Mesorhizobium opportunistum strain WSM2075T was isolated in Western Australia in 2000 from root nodules of the pasture legume Biserrula pelecinus that had been inoculated with M. ciceri bv. biserrulae WSM1271. WSM2075T is an aerobic, motile, Gram negative, non-spore-forming rod that has gained the ability to nodulate B. pelecinus but is completely ineffective in N2 fixation with this host. This report reveals that the genome of M. opportunistum strain WSM2075T contains a chromosome of size 6,884,444 bp, encoding 6,685 protein-coding genes and 62 RNA-only encoding genes. The genome contains no plasmids, but does harbor a 455.7 kb genomic island from Mesorhizobium ciceri bv. biserrulae WSM1271 that has been integrated into a phenylalanine-tRNA gene.
root-nodule bacteria; nitrogen fixation; evolution; lateral gene transfer; integrative and conjugative elements; symbiosis; Alphaproteobacteria
Halorubrum lacusprofundi is an extreme halophile within the archaeal phylum Euryarchaeota. The type strain ACAM 34 was isolated from Deep Lake, Antarctica. H. lacusprofundi is of phylogenetic interest because it is distantly related to the haloarchaea that have previously been sequenced. It is also of interest because of its psychrotolerance. We report here the complete genome sequence of H. lacusprofundi type strain ACAM 34 and its annotation. This genome is part of a 2006 Joint Genome Institute Community Sequencing Program project to sequence genomes of diverse Archaea.
Archaea; Halophile; Halorubrum; Extremophile; Cold adaptation; Tree of life
Nitrosospira briensis C-128 is an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium isolated from an acid agricultural soil. N. briensis C-128 was sequenced with PacBio RS technologies at the DOE-Joint Genome Institute through their Community Science Program (2010). The high-quality finished genome contains one chromosome of 3.21 Mb and no plasmids. We identified 3073 gene models, 3018 of which are protein coding. The two-way average nucleotide identity between the chromosomes of Nitrosospira multiformis ATCC 25196 and Nitrosospira briensis C-128 was found to be 77.2 %. Multiple copies of modules encoding chemolithotrophic metabolism were identified in their genomic context. The gene inventory supports chemolithotrophic metabolism with implications for function in soil environments.
Nitrosospira; Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria; Nitrification; Agricultural soil; Ammonia monooxygenase; Nitrous oxide; Chemolithotroph
Thioalkalivibrio paradoxus strain ARh 1T is a chemolithoautotrophic, non-motile, Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria that was isolated from samples of haloalkaline soda lakes. It derives energy from the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds and is notable for its ability to grow on thiocyanate as its sole source of electrons, sulfur and nitrogen. The full genome consists of 3,756,729 bp and comprises 3,500 protein-coding and 57 RNA-coding genes. This organism was sequenced as part of the community science program at the DOE Joint Genome Institute.
Haloalkaliphilic; Soda lakes; Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria; Thiocyanate
Tolumonas lignolytica BRL6-1T sp. nov. is the type strain of T. lignolytica sp. nov., a proposed novel species of the Tolumonas genus. This strain was isolated from tropical rainforest soils based on its ability to utilize lignin as a sole carbon source. Cells of Tolumonas lignolytica BRL6-1T are mesophilic, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rods that are oxidase and catalase negative. The genome for this isolate was sequenced and returned in seven unique contigs totaling 3.6Mbp, enabling the characterization of several putative pathways for lignin breakdown. Particularly, we found an extracellular peroxidase involved in lignin depolymerization, as well as several enzymes involved in β-aryl ether bond cleavage, which is the most abundant linkage between lignin monomers. We also found genes for enzymes involved in ferulic acid metabolism, which is a common product of lignin breakdown. By characterizing pathways and enzymes employed in the bacterial breakdown of lignin in anaerobic environments, this work should assist in the efficient engineering of biofuel production from lignocellulosic material.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s40793-015-0100-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Anaerobic lignin degradation; Tropical forest soil isolate; Tolumonas
Here, we report the complete genome sequence (2.92 Mb) of Methanosphaerula palustris E1-9CT, a methanogen isolated from a minerotrophic fen. This is the first genome report of the Methanosphaerula genus, within the Methanoregulaceae family, in the Methanomicrobiales order. E1-9CT relatives are found in a wide range of ecological and geographical settings.
