination. We investigated the epidemiology and emergence of HFRS in Longquan (Zhejiang Province), a rural area with a high incidence of HFRS. During 1974–2011, a total of 1866 cases of HFRS were recorded in Longquan, including 20 deaths. Strikingly, phylogenetic analyses of viral sequences sampled from local rodents in Longquan revealed the presence of novel variants of Gou virus (GOUV) in Rattus sp. rats and Hantaan virus (HTNV) in the stripe field mice, respectively. Moreover, viral sequences sampled from infected humans in Longquan were very closely related to those from rodents. Overall, these data indicate that there is a continual spillover GOUV and HTNV from rodents to humans in Longquan, and this might be responsible for the high prevalence of HFRS. As well as highlighting the importance of the human-animal interface, these data also suggest that GOUV is now the major cause of HFRS in this region.
Liaoning cashmere goat is a famous goat breed for cashmere wool. In order to increase the transcriptome data and accelerate genetic improvement for this breed, we performed de
novo transcriptome sequencing to generate the first expressed sequence tag dataset for the Liaoning cashmere goat, using next-generation sequencing technology.
Transcriptome sequencing of Liaoning cashmere goat on a Roche 454 platform yielded 804,601 high-quality reads. Clustering and assembly of these reads produced a non-redundant set of 117,854 unigenes, comprising 13,194 isotigs and 104,660 singletons. Based on similarity searches with known proteins, 17,356 unigenes were assigned to 6,700 GO categories, and the terms were summarized into three main GO categories and 59 sub-categories. 3,548 and 46,778 unigenes had significant similarity to existing sequences in the KEGG and COG databases, respectively. Comparative analysis revealed that 42,254 unigenes were aligned to 17,532 different sequences in NCBI non-redundant nucleotide databases. 97,236 (82.51%) unigenes were mapped to the 30 goat chromosomes. 35,551 (30.17%) unigenes were matched to 11,438 reported goat protein-coding genes. The remaining non-matched unigenes were further compared with cattle and human reference genes, 67 putative new goat genes were discovered. Additionally, 2,781 potential simple sequence repeats were initially identified from all unigenes.
The transcriptome of Liaoning cashmere goat was deep sequenced, de
novo assembled, and annotated, providing abundant data to better understand the Liaoning cashmere goat transcriptome. The potential simple sequence repeats provide a material basis for future genetic linkage and quantitative trait loci analyses.
Custom TAL effector nucleases (TALENs) are increasingly used as reagents to manipulate genomes in vivo. Here, we used TALENs to modify the genome of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. We engineered seven TALENs targeting five Arabidopsis genes, namely ADH1, TT4, MAPKKK1, DSK2B, and NATA2. In pooled seedlings expressing the TALENs, we observed somatic mutagenesis frequencies ranging from 2–15% at the intended targets for all seven TALENs. Somatic mutagenesis frequencies as high as 41–73% were observed in individual transgenic plant lines expressing the TALENs. Additionally, a TALEN pair targeting a tandemly duplicated gene induced a 4.4-kb deletion in somatic cells. For the most active TALEN pairs, namely those targeting ADH1 and NATA2, we found that TALEN-induced mutations were transmitted to the next generation at frequencies of 1.5–12%. Our work demonstrates that TALENs are useful reagents for achieving targeted mutagenesis in this important plant model.
Arabidopsis thaliana; nonhomologous end-joining; TAL effector nuclease; targeted mutagenesis
Tandemly arrayed genes (TAGs) or gene clusters are prevalent in higher eukaryotic genomes. For example, approximately 17% of genes are organized in tandem in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The genetic redundancy created by TAGs presents a challenge for reverse genetics. As molecular scissors, engineered zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) make DNA double-strand breaks in a sequence-specific manner. ZFNs thus provide a means to delete TAGs by creating two double-strand breaks in the gene cluster. Using engineered ZFNs, we successfully targeted seven genes from three TAGs on two Arabidopsis chromosomes, including the well-known RPP4 gene cluster, which contains eight resistance (R) genes. The resulting gene cluster deletions ranged from a few kb to 55 kb with frequencies approximating 1% in somatic cells. We also obtained large chromosomal deletions of ~9 Mb at approximately one tenth the frequency, and gene cluster inversions and duplications also were achieved. This study demonstrates the ability to use sequence-specific nucleases in plants to make targeted chromosome rearrangements and create novel chimeric genes for reverse genetics and biotechnology.
zinc finger nuclease (ZFN); tandemly arrayed genes (TAGs); deletion; inversion; Arabidopsis
The RP-HPLC resolution of two triterpenic acid isomers was unstable. Objective: To separate the oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA) simply within RP-HPLC.
Materials and Methods:
The separation ability of five stationary phases was studied with the retention effect of their carbon loads. Also the resolution effects of mobile phase composition and different column temperatures were systematically investigated by using Drylab® (Rheodyne LLC.) after evaluating chromatograms automatically.
The best available resolution of two bioactive isomers was achieved (r = 3.4) via using PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) polymeric C18 bonded phase column. The chromatographic system was applied to the quantification in ten Chinese medicinal plants and the validation was carried out and the precision (RSD ≤1.34%), the linearity (r ≥ 0.9998) and the recovery (range from 92.1% to 102.6%) were acceptable.
It is clear that the method was simple, rapid and reliable for the quantification of two compounds in new HPLC method within PAH polymeric C18.
HPLC; oleanolic acid; PAH polymeric C18; ursolic acid
Macrophages and dendritic cells are recognized as key players in the defense against mycobacterial infection. Recent research has confirmed that alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) also play important roles against mycobacterium infections. Thus, establishing a stable cattle AEC line for future endogenous immune research on bacterial invasion is necessary. In the present study, we first purified and immortalized type II AECs (AEC II cells) by transfecting them with a plasmid containing the human telomerase reverse trancriptase gene. We then tested whether or not the immortalized cells retained the basic physiological properties of primary AECs by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Finally, we tested the secretion capacity of immortalized AEC II cells upon stimulation by bacterial invasion. The cattle type II alveolar epithelial cell line (HTERT-AEC II) that we established retained lung epithelial cell characteristics: the cells were positive for surfactants A and B, and they secreted tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in response to bacterial invasion. Thus, the cell line we established is a potential tool for research on the relationship between AECs and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Insects interact with their environment and respond to the changes in host plant conditions using semiochemicals. Such ecological interactions are facilitated by the olfactory sensilla and the use of olfactory recognition proteins. The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii can change its phenotype in response to ecological conditions. They reproduce mainly as wingless asexual morphs but develop wings to find mates or new plant hosts under the influence of environmental factors such as temperature, plant nutrition and population density. Two groups of small soluble proteins, odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are believed to be involved in the initial biochemical recognition steps in semiochemical perception. However, the exact molecular roles that these proteins play in insect olfaction remain to be discovered. In this study, we compared the transcriptomes of three asexual developmental stages (wingless spring and summer morphs and winged adults) and characterised 9 OBP and 9 CSP genes. The gene structure analysis showed that the number and length of introns in these genes are much higher and this appears to be unique feature of aphid OBP and CSP genes in general. Another unique feature in aphids is a higher abundance of CSP transcripts than OBP transcripts, suggesting an important role of CSPs in aphid physiology and ecology. We showed that some of the transcripts are overexpressed in the antennae in comparison to the bodies and highly expressed in the winged aphids compared to wingless morphs, suggesting a role in host location. We examined the differential expression of these olfactory genes in ten aphid species and compared the expression profile with the RNA-seq analyses of 25 pea aphid transcriptome libraries hosted on AphidBase.
In recent times increasing numbers of high-rate GPS stations have been installed around the world and set-up to provide data in real-time. These networks provide a great opportunity to quickly capture surface displacements, which makes them important as potential constituents of earthquake/tsunami monitoring and warning systems. The appropriate GPS real-time data analysis with sufficient accuracy for this purpose is a main focus of the current GPS research. In this paper we propose an augmented point positioning method for GPS based hazard monitoring, which can achieve fast or even instantaneous precise positioning without relying on data of a specific reference station. The proposed method overcomes the limitations of the currently mostly used GPS processing approaches of relative positioning and global precise point positioning. The advantages of the proposed approach are demonstrated by using GPS data, which was recorded during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan.
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 85% of all lung cancer. With a variety of biological functions, Prohibitin1 (PHB1) has been proved tumor-associated. But there are conflicting data regarding the involvement of PHB1 in tumorigenesis and few studies regarding the role of PHB1 in lung cancer. The studies reported herein used a combination of clinical observations and molecular methods to investigate the possible role of PHB1 in NSCLC tissues and cell lines. PHB1 expression was evaluated by RT-PCR, RT-qPCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry analysis. Flow cytometric analysis was used to determine the surface expression profiles of PHB1 in lung cell lines. The results showed that PHB1 expression were generally increased in lung cancer tissues when compared with matched noncancerous tissues and closely related with tumor differentiation and lymph node invasion. PHB1 expression levels was also increased in three lung cancer cell lines (SK-MES-1, NCI-H157 and NCI-H292) as compared with BEAS-2B cells. Moreover, there were various subcellular localization of PHB1 in different lung cancer cells and the presence of PHB1 on the surface of lung cancer cells was significantly reduced. In conclusion, PHB1 expression is increased in NSCLC and the up-regulation of PHB1 is associated with clinically aggressive phenotype. The different subcellular localization of PHB1 in NSCLC cells and the loss of the membrane-associated PHB1 probably related to the tumorigenesis and progression of NSCLC and suggests that PHB1 may play different roles in various types of NSCLC.
Prohibitin 1; up-regulation; subcellular localization; non-small cell lung cancer
Using real time qPCR, we examined the expression of mRNAs for the five somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) in the caudate putamen of male C57BL/6J and 129P3/J mice. Animals were exposed to multiple injections of heroin, or saline, in the setting of a conditioned place preference study. The relative expression levels of the five SSTR mRNAs differed between the two strains. In both strains, SSTR-1 mRNA was expressed at the highest levels and SSTR-5 at the lowest. Interestingly, in 129P3/J mice SSTR-3 mRNA was not detected in the caudate putamen. We confirmed this finding in the frontal cortex, hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens and a region containing the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. We also found strain differences in the mRNA levels of SSTR-2 and -4. Intermittent heroin administration had a dose-dependent effect on the levels of SSTR-1 and -3mRNAs. These results demonstrate strain differences in the expression of specific mRNAs and a heroin-induced dose-dependent elevation of SSTR-1 and -3 mRNAs in the mouse caudate putamen.
C57BL/6J; 129P3/J; Somatostatin receptor; mRNA
Most yeast ribosomal protein genes are duplicated and their characterization has led to hypotheses regarding the existence of specialized ribosomes with different subunit composition or specifically-tailored functions. In yeast, ribosomal protein genes are generally duplicated and evidence has emerged that paralogs might have specific roles. Unlike yeast, most mammalian ribosomal proteins are thought to be encoded by a single gene copy, raising the possibility that heterogenous populations of ribosomes are unique to yeast. Here, we examine the roles of the mammalian Rpl22, finding that Rpl22−/− mice have only subtle phenotypes with no significant translation defects. We find that in the Rpl22−/− mouse there is a compensatory increase in Rpl22-like1 (Rpl22l1) expression and incorporation into ribosomes. Consistent with the hypothesis that either ribosomal protein can support translation, knockdown of Rpl22l1 impairs growth of cells lacking Rpl22. Mechanistically, Rpl22 regulates Rpl22l1 directly by binding to an internal hairpin structure and repressing its expression. We propose that ribosome specificity may exist in mammals, providing evidence that one ribosomal protein can influence composition of the ribosome by regulating its own paralog.
Translation is the process by which proteins are made within a cell. Ribosomes are the main macromolecular complexes involved in this process. Ribosomes are composed of ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins. Ribosomal proteins are generally thought to be structural components of the ribosome but recent findings have suggested that they might have a regulatory function as well. A growing number of human diseases have been linked to mutations in genes encoding factors involved in ribosome biogenesis and translation. These include developmental malformations, inherited bone marrow failure syndromes and cancer in a variety of organisms. Here, we describe the role of one ribosomal protein regulating another. We provide evidence that ribosomal proteins can influence the composition of the ribosome, which we hypothesize, may impact the function of the ribosome.
The forkhead box transcription factor Foxo3a has been implicated to play a critical role in various cancers by suppressing tumor growth. Recent studies have identified Foxo3a as a key regulator of Estrogen Receptor-α (ERα). In the present study, we examined the expression of Foxo3a, and investigated its clinical significance and correlation with ER and prognostic role in patients with breast cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on tumors from 70 breast cancer patients. Interpretable Foxo3a expression was analyzed along with major clinicopathologic variables, and a comparison was made with corresponding 5-year clinical follow-up data. Foxo3a protein expression correlated with ER positivity (P<0.001), histologic grade (1, 2) (P = 0.002), axillary lymph node negativity (P<0.001) and TNM stage (1, 2) (P<0.001). Moreover, the Kaplan-Meier survival curves of the study population showed that a high expression level of Foxo3a was significantly correlated with long-term survival (P<0.0001). In a multivariate analysis, Foxo3a expression was identified as a favorable independent prognostic factor in overall survival (P = 0.038). In conclusion, our results indicated that Foxo3a expression is a favorable prognostic marker in breast cancer. In addition, Foxo3a staining could potentially be used in patient stratification in conjunction with other prognostic markers.
Although recent studies have clearly demonstrated functional and structural abnormalities in adolescents with internet gaming addiction (IGA), less is known about how IGA affects perfusion in the human brain. We used pseudocontinuous arterial spin-labeling (ASL) perfusion functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the effects of IGA on resting brain functions by comparing resting cerebral blood flow in adolescents with IGA and normal subjects.
Fifteen adolescents with IGA and 18 matched normal adolescents underwent structural and perfusion fMRI in the resting state. Direct subtraction, voxel-wise general linear modeling was performed to compare resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) between the 2 groups. Correlations were calculated between the mean CBF value in all clusters that survived AlphaSim correction and the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS) scores, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) scores, or hours of Internet use per week (hours) in the 15 subjects with IGA.
Compared with control subjects, adolescents with IGA showed significantly higher global CBF in the left inferior temporal lobe/fusiform gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus/amygdala, right medial frontal lobe/anterior cingulate cortex, left insula, right insula, right middle temporal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, left supplementary motor area, left cingulate gyrus, and right inferior parietal lobe. Lower CBF was found in the left middle temporal gyrus, left middle occipital gyrus, and right cingulate gyrus. There were no significant correlations between mean CBF values in all clusters that survived AlphaSim correction and CIAS or BIS-11 scores or hours of Internet use per week.
In this study, we used ASL perfusion fMRI and noninvasively quantified resting CBF to demonstrate that IGA alters the CBF distribution in the adolescent brain. The results support the hypothesis that IGA is a behavioral addiction that may share similar neurobiological abnormalities with other addictive disorders.
Internet addiction; Internet gaming addiction; Arterial spin-labeling perfusion; fMRI; Cerebral blood flow
We described a 55-year-old male smoking patient, who came to our institute with the diagnosis of a right upper lobe lesion. Computed tomographic (CT) guided biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma. The preoperative clinical diagnosis was stage I primary lung adenocarcinoma. The standard three-port video-assisted thoracoscopy surgery (VATS) was performed in this case. After the resection of the right upper lobe, the 2nd, 4th, and 7th groups of lymphatic nodes were removed with Harmonic scalpel. A closed drainage catheter was placed adjacent to the lateral chest wall through the port in the 7th intercostal space. Postoperative pathologic diagnosis was T2aN0M0 adenocarcinoma.
Video-assisted thoracoscopy surgery (VATS); three access thoracoscopy
Tropical rainforests in Southeast Asia are facing increasing and ever more intense human disturbance that often negatively affects biodiversity. The aim of this study was to determine how tree species phylogenetic diversity is affected by traditional forest management types and to understand the change in community phylogenetic structure during succession. Four types of forests with different management histories were selected for this purpose: old growth forests, understorey planted old growth forests, old secondary forests (∼200-years after slash and burn), and young secondary forests (15–50-years after slash and burn). We found that tree phylogenetic community structure changed from clustering to over-dispersion from early to late successional forests and finally became random in old-growth forest. We also found that the phylogenetic structure of the tree overstorey and understorey responded differentially to change in environmental conditions during succession. In addition, we show that slash and burn agriculture (swidden cultivation) can increase landscape level plant community evolutionary information content.
Helicobacter pylori has been isolated from 10%–20% of human chronic cholecystitis specimens but the characteristics of “Helicobacter pylori positive cholecystitis” remains unclear. This study aims to compare the clinicopathological features between chronic cholecystitis patients with and without Helicobacter pylori infection in gallbladder mucosa.
Three hundred and twenty-six chronic cholecystitis patients were divided into two groups according to whether Helicobacter pylori could be detected by culture, staining or PCR for Helicobacter 16s rRNA gene in gallbladder mucosa. Positive samples were sequenced for Helicobacter pylori-specific identification. Clinical parameters as well as pathological characteristics including some premalignant lesions and the expression levels of iNOS and ROS in gallbladder were compared between the two groups.
Helicobacter pylori infection in gallbladder mucosa was detected in 20.55% of cholecystitis patients. These patients had a higher prevalence of acid regurgitation symptoms (p = 0.001), more histories of chronic gastritis (p = 0.005), gastric ulcer (p = 0.042), duodenal ulcer (p = 0.026) and higher presence of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach as compared to patients without Helicobacter pylori infection in the gallbladder mucosa. Helicobacter pylori 16s rRNA in gallbladder and gastric-duodenal mucosa from the same individual patient had identical sequences. Also, higher incidences of adenomyomatosis (p = 0.012), metaplasia (p = 0.022) and higher enhanced expressions of iNOS and ROS were detected in Helicobacter pylori infected gallbladder mucosa (p<0.05).
Helicobacter pylori infection in gallbladder mucosa is strongly associated with Helicobacter pylori existed in stomach. Helicobacter pylori is also correlated with gallbladder premalignant lesions including metaplasia and adenomyomatosis. The potential mechanism might be related with higher ROS/RNS production but needs further investigation.
The current study sought to investigate the safety of intraoperative and early postoperative continuous hyperthermic intraperitoneal perfusion (IEPCHIP) at different temperatures in a swine model of experimental distal gastrectomy with Billroth II reconstruction.
Thirty pigs were randomly divided into 5 groups. Two groups were used as the control groups (groups A1 and A2), and 3 groups were used as the perfusion groups (groups B, C and D). Pigs in group A1 received distal gastrectomy with Billroth II reconstruction only. Pigs in groups A2, B, C and D received the same surgery as group A1, followed by IEPCHIP at 37 ± 0.5°C, 42.5 ± 0.5°C, 43.5 ± 0.5°C or 44.5 ± 0.5°C, respectively. The perfusion time was assessed for each pig in group A2 as well as in the perfusion groups, and the perfusions were performed twice for each group. The first perfusion was conducted intraoperatively, and the second perfusion was initiated 1 day after surgery. Data concerning vital signs and hepatic and renal function were collected. Parameters concerning anastomotic healing, the pathology of the anastomotic tissue and abdominal adhesion were compared.
The vital signs and hepatic and renal functions of the pigs in groups A1, A2, B and C were not significantly affected by this procedure. In contrast, the vital signs and hepatic and renal functions of the pigs in group D were significantly affected. Compared to the pigs in groups A1, A2 or B, the anastomotic bursting pressure, breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in group C and D pigs were significantly lower. No significant differences were observed in these parameters between groups A1, A2 and B. Abdominal adhesion was more severe in group D pigs. Collagen deposition in group A1, A2 and B pigs was dense in the anastomosis, and inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in group D.
IEPCHIP at 42.5 ± 0.5°C was safe and caused minimal impairments. However, anastomotic healing was affected by perfusion at 43.5 ± 0.5°C and 44.5 ± 0.5°C, and abdominal adhesion was most severe in the group D animals, which were perfused at 44.5 ± 0.5°C.
Temperature; Safety; Swine model; Continuous hyperthermic intraperitoneal perfusion; Anastomotic healing; Abdominal adhesion; Intraoperative; Early postoperative
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 3% of all cancer-related mortalities in adults. The risk factors for the development of RCC remain under investigation. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key mediator of angiogenesis and is crucial for the development and metastasis of tumors, including RCC. VEGF gene polymorphisms may alter VEGF protein concentrations, affect the process of angiogenesis and may be involved in inter-individual variation in carcinogenesis. In the present study, a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed based on published case-control studies in order to estimate the association between VEGF gene polymorphisms and the susceptibility to RCC. A total of five studies that involved eight polymorphisms and were published between January 2000 and December 2012 were identified from PubMed. The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis indicate that the VEGF 936C/T, 1612G/A, −1154G/A, −2549I/D, −460T/C and 405G/C gene polymorphisms are not associated with the risk of RCC. There was no polymorphism in 702C/T and RCC and the −2578C/A gene polymorphism may be associated with an increased risk of RCC. However, due to the limitations of the present study, further high quality case-control studies are warranted to confirm these findings.
vascular endothelial growth factor; polymorphism; renal cell carcinoma; risk; meta-analysis
Tar DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is the major component of pathological deposits in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions (FTLD-TDP) and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It has been reported that TDP-43 transgenic mouse models expressing human TDP-43 wild-type or ALS-associated mutations recapitulate certain ALS and FTLD pathological phenotypes. Of note, expression of human TDP-43 (hTDP-43) reduces the levels of mouse Tdp-43 (mTdp-43). However, it remained unclear whether the mechanisms through which TDP-43 induces ALS or FTLD-like pathologies resulted from a reduction in mTdp-43, an increase in hTDP-43, or a combination of both. In elucidating the role of mTdp-43 and hTDP-43 in hTDP-43 transgenic mice, we observed that reduction of mTdp-43 in non-transgenic mice by intraventricular brain injection of AAV1-shTardbp leads to a dramatic increase in the levels of splicing variants of mouse sortilin 1 and translin. However, the levels of these two abnormal splicing variants are not increased in hTDP-43 transgenic mice despite significant downregulation of mTdp-43 in these mice. Moreover, further downregulation of mTdp-43 in hTDP-43 hemizygous mice, which are asymptomatic, to the levels equivalent to that of mTdp-43 in hTDP-43 homozygous mice does not induce the pathological phenotypes observed in the homozygous mice. Lastly, the number of dendritic spines and the RNA levels of TDP-43 RNA targets critical for synapse formation and function are significantly decreased in symptomatic homozygous mice. Together, our findings indicate that mTdp-43 downregulation does not lead to a loss of function mechanism or account for the pathological phenotypes observed in hTDP-43 homozygous mice because hTDP-43 compensates for the reduction, and associated functions of mTdp-43. Rather, expression of hTDP-43 beyond a certain threshold leads to abnormal metabolism of TDP-43 RNA targets critical for neuronal structure and function, which might be responsible for the ALS or FTLD-like pathologies observed in homozygous hTDP-43 transgenic mice.
Nemo-like kinase (NLK), a mediator of the Wnt signaling pathway, binds directly to c-Myb, leading to its phosphorylation, ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation. NLK was significantly downregulated in the breast cancer tissues compared to corresponding normal tissues. NLK expression was negatively correlated with c-Myb expression. NLK suppressed proliferation, induced apoptosis and mediated c-Myb degradation in MCF-7 cells via a mechanism that seems to involve c-myc and Bcl2. These findings might provide a novel target for therapeutic intervention in patients with breast cancer.
We report a full account of our work towards the development of Mo-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation reactions with 3-alkyloxindoles as nucleophiles. The reaction is complementary to the Pd-catalyzed reaction with regard to the scope of oxindole nucleophiles. A number of 3-alkyloxindoles were alkylated successfully under mild conditions to give products with excellent yields and good-to-excellent enantioselectivities. Applications of this method to the preparation of indoline alkaloids such as (−)-physostigmine, ent-(−)-debromoflustramine B, and the indolinoquinoline rings of communesin B are reported.
Molybdenum; asymmetric allylic alkylation reactions; physostigmine; debromoflustramine; communesin B
AIM: To evaluate the clinical outcome of re-operation for recurrent abdominal liposarcoma following multidisciplinary team cooperation.
METHODS: Nineteen consecutive patients who had recurrent abdominal liposarcoma underwent re-operation by the retroperitoneal sarcoma team at our institution from May 2009 to January 2012. Patient demographic and clinical data were reviewed retrospectively. Multidisciplinary team discussions were held prior to treatment, and re-operation was deemed the best treatment. The categories of the extent of resection were as follows: gross total resection (GTR), palliative resection and partial resection. Surgical techniques were divided into discrete lesion resection and combined contiguous multivisceral resection (CMR). Tumor size was determined as the largest diameter of the specimen. Patients were followed up at approximately 3-monthly intervals. For survival analysis, a univariate analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method, and a multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazards model.
RESULTS: Nineteen patients with recurrent abdominal liposarcoma (RAL) underwent 32 re-operations at our institute. A total of 51 operations were reviewed with a total follow-up time ranging from 4 to 120 (47.4 ± 34.2) mo. The GTR rate in the CMR group was higher than that in the non-CMR group (P = 0.034). CMR was positively correlated with intra-operative bleeding (correlation coefficient = 0.514, P = 0.010). Six cases with severe postoperative complications were recorded. Patients with tumor sizes greater than 20 cm carried a significant risk of profuse intra-operative bleeding (P = 0.009). The ratio of a highly malignant subtype (dedifferentiated or pleomorphic) in recurrent cases was higher compared to primary cases (P = 0.027). Both single-factor survival using the Kaplan-Meier model and multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model showed that overall survival was correlated with resection extent and pathological subtype (P < 0.001 and P = 0.02), however, relapse-free interval (RFI) was only correlated with resection extent (P = 0.002).
CONCLUSION: Close follow-up should be conducted in patients with RAL. Early re-operation for relapse is preferred and gross resection most likely prolongs the RFI.
Overall survival; Recurrent abdominal liposarcoma; Relapse-free interval
Purpose. To evaluate the role of corneal epithelium in riboflavin/ultraviolet-A (UVA) mediated corneal collagen cross-linking treatment. Methods. Fifty New Zealand rabbits were divided into 5 groups: UVA treatment with or without corneal epithelium, UVA+riboflavin treatment with or without corneal epithelium, and control without any treatment. All rabbits were sacrificed after irradiation and subsequently 4 mm × 10 mm corneal strips were harvested for biomechanical evaluation. Results. UVA irradiation alone did not enhance the maximal stress and Young's modulus of corneal specimens with (3.15 ± 0.56 mpa, 1.00 ± 0.09 mpa) or without (3.53 ± 0.85 mpa, 0.94 ± 0.21 mpa) the corneal epithelium, compared to specimens in the control group (4.30 ± 0.68 mpa, 1.03 ± 0.24 mpa). However, UVA irradiation combined with riboflavin significantly increased the maximal stress and Young's modulus of corneal specimens with (5.27 ± 1.09 mpa, 1.23 ± 0.23 mpa, P < 0.05) or without (7.16 ± 1.88 mpa, 1.42 ± 0.16 mpa, P < 0.05) corneal epithelium when compared to the control group. The maximal stress and Young's modulus of cornea in UVA+riboflavin and “epithelium-off” group were 35.9% and 15.4% higher compared to the UVA+riboflavin and “epithelium-on” group, respectively (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Our study shows that UVA+riboflavin treatment significantly affects the biomechanical properties of the cornea with and without epithelial removal. However, corneas without epithelium seem to benefit more compared to corneas with the epithelium.
Borna disease virus (BDV) is a neurotropic virus that produces neuropsychiatric dysfunction in a wide range of warm-blooded species. Several studies have associated BDV with human psychiatric illness, but the findings remain controversial. Although oligodendrocytes are a major glial component of brain white matter and play a pivotal role in neuronal cell function, BDV's effects on human oligodendrocytes have not been clarified. Here, the effects of two BDV strains, Hu-H1 (isolated from a bipolar patient) and Strain V (a laboratory strain), on the proliferation and apoptosis of human oligodendrocytes were investigated. Three experimental cell lines were constructed: Hu-H1-infected oligodendroglioma (Hu-H1) cells, Strain V-infected oligodendroglioma (Strain V) cells, and non-infected oligodendroglioma (control) cells. BDV infection was assayed by BDV nucleoprotein (p40) immunofluorescence, cell proliferation was assayed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8), and cell cycle phases and apoptosis were assayed by flow cytometry. Expressions of the apoptosis-related proteins Bax and Bcl-2 were measured by Western blotting. p40 expression was confirmed in Hu-H1 and Strain V on and after day three post-infection. Strain V cells showed significantly greater cellular proliferation than Hu-H1 cells on and after day three post-infection. In Hu-H1 cells, Bax and Bcl-2 expression were significantly increased and decreased, respectively, on and after day three post-infection. In contrast, in Strain V cells, Bax and Bcl-2 expression were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, on and after day three post-infection. In conclusion, Hu-H1 inhibits cellular proliferation and promotes apoptosis in human oligodendrocytes via Bax upregulation and Bcl-2 downregulation. In contrast, Strain V promotes cellular proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in human oligodendrocytes via Bax downregulation and Bcl-2 upregulation. The effects of the Hu-H1 strain (isolated from a bipolar patient) are opposite from those of Strain V (a laboratory strain), thereby providing a proof of authenticity for both.