Innate immunity drives numerous cardiovascular pathologies. Vein bypass grafting procedures are frequently accompanied by low-grade wound contamination. We hypothesized that a peri-graft innate immune challenge, via an outside-in route, augments inflammatory responses, which subsequently drive a component of negative vein graft wall adaptations; moreover, adipose tissue mediates this immune response.
The inferior vena cava from a donor mouse was implanted into the common carotid artery of a recipient mouse utilizing a validated cuff technique (9-week-old male C57BL/6J mice). Slow-release low-dose (5 μg) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (n = 9) or vehicle (n = 9) was applied peri-graft; morphologic analysis was completed (day 28). In parallel, vein-grafted mice received peri-graft LPS (n = 12), distant subcutaneous LPS (n = 6), or vehicle (n = 12), then day-1 and -3 harvest of grafts and adipose tissue for cytokines and toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling mRNA expression (qRT-PCR).
All recipient mice survived, and all vein grafts were patent. Acute low-dose local LPS challenge enhanced vein graft lumen loss (P = .04) and tended to augment intimal hyperplasia (P = .06). The surgical trauma of vein grafting universally upregulated key pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators within the day-1 graft wall, but varied on TLR signaling gene expression. Local and distant LPS accentuated these patterns until at least postoperative day 3. LPS challenge enhanced the inflammatory response in adipose tissue (locally > distantly); local LPS upregulated adipose TLR-4 dramatically.
Perivascular and distant inflammatory challenges potentiate the magnitude and duration of inflammatory responses in the early vein graft wall, negatively modulating wall adaptations, and thus, potentially contribute to vein graft failure. Furthermore, surgery activates innate immunity in adipose tissue, which is augmented (regionally > systemically) by LPS. Modulation of these local and distant inflammatory signaling networks stands as a potential strategy to enhance the durability of vascular interventions such as vein grafts. (J Vasc Surg 2013;57:486-92.)
Vein graft failure is traditionally considered as a process driven by luminal hemodynamic forces and endothelial injury. We report that the “outside-in” mechanism of local perivascular and distant inflammatory challenges potentiate the magnitude and duration of inflammatory responses in the early vein graft wall, negatively modulating wall adaptations, and thus potentially contribute to vein graft failure. Modulation of these inflammatory signaling networks (eg, extension of antibiotic administration beyond standard wound prophylaxis regimens) stands as a potential strategy to enhance the durability of vascular interventions such as vein grafts.
Leptin promotes atherosclerosis and vessel wall remodeling. As abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA) formation involves tissue remodeling, we hypothesized that local leptin synthesis initiates and promotes this process.
Methods and Results
Human surgical AAA walls were analyzed for antigen and mRNA levels of leptin and leptin receptor (ObR), as well as mRNA for matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-9, and MMP-12. Leptin and ObR antigen were evident in all AAAs, and, leptin, MMP-9, and MMP-12 mRNA was increased relative to age-matched non-dilated controls. To simulate in vivo local leptin synthesis, ApoE-/- mice were subjected to a para-visceral peri-aortic application of low-dose leptin. Leptin-treated aortas exhibited decreased TGFβ and increased MMP-9 mRNA levels 5 days after surgery, and ObR mRNA was up-regulated by day 28. Serial ultrasonography demonstrated accelerated regional aortic diameter growth after 28 days, correlating with local medial degeneration, increased MMP-9, MMP-12 and peri-adventitial macrophage clustering. Furthermore, the combination of local peri-aortic leptin and systemic angiotensin II administration augmented medial MMP-9 synthesis and aortic aneurysm size.
Leptin is locally synthesized in human AAA wall. Para-visceral aortic leptin in ApoE-/- mice induces local medial degeneration, and augments angiotensin II-induced AAA, thus suggesting novel mechanistic links between leptin and AAA formation.
abdominal aortic aneurysm; leptin; vessel wall remodeling; transforming growth factor β; angiotensin II
Vein grafts fail due to wall mal-adaptations to surgical injury and hemodynamic perturbations. Interleukin-1 signaling has emerged as an important mediator of the vascular response to trauma and hemodynamically induced vascular lesions. We therefore hypothesized that interleukin-1 signaling drives early vein graft wall adaptations.
Using interleukin-1 type I receptor knockout (IL-1RI−/−) and wild-type (B6129SF2/J) mice, we investigated morphologic changes 28 days after interposition isograft from donor inferior vena cava to recipient carotid artery, without (n=19) or with (n=13) outflow restriction. The impact of mouse strain on the response to vein arterialization was also evaluated between B6129SF2/J (n=18) and C57BL/6J (n=19) mice.
No significant differences were observed in the traditional endpoints of intimal thickness and calculated luminal area, yet media+adventitia thickness of the vein graft wall of IL-1RI−/− mice was 44-52% smaller than wild-type mice, at the both proximal (P<.01, P<.01) and distal (P=.054, P<.01) portions of vein grafts, for both normal flow and low flow respectively. Compared with C57BL/6J strain, B6129SF2/J mice exhibited no difference in vein graft intimal thickness, but 2-fold higher media+adventitia thickness (P<.01).
When lacking interleukin-1 signaling, the vein graft wall adapts differently compared to the injured artery, showing typical intima hyperplasia though attenuated media+adventitia thickening. B6129SF2/J mice exhibit more media+adventitia response than C57BL/6J mice. The inflammatory networks that underlie the vein response to arterialization hold many roles in the adaptation of the total wall, thus the utility of anti-inflammatory approaches to extend the durability of vein grafts comes into question.
interleukin-1; vein graft; wall adaptation; adventitia; mouse model
Recognition of adipose-related signaling in surgery is increasing, though direct interrogation of human adipose has been sparse. Few scenarios rival uremia for health impact. We hypothesized that adipose from uremic patients holds a relatively higher adipose derived hormone and pro-inflammatory adipokine signature; we simultaneously evaluated the impact of clinical parameters on adipose phenotype.
Materials and Methods
Adipose was harvested from surgical patients. Histology and protein analyses were completed for select mediators.
In the 71 patient cohort, mean age=63.4y; 63.3% had diabetes, 49.2% had hyperlipidemia and 53.5% had coronary disease. Compared to non-uremic patients, uremic patients had 1/10th the levels of leptin (p<0.001), 1/3rd the levels of adiponectin (p<0.001), and 3-fold higher resistin (p<0.001). Females had 6-fold higher leptin, 1.5-fold higher adiponectin and 2-fold higher TNF-α but equivalent resistin. There were differences in mediators when stratified by age. In both the obese/non-obese strata, we observed a concordant pattern of association (magnitude/significance) of uremia and leptin/adiponectin/resistin. No differentials in other mediators emerged upon BMI stratification. Multiple regression analysis for leptin/adiponectin/resistin (with age/gender/uremia as independent variables) showed uremia as the highest independent predictor of all three mediators.
Advanced chronic kidney disease is associated with perturbations in adipose derived hormones (leptin/adiponectin/resistin). Adipose adiponectin and leptin (in contrast to reported plasma levels) was lower in uremic patients; there is an inverse correlation between adipose resistin and renal function. Compared with other clinical parameters including BMI, uremia dominates overall in determining adipose phenotype, highlighting the complex biologic interplay between uremia and adipose biology.
Uremia; chronic kidney disease; adipose tissue; leptin; adiponectin; resistin
Berberine (BBR) has been confirmed to have multiple bioactivities in clinic, such as cholesterol-lowering, anti-diabetes, cardiovascular protection and anti- inflammation. However, BBR’s plasma level is very low; it cannot explain its pharmacological effects in patients. We consider that the in vivo distribution of BBR as well as of its bioactive metabolites might provide part of the explanation for this question. In this study, liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/MSn-IT-TOF) as well as liquid chromatography that coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for the study of tissue distribution and pharmacokinetics of BBR in rats after oral administration (200 mg/kg). The results indicated that BBR was quickly distributed in the liver, kidneys, muscle, lungs, brain, heart, pancreas and fat in a descending order of its amount. The pharmacokinetic profile indicated that BBR’s level in most of studied tissues was higher (or much higher) than that in plasma 4 h after administration. BBR remained relatively stable in the tissues like liver, heart, brain, muscle, pancreas etc. Organ distribution of BBR’s metabolites was also investigated paralleled with that of BBR. Thalifendine (M1), berberrubine (M2) and jatrorrhizine (M4), which the metabolites with moderate bioactivity, were easily detected in organs like the liver and kidney. For instance, M1, M2 and M4 were the major metabolites in the liver, among which the percentage of M2 was up to 65.1%; the level of AUC (0-t) (area under the concentration-time curve) for BBR or the metabolites in the liver was 10-fold or 30-fold higher than that in plasma, respectively. In summary, the organ concentration of BBR (as well as its bioactive metabolites) was higher than its concentration in the blood after oral administration. It might explain BBR’s pharmacological effects on human diseases in clinic.
Horizontal attenuation total reflection Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (HATR-FT-IR) studies on cuscutae semen and its confusable varieties Japanese dodder and sinapis semen combined with discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) and radial basis function (RBF) neural networks have been conducted in order to classify them. DWT is used to decompose the FT-IRs of cuscutae semen, Japanese dodder, and sinapis semen. Two main scales are selected as the feature extracting space in the DWT domain. According to the distribution of cuscutae semen, Japanese dodder, and sinapis semen's FT-IRs, three feature regions are determined at detail 3, and two feature regions are determined at detail 4 by selecting two scales in the DWT domain. Thus five feature parameters form the feature vector. The feature vector is input to the RBF neural networks to train so as to accurately classify the cuscutae semen, Japanese dodder, and sinapis semen. 120 sets of FT-IR data are used to train and test the proposed method, where 60 sets of data are used to train samples, and another 60 sets of FT-IR data are used to test samples. Experimental results show that the accurate recognition rate of cuscutae semen, Japanese dodder, and sinapis semen is average of 100.00%, 98.33%, and 100.00%, respectively, following the proposed method.
Intralesional excision and en bloc resection are used to treat giant cell tumors (GCTs) of the distal radius. However, it is unclear whether one provides lower rates of recurrences and fewer complications, and whether the use of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) after curettage reduces the risk of recurrence.
We examined whether curettage was associated with lower rates of recurrence and fewer major complications compared with en bloc excision, and whether PMMA resulted in lower rates of recurrence compared with a bone graft.
We systematically searched the literature using the criteria, “giant cell tumor” AND “curettage” OR “intralesional excision” OR “resection”. Six relevant articles were identified that reported data for 80 curettage cases (PMMA, n = 49; bone graft, n = 26; no PMMA or bone grafts, n = 5) and 59 involving en bloc excision. A meta-analysis was performed using these data.
Overall, patients in the intralesional excision group had a higher recurrence rate (relative risk [RR], 2.80; 95% CI, 1.17–6.71), especially for Campanacci Grade 3 GCTs (RR, 4.90; 95% CI, 1.36–17.66), yet fewer major complications (RR, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.09–0.54) than the en bloc resection group. The use of PMMA versus bone graft did not affect the recurrence rate (RR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.44–2.17).
Based on data obtained from the limited number of studies available, intralesional excision appears to be more appropriate for the treatment of local lesions (eg, Grades 1 and 2) than Grade 3 GCTs of the distal radius. Moreover, PMMA was not additionally effective as an adjuvant.
Level of Evidence
Level III, therapeutic study (systematic review). See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Leucoptera malifoliella (=L. scitella) (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae) was sequenced. The size was 15,646 bp with gene content and order the same as those of other lepidopterans. The nucleotide composition of L. malifoliella mitogenome is highly A+T biased (82.57%), ranked just below Coreana raphaelis (82.66%) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). All protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with the typical ATN codon except for the cox1 gene, which uses CGA as the initiation codon. Nine PCGs have the common stop codon TAA, four PCGs have the common stop codon T as incomplete stop codons, and nad4l and nad6 have TAG as the stop codon. Cloverleaf secondary structures were inferred for 22 tRNA genes, but trnS1(AGN) was found to lack the DHU stem. The secondary structure of rrnL and rrnS is generally similar to other lepidopterans but with some minor differences. The A+T-rich region includes the motif ATAGA, but the poly (T) stretch is replaced by a stem-loop structure, which may have a similar function to the poly (T) stretch. Finally, there are three long repeat (154 bp) sequences followed by one short repeat (56 bp) with four (TA)n intervals, and a 10-bp poly-A is present upstream of trnM. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the position of Yponomeutoidea, as represented by L. malifoliella, is the same as traditional classifications. Yponomeutoidea is the sister to the other lepidopteran superfamilies covered in the present study.
The authors provide the sequence of the mitochondrial genome and compare it with other Lepidoptera, distinguishing differences among the species.
To evaluate direct versus indirect MCP-1/CCR2 signaling and identify the cellular producers and effectors for MCP-1 during neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) development in vein grafts (VG).
Methods and Results
Genomic analysis revealed an over-representation of 13 inflammatory pathways in WT VGs compared to CCR2KO VGs. Further investigation with various VG-host combinations of MCP-1 and CCR2 deficient mice were used to modify the genotype of cells both inside (graft intrinsic group) and outside of the vein wall (graft extrinsic group). CCR2 deficiency inhibited NIH only when present in cells extrinsic to the graft wall, MCP-1 deficiency required its effectiveness in cells both intrinsic and extrinsic to the graft wall to suppress NIH. Deletion of either MCP-1 or CCR2 was equally effective in inhibiting NIH. CCR2 deficiency in the predominant neointimal cell population had no impact on NIH. Direct MCP-1 stimulation of primary neointimal SMCs had minimal influence on cell proliferation and matrix turnover, confirming an indirect mechanism of action.
MCP-1/CCR2 axis accelerates NIH via its signaling in graft extrinsic cells, particularly circulating inflammatory cells, with cells both intrinsic and extrinsic to the graft wall being critical MCP-1 producers. These findings underscore the importance of systemic treatment for anti MCP-1/CCR2 therapies.
Leukocytes; Chemokines; Vein Graft; Neointimal Hyperplasia
In the title compound, [ZnI2(C34H31N3)], the ZnII atom is four-coordinated by two I atoms and the pyridine N atoms from the bidentate 6′-phenyl-2,2′-bipyridine ligand in a distorted tetrahedral geometry.
Mutations in the X-linked MECP2 cause Rett syndrome, a devastating neurological disorder typified by a period of apparently normal development followed by loss of cognitive and psychomotor skills. Data from rare male patients suggest symptom onset and severity can be influenced by the location of the mutation, with amino acids 270 and 273 marking the difference between neonatal encephalopathy and death, on the one hand, and survival with deficits on the other. We therefore generated two mouse models expressing either MeCP2-R270X or MeCP2-G273X. The mice developed phenotypes at strikingly different rates and showed differential ATRX nuclear localization within the nervous system, over time, coinciding with phenotypic progression. We discovered that MeCP2 contains three AT-hook-like domains over a stretch of 250 amino acids, like HMGA DNA-bending proteins; one conserved AT-hook is disrupted in MeCP2-R270X, lending further support to the notion that one of MeCP2’s key functions is to alter chromatin structure.
The underlying causes of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) remain obscure, although research tools such as the angiotensin II (Ang II) apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE−/−) mouse model have aided investigations. Longitudinal imaging and determination of biomechanical forces in this small-scale model have been difficult. We hypothesized that high-frequency ultrasound biomicroscopy combined with speckle-tracking analytical strategies can be used to define the role of circumferential mechanical strain in AAA formation in the Ang II/apoE−/− mouse model of AAAs. We simultaneously examined dietary perturbations that might impact the biomechanical properties of the aortic wall, hypothesizing that the generalized inflammatory phenotype associated with diet-induced obesity would be associated with accelerated loss of circumferential strain and aneurysmal aortic degeneration.
Receiving either a 60 kcal% fat Western diet or standard 10 kcal% fat normal chow, Ang II-treated apoE−/− mice (n = 34) underwent sequential aortic duplex ultrasound scan imaging (Vevo 2100 System; VisualSonics, Toronto, Ontario, Canada) of their entire aorta. Circumferential strains were calculated using speckle-tracking algorithms and a custom MatLab analysis.
Decreased strains in all aortic locations after just 3 days of Ang II treatment were observed, and this effect progressed during the 4-week observation period. Anatomic segments along the aorta impacted wall strain (baseline highest in ascending aorta; P < .05), whereas diet did not. At 2 and 4 weeks, there was the largest progressive decrease in strain in the paravisceral/supraceliac aorta (P < .05), which was the segment most likely to be involved in aneurysm formation in this model.
In the Ang II/apoE−/− aneurysm model, the aorta significantly stiffens (with decreased strain) shortly after Ang II infusion, and this progressively continues through the next 4 weeks. High-fat feeding did not have an impact on wall strain. Delineation of biomechanical factors and AAA morphology via duplex scan and speckle-tracking algorithms in mouse models should accelerate insights into human AAAs.
The corpus callosum (CC) is the major conduit for information transfer between the cerebral hemispheres and plays an integral role in relaying sensory, motor and cognitive information between homologous cortical regions. The majority of fibers that make up the CC arise from large pyramidal neurons in layers III and V, which project contra-laterally. These neurons degenerate in Huntington’s disease (HD) in a topographically and temporally selective way. Since any focus of cortical degeneration could be expected to secondarily de-afferent homologous regions of cortex, we hypothesized that regionally selective cortical degeneration would be reflected in regionally selective degeneration of the CC. We used conventional T1-weighted, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and a modified corpus callosum segmentation scheme to examine the CC in healthy controls, huntingtin gene-carriers and symptomatic HD subjects. We measured mid-sagittal callosal cross-sectional thickness and several DTI parameters, including fractional anisotropy (FA), which reflects the degree of white matter organization, radial diffusivity, a suggested index of myelin integrity, and axial diffusivity, a suggested index of axonal damage of the CC. We found a topologically selective pattern of alterations in these measures in pre-manifest subjects that were more extensive in early symptomatic HD subjects and that correlated with performance on distinct cognitive measures, suggesting an important role of for disrupted inter-hemispheric transfer in the clinical symptoms of HD. Our findings provide evidence for early degeneration of commissural pyramidal neurons in the neocortex, loss of cortico-cortical connectivity, and functional compromise of associative cortical processing.
In the title molecule, C24H26N4, the pyrazoline ring assumes an envelope conformation with the aniline-bearing C atom at the flap position. The benzene ring and the pyridine ring form with the pyrazoline ring dihedral angles of 4.53 (1) and 6.26 (1)°, respectively. In turn, the aniline group is nearly perpendicular to the pyrazoline ring [dihedral angle = 79.96 (1)°]. The ethyl groups of the diethylamine substituent are disordered over two sets of sites, with an occupancy ratio of 0.624 (8):0.376 (8).
Identification of the host genetic factors that contribute to variation in vaccine responsiveness may uncover important mechanisms affecting vaccine efficacy. We carried out an integrative, longitudinal study combining genetic, transcriptional, and immunologic data in humans given seasonal influenza vaccine. We identified 20 genes exhibiting a transcriptional response to vaccination, significant genotype effects on gene expression, and correlation between the transcriptional and antibody responses. The results show that variation at the level of genes involved in membrane trafficking and antigen processing significantly influences the human response to influenza vaccination. More broadly, we demonstrate that an integrative study design is an efficient alternative to existing methods for the identification of genes involved in complex traits.
Vaccines increase resistance to disease by priming the immune system to respond to specific viruses or microorganisms. By presenting a weakened (or dead) form of a pathogen, or its toxins or surface proteins, to the immune system, vaccines trigger the production of antibodies against the virus or microorganism. If a vaccinated individual then encounters the pathogen, their immune system should be able to recognize and destroy it. Many vaccines also include a secondary agent, known as an adjuvant, to further stimulate the immune response.
Influenza, an RNA virus commonly referred to as the ‘flu’, is an infectious disease that affects both birds and mammals. Seasonal epidemics occur each year affecting 2–7% of the population. According to the World Health Organization, influenza leads to nearly 5 million hospitalizations each year and causes up to half a million deaths. Vaccination is a primary strategy for the prevention of seasonal influenza, but responses to the vaccine vary markedly, partly because of variation in the genetic makeup or genotype of individuals. However, the details of how genes influence response to vaccination, and indeed susceptibility to influenza, remain unclear.
To investigate the genetic basis of variation in the immune response of healthy adults to the seasonal influenza vaccine, Franco et al. combined information about the genotypes of individuals with measurements of their gene transcription and antibody response to vaccination. They identified 20 genes that contributed to differential immune responses to the vaccine. Almost half of these encode proteins that are not specifically associated with the immune system, but have more general roles in processes such as membrane trafficking and intracellular transport.
Focusing on these genes may enable researchers to spot those individuals who are less likely to respond to a vaccine. It could also open up new avenues of research for vaccine development: rather than designing adjuvants that target known immune mechanisms, researchers should develop adjuvants that target the proteins encoded by these 20 genes.
Complex-trait genetics; Vaccines; Human genetics; Integrative biology; Systems biology; eQTL; Human
The vascular endothelium plays a major role in the control of arterial tone; however, its role in venous tissues is less clear. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of endothelium in the control of venous function, and the relaxation pathways involved.
Circular segments of inferior vena cava (IVC) from male Sprague-Dawley rats were suspended between two wires and isometric contraction to phenylephrine (Phe, 10−5M) and 96 mM KCl was measured. Acetylcholine (Ach, 10−10 to 10−5M) was added and the percentage venous relaxation was measured. To determine the role of nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin (PGI2), vein relaxation was measured in the presence of the NOS inhibitor L-NAME (3X10−4 M) and the COX inhibitor indomethacin (10−5 M). To measure the role of hyperpolarization, vein relaxation was measured in the presence of K+ channel activator cromakalim (10−11 to 10−6 M), and the nonselective K+ channel blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA, 10−3 M). To test for the contribution of a specific K+ channel, the effects of K+ channel blockers: glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive KATP, 10−5M), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, voltage-dependent Kv, 10−3M), apamin (small conductance Ca2+-dependent SKCa, 10−7M), and iberiotoxin (large conductance Ca2+-dependent BKCa, 10−8M), on Ach-induced relaxation were tested.
Ach caused concentration-dependent relaxation of Phe contraction (max 49.9±4.9%). Removal of endothelium abolished Ach-induced relaxation. IVC treatment with L-NAME partially reduced Ach relaxation (32.8±4.9%). In IVC treated with L-NAME plus indomethacin significant Ach-induced relaxation (33.6±3.2%) could still be observed, suggesting a role of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). In IVC treated with L-NAME, indomethacin and TEA, Ach relaxation was abolished, supporting a role of EDHF. In veins stimulated with high KCl, Ach caused relaxation (max 59.5±3.5%) that was abolished in the presence of L-NAME and indomethacin suggesting that any Ach-induced EDHF is blocked in the presence of high KCl depolarizing solution, which does not favor outward movement of K+ ion and membrane hyperpolarization. Cromakalim, activator of KATP, caused significant IVC relaxation when applied alone or on top of maximal Ach-induced relaxation, suggesting that the Ach response may not involve KATP. Ach-induced relaxation was not inhibited by glibenclamide, 4-AP or apamin, suggesting little role of KATP, Kv or SKCa, respectively. In contrast, iberiotoxin significantly inhibited Ach-induced relaxation, suggesting a role of BKCa.
Thus endothelium-dependent venous relaxation plays a major role in the control of venous function. In addition to NO, an EDHF pathway involving BKCa may play a role in endothelium-dependent venous relaxation.
In the title compound, C17H14F2O3, the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 20.56 (8)° and the H atoms at the central propenone group are trans configured. One of the F atoms is disordered over two positions (occupancy ratio 0.57:0.43) and was refined using a split model. In the crystal, the molecules are linked into centrosymmetrical dimers and are further connected into a three-dimensional network via weak C—H⋯O interactions.
There are two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit of the title molecule, C8H9N3S2, both of which exhibit an E conformation with the pyridine ring and dithiocarbazate fragment located on opposite sides of the C=N bond. The pyridine ring and dithiocarbazate group are approximately coplanar, with dihedral angles of 4.74 (1) and 8.77 (1)° between their planes in the two molecules. In the crystal, molecules are linked to each other via N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming zigzag chains parallel to [10-1].
The title compound, C32H21N4·C2H5OH, crystallized as an ethanol monosolvate. In the molecule of this phenanthroline derivative, the pyridine rings are almost coplanar, making a dihedral angle of 1.54 (13)°. The triphenylamine group, introduced as an electron donor, shows a propeller-type structure, and the dihedral angles between the benzene rings are 68.71 11), 63.92 (16) and 70.81 (15)°. In the crystal, the phenanthroline molecules are linked via the solvent molecule by N—H⋯O, O—H⋯N and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of zigzag chains propagating along . These chains are linked via C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming undulating two-dimensional networks extending in the a- and b-axis directions.
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are rare quiescent cells that continuously replenish the cellular components of the peripheral blood. Observing that the ataxia-associated gene Ataxin-1-like (Atxn1L) was highly expressed in HSCs, we examined its role in HSC function through in vitro and in vivo assays. Mice lacking Atxn1L had greater numbers of HSCs that regenerated the blood more quickly than their wild-type counterparts. Molecular analyses indicated Atxn1L null HSCs had gene expression changes that regulate a program consistent with their higher level of proliferation, suggesting that Atxn1L is a novel regulator of HSC quiescence. To determine if additional brain-associated genes were candidates for hematologic regulation, we examined genes encoding proteins from autism- and ataxia-associated protein–protein interaction networks for their representation in hematopoietic cell populations. The interactomes were found to be highly enriched for proteins encoded by genes specifically expressed in HSCs relative to their differentiated progeny. Our data suggest a heretofore unappreciated similarity between regulatory modules in the brain and HSCs, offering a new strategy for novel gene discovery in both systems.
Our labs, working separately on brain function and blood stem cells, noticed that a particular gene involved in movement disorders was also expressed in the blood system. We discovered through bone marrow transplantation experiments that this gene, called Ataxin-1-like, normally plays a role in restricting the number of blood-forming stem cells; stem cells lacking this gene were more numerous and more active. We wondered if this brain-blood similarity would hold for a larger number of genes, so we used bioinformatics approaches to compare large datasets our labs had generated from each system. We found that a surprising number of genes implicated in autism and ataxia by molecular studies were also highly expressed in blood-forming stem cells. We suggest that such cross-system comparisons could be used more widely to discover genes with important functions in brain and blood, but also perhaps other systems.
We summarize our experience of the diagnosis, surgical treatment, and prognosis of solid pseudopapillary tumors (SPTs).
We carried out a retrospective study of clinical data from a series of 17 patients with SPT managed in two hospitals between October 2001 and November 2011.
All of the 17 patients were female and the average age at diagnosis was 26.6 years (range 11 years to 55 years). The tumor was located in the body or tail in ten patients, the head in five patients, and the neck in two patients. The median tumor size was 5.5 cm (range 2 cm to 10 cm). All 17 patients had curative resections, including seven distal pancreatectomies, five local resections, four pancreaticoduodenectomies, and one central pancreatectomy. Two patients required concomitant splenic vein resection due to local tumor invasion. All patients were alive and disease-free at a median follow-up of 48.2 months (range 2 to 90 months). There were no significant associations between clinicopathologic factors and malignant potential of SPT. Ki-67 was detected in three patients with pancreatic parenchyma invasion.
The SPT is an infrequent tumor, typically affecting young women without notable symptoms. Surgical resection is justified even in the presence of local invasion or metastases, as patients demonstrate excellent long-term survival. Positive immunoreactivity for Ki-67 may predict the malignant potential of SPTs.
In the title compound, [ZnI2(C17H20N2)2], the ZnII atom is four-coordinated by two I atoms and the N atoms of two pyridine rings belonging to different ligands in a distorted tetrahedral geometry. The coordinating pyridine rings are oriented in an almost perpendicular fashion, making a dihedral angle of 83.7 (5)°.
The objective of this study was to investigate the role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the modulation of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in a partial nephrectomy (PN) rat model using early-phase ischemic preconditioning (IPC).
Materials and Methods
Ninety male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups following right-side nephrectomy: Sham-operated rats (surgery without vascular clamping); PN rats (renal blood vessels were clamped for 40 min and PN was performed); and IPC rats (pretreated with 15 min ischemia and 10 min reperfusion). At 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 h, and 3 days after reperfusion, the pool of circulating EPCs and kidneys were harvested. The extent of renal injury was assessed, along with EPC number, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and vascular growth factor expression.
Pretreated rats exhibited significant improvements in renal function and morphology. EPC numbers in the kidneys were increased at 12 h following reperfusion in the IPC group as compared to the PN or Sham groups. Cell proliferation (including endothelial and tubular epithelial cells) and angiogenesis in peritubular capillaries were markedly increased in kidneys treated with IPC. In addition, vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) expression in the kidneys of pretreated rats was increased compared to rats subjected to PN.
Our investigation suggested that: (1) the early phase of IPC may attenuate renal IRI induced by PN; (2) EPCs play an important role in renal protection, involving promotion of cell proliferation and angiogenesis through release of several angiogenic factors.
Background: Over-expression of long non-coding RNA HOTAIR has been reported in several types of cancer. Yet its involvement in gastric cancer (GC) has not been well understood. The aim of present study was to examine the expression pattern of HOTAIR in GC patients, then, explore its role in promoting cancer invasion and underlying molecular mechanism. Methods: The expression level of HOTAIR in the tumor specimens of GC patients was quantified by Realtime RT-PCR. The correlation between HOTAIR level and clinicopathological factors as well as prognosis was then examined. Down-regulation of HOTAIR by RNA interference was applied to investigate its roles in tumor invasiveness via the view of Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Results: The expression level of HOTAIR in cancer tissues was higher than that in adjacent noncancerous tissues. Expression level of HOTAIR was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis and TNM stage. Furthermore, high expression level of HOTAIR was a predictor of poor over-all survival in GC patients. In vitro, inhibition of HOTAIR in GC cells could reduce invasiveness, as well as the expression of MMP1 and MMP3. In addition, suppression of HOTAIR could reverse EMT process. Conclusions: HOTAIR could act as a potential predictor for over-all survival in patients with GC. Inhibition of HOTAIR could reduce invasiveness and reverse EMT process in GC cells, indicating the potential role of HOTAIR in GC diagnostics and therapeutics.
Epithelial-mesenchymal Transition; Gastric cancer; HOTAIR; Long non-coding RNA; Lymphatic node metastasis.
Although the rhesus macaque is a unique model for the translational study of human diseases, currently its use in biomedical research is still in its infant stage due to error-prone gene structures and limited annotations. Here, we present RhesusBase for the monkey research community (http://www.rhesusbase.org). We performed strand-specific RNA-Seq studies in 10 macaque tissues and generated 1.2 billion 90-bp paired-end reads, covering >97.4% of the putative exon in macaque transcripts annotated by Ensembl. We found that at least 28.7% of the macaque transcripts were previously mis-annotated, mainly due to incorrect exon–intron boundaries, incomplete untranslated regions (UTRs) and missed exons. Compared with the previous gene models, the revised transcripts show clearer sequence motifs near splicing junctions and the end of UTRs, as well as cleaner patterns of exon–intron distribution for expression tags and cross-species conservation scores. Strikingly, 1292 exon–intron boundary revisions between coding exons corrected the previously mis-annotated open reading frames. The revised gene models were experimentally verified in randomly selected cases. We further integrated functional genomics annotations from >60 categories of public and in-house resources and developed an online accessible database. User-friendly interfaces were developed to update, retrieve, visualize and download the RhesusBase meta-data, providing a ‘one-stop’ resource for the monkey research community.