Thioalkalivibrio thiocyanoxidans strain ARh 2T is a sulfur-oxidizing bacterium isolated from haloalkaline soda lakes. It is a motile, Gram-negative member of the Gammaproteobacteria. Remarkable properties include the ability to grow on thiocyanate as the sole energy, sulfur and nitrogen source, and the capability of growth at salinities of up to 4.3 M total Na+. This draft genome sequence consists of 61 scaffolds comprising 2,765,337 bp, and contains 2616 protein-coding and 61 RNA-coding genes. This organism was sequenced as part of the Community Science Program of the DOE Joint Genome Institute.
Haloalkaliphilic; Soda lakes; Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria; Thiocyanate
Thioalkalivibrio thiocyanodenitrificans strain ARhD 1T is a motile, Gram-negative bacterium isolated from soda lakes that belongs to the Gammaproteobacteria. It derives energy for growth and carbon fixation from the oxidation of sulfur compounds, most notably thiocyanate, and so is a chemolithoautotroph. It is capable of complete denitrification under anaerobic conditions. The draft genome sequence consists of 3,746,647 bp in 3 scaffolds, containing 3558 protein-coding and 121 RNA genes. T. thiocyanodenitrificans ARhD 1T was sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Community Science Program.
Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus BSB-33 is a thermophilic gram positive obligate anaerobe isolated from a hot spring in West Bengal, India. Unlike other T. thermohydrosulfuricus strains, BSB-33 is able to anaerobically reduce Fe(III) and Cr(VI) optimally at 60 °C. BSB-33 is the first Cr(VI) reducing T. thermohydrosulfuricus genome sequenced and of particular interest for bioremediation of environmental chromium contaminations. Here we discuss features of T. thermohydrosulfuricus BSB-33 and the unique genetic elements that may account for the peculiar metal reducing properties of this organism. The T. thermohydrosulfuricus BSB-33 genome comprises 2597606 bp encoding 2581 protein genes, 12 rRNA, 193 pseudogenes and has a G + C content of 34.20 %. Putative chromate reductases were identified by comparative analyses with other Thermoanaerobacter and chromate-reducing bacteria.
Thermoanaerobacter; Thermophilic; Anaerobic; Gram-positive; Chromate; Chromium; Reducing; Metal; Bioremediation
Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans is able to grow by organohalide respiration using 3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenyl acetate (Cl-OHPA) as an electron acceptor. We used a combination of genome sequencing, biochemical analysis of redox active components, and shotgun proteomics to study elements of the organohalide respiratory electron transport chain. The genome of Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans JW/IU-DC1T consists of a single circular chromosome of 4,321,753 bp with a GC content of 44.97%. The genome contains 4,252 genes, including six rRNA operons and six predicted reductive dehalogenases. One of the reductive dehalogenases, CprA, is encoded by a well-characterized cprTKZEBACD gene cluster. Redox active components were identified in concentrated suspensions of cells grown on formate and Cl-OHPA or formate and fumarate, using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), visible spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of membrane extracts. In cell suspensions, these components were reduced upon addition of formate and oxidized after addition of Cl-OHPA, indicating involvement in organohalide respiration. Genome analysis revealed genes that likely encode the identified components of the electron transport chain from formate to fumarate or Cl-OHPA. Data presented here suggest that the first part of the electron transport chain from formate to fumarate or Cl-OHPA is shared. Electrons are channeled from an outward-facing formate dehydrogenase via menaquinones to a fumarate reductase located at the cytoplasmic face of the membrane. When Cl-OHPA is the terminal electron acceptor, electrons are transferred from menaquinones to outward-facing CprA, via an as-yet-unidentified membrane complex, and potentially an extracellular flavoprotein acting as an electron shuttle between the quinol dehydrogenase membrane complex and CprA.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants and microbial biodegradation is an important means of remediation of PAH-contaminated soil. Delftia acidovorans Cs1-4 (formerly Delftia sp. Cs1-4) was isolated by using phenanthrene as the sole carbon source from PAH contaminated soil in Wisconsin. Its full genome sequence was determined to gain insights into a mechanisms underlying biodegradation of PAH. Three genomic libraries were constructed and sequenced: an Illumina GAii shotgun library (916,416,493 reads), a 454 Titanium standard library (770,171 reads) and one paired-end 454 library (average insert size of 8 kb, 508,092 reads). The initial assembly contained 40 contigs in two scaffolds. The 454 Titanium standard data and the 454 paired end data were assembled together and the consensus sequences were computationally shredded into 2 kb overlapping shreds. Illumina sequencing data was assembled, and the consensus sequence was computationally shredded into 1.5 kb overlapping shreds. Gaps between contigs were closed by editing in Consed, by PCR and by Bubble PCR primer walks. A total of 182 additional reactions were needed to close gaps and to raise the quality of the finished sequence. The final assembly is based on 253.3 Mb of 454 draft data (averaging 38.4 X coverage) and 590.2 Mb of Illumina draft data (averaging 89.4 X coverage). The genome of strain Cs1-4 consists of a single circular chromosome of 6,685,842 bp (66.7 %G+C) containing 6,028 predicted genes; 5,931 of these genes were protein-encoding and 4,425 gene products were assigned to a putative function. Genes encoding phenanthrene degradation were localized to a 232 kb genomic island (termed the phn island), which contained near its 3’ end a bacteriophage P4-like integrase, an enzyme often associated with chromosomal integration of mobile genetic elements. Other biodegradation pathways reconstructed from the genome sequence included: benzoate (by the acetyl-CoA pathway), styrene, nicotinic acid (by the maleamate pathway) and the pesticides Dicamba and Fenitrothion. Determination of the complete genome sequence of D. acidovorans Cs1-4 has provided new insights the microbial mechanisms of PAH biodegradation that may shape the process in the environment.
Delftia acidovorans Cs1-4; Genome; phn island; Phenanthrene; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Nanopods
Frankia sp. strain DC12, isolated from root nodules of Datisca cannabina, is a member of the fourth lineage of Frankia, which is unable to reinfect actinorhizal plants. Here, we report its 6.88-Mbp high-quality draft genome sequence, with a G+C content of 71.92% and 5,858 candidate protein-coding genes.
Desulfovibrio carbinoliphilus subsp. oakridgensis FW-101-2B is an anaerobic, organic acid/alcohol-oxidizing, sulfate-reducing δ-proteobacterium. FW-101-2B was isolated from contaminated groundwater at The Field Research Center at Oak Ridge National Lab after in situ stimulation for heavy metal-reducing conditions. The genome will help elucidate the metabolic potential of sulfate-reducing bacteria during uranium reduction.
The Opitutaceae bacterium strain TAV5, a member of the phylum Verrucomicrobia, was isolated from the wood-feeding termite hindgut. We report here its complete genome sequence, which contains a chromosome and a plasmid of 7,317,842 bp and 99,831 bp, respectively. The genomic analysis reveals genes for methylotrophy, lignocellulose degradation, and ammonia and sulfate assimilation.
Methanoregula formicica SMSPT is a mesophilic H2/formate-utilizing methanogenic archaeon and a representative of the family Methanoregulaceae, a recently proposed novel family within the order Methanomicrobiales. Here, we report a 2.8-Mb complete genome sequence of this methanogenic archaeon.
Here, we report a 2.0-Mb complete genome sequence of Methanolinea tarda NOBI-1T, a methanogenic archaeon isolated from an anaerobic digested sludge. This is the first genome report of the genus Methanolinea isolate belonging to the family Methanoregulaceae, a recently proposed novel family within the order Methanomicrobiales.
We describe five novel Methylophilaceae ecotypes from a single ecological niche in Lake Washington, USA, and compare them to three previously described ecotypes, in terms of their phenotype and genome sequence divergence. Two of the ecotypes appear to represent novel genera within the Methylophilaceae. Genome-based metabolic reconstruction highlights metabolic versatility of Methylophilaceae with respect to methylotrophy and nitrogen metabolism, different ecotypes possessing different combinations of primary substrate oxidation systems (MxaFI-type methanol dehydrogenase versus XoxF-type methanol dehydrogenase; methylamine dehydrogenase versus N-methylglutamate pathway) and different potentials for denitrification (assimilatory versus respiratory nitrate reduction). By comparing pairs of closely related genomes, we uncover that site-specific recombination is the main means of genomic evolution and strain divergence, including lateral transfers of genes from both closely- and distantly related taxa. The new ecotypes and the new genomes contribute significantly to our understanding of the extent of genomic and metabolic diversity among organisms of the same family inhabiting the same ecological niche. These organisms also provide novel experimental models for studying the complexity and the function of the microbial communities active in methylotrophy.
Thermotoga thermarum Windberger et al. 1989 is a member to the genomically well characterized genus Thermotoga in the phylum ‘Thermotogae’. T. thermarum is of interest for its origin from a continental solfataric spring vs. predominantly marine oil reservoirs of other members of the genus. The genome of strain LA3T also provides fresh data for the phylogenomic positioning of the (hyper-)thermophilic bacteria. T. thermarum strain LA3T is the fourth sequenced genome of a type strain from the genus Thermotoga, and the sixth in the family Thermotogaceae to be formally described in a publication. Phylogenetic analyses do not reveal significant discrepancies between the current classification of the group, 16S rRNA gene data and whole-genome sequences. Nevertheless, T. thermarum significantly differs from other Thermotoga species regarding its iron-sulfur cluster synthesis, as it contains only a minimal set of the necessary proteins. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 2,039,943 bp long chromosome with its 2,015 protein-coding and 51 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
anaerobic; motile; thermophilic; chemoorganotrophic; solfataric spring; outer sheath-like structure; Thermotogaceae; GEBA
Desulfovibrio aespoeensis Aspo-2, DSM 10631T, is a mesophilic, hydrogenotrophic sulfate-reducing bacterium sampled from a 600-m-deep subsurface aquifer in hard rock under the island of Äspö in southeastern Sweden. We report the genome sequence of this bacterium, which is a 3,629,109-bp chromosome; plasmids were not found.
Desulfotomaculum gibsoniae is a mesophilic member of the polyphyletic spore-forming genus Desulfotomaculum within the family Peptococcaceae. This bacterium was isolated from a freshwater ditch and is of interest because it can grow with a large variety of organic substrates, in particular several aromatic compounds, short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids, which are degraded completely to carbon dioxide coupled to the reduction of sulfate. It can grow autotrophically with H2 + CO2 and sulfate and slowly acetogenically with H2 + CO2, formate or methoxylated aromatic compounds in the absence of sulfate. It does not require any vitamins for growth. Here, we describe the features of D. gibsoniae strain GrollT together with the genome sequence and annotation. The chromosome has 4,855,529 bp organized in one circular contig and is the largest genome of all sequenced Desulfotomaculum spp. to date. A total of 4,666 candidate protein-encoding genes and 96 RNA genes were identified. Genes of the acetyl-CoA pathway, possibly involved in heterotrophic growth and in CO2 fixation during autotrophic growth, are present. The genome contains a large set of genes for the anaerobic transformation and degradation of aromatic compounds, which are lacking in the other sequenced Desulfotomaculum genomes.
spore-forming anaerobes; sulfate reduction; autotrophic; anaerobic degradation of aromatic compounds; complete oxidizer; Peptococcaceae; Clostridiales
Clostridium indolis DSM 755T is a bacterium commonly found in soils and the feces of birds and mammals. Despite its prevalence, little is known about the ecology or physiology of this species. However, close relatives, C. saccharolyticum and C. hathewayi, have demonstrated interesting metabolic potentials related to plant degradation and human health. The genome of C. indolis DSM 755T reveals an abundance of genes in functional groups associated with the transport and utilization of carbohydrates, as well as citrate, lactate, and aromatics. Ecologically relevant gene clusters related to nitrogen fixation and a unique type of bacterial microcompartment, the CoAT BMC, are also detected. Our genome analysis suggests hypotheses to be tested in future culture based work to better understand the physiology of this poorly described species.
Clostridium indolis; citrate; lactate; aromatic degradation; nitrogen fixation; bacterial microcompartments
Methanoplanus limicola Wildgruber et al. 1984 is a mesophilic methanogen that was isolated from a swamp composed of drilling waste near Naples, Italy, shortly after the Archaea were recognized as a separate domain of life. Methanoplanus is the type genus in the family Methanoplanaceae, a taxon that felt into disuse since modern 16S rRNA gene sequences-based taxonomy was established. Methanoplanus is now placed within the Methanomicrobiaceae, a family that is so far poorly characterized at the genome level. The only other type strain of the genus with a sequenced genome, Methanoplanus petrolearius SEBR 4847T, turned out to be misclassified and required reclassification to Methanolacinia. Both, Methanoplanus and Methanolacinia, needed taxonomic emendations due to a significant deviation of the G+C content of their genomes from previously published (pre-genome-sequence era) values. Until now genome sequences were published for only four of the 33 species with validly published names in the Methanomicrobiaceae. Here we describe the features of M. limicola, together with the improved-high-quality draft genome sequence and annotation of the type strain, M3T. The 3,200,946 bp long chromosome (permanent draft sequence) with its 3,064 protein-coding and 65 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic
anaerobic; motile; mesophilic; methanogen; swamp; improved-high-quality draft; Methanomicrobiaceae; GEBA
Microvirga lupini LUT6T is an aerobic, non-motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Lupinus texensis. LUT6T was isolated in 2006 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the annual L. texensis growing in Travis Co., Texas. LUT6T forms a highly specific nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with endemic L. texensis and no other Lupinus species can form an effective nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with this isolate. Here we describe the features of M. lupini LUT6T, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 9,633,614 bp improved high quality draft genome is arranged into 160 scaffolds of 1,366 contigs containing 10,864 protein-coding genes and 87 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of a DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Project.
root-nodule bacteria; nitrogen fixation; rhizobia; Alphaproteobacteria
Desulfotomaculum nigrificans and D. carboxydivorans are moderately thermophilic members of the polyphyletic spore-forming genus Desulfotomaculum in the family Peptococcaceae. They are phylogenetically very closely related and belong to ‘subgroup a’ of the Desulfotomaculum cluster 1. D. nigrificans and D. carboxydivorans have a similar growth substrate spectrum; they can grow with glucose and fructose as electron donors in the presence of sulfate. Additionally, both species are able to ferment fructose, although fermentation of glucose is only reported for D. carboxydivorans. D. nigrificans is able to grow with 20% carbon monoxide (CO) coupled to sulfate reduction, while D. carboxydivorans can grow at 100% CO with and without sulfate. Hydrogen is produced during growth with CO by D. carboxydivorans. Here we present a summary of the features of D. nigrificans and D. carboxydivorans together with the description of the complete genome sequencing and annotation of both strains. Moreover, we compared the genomes of both strains to reveal their differences. This comparison led us to propose a reclassification of D. carboxydivorans as a later heterotypic synonym of D. nigrificans.
Thermophilic spore-forming anaerobes; sulfate reduction; carboxydotrophic; Peptococcaceae; Clostridiales
Syntrophorhabdus aromaticivorans strain UI is a mesophilic bacterium capable of degrading aromatic substrates in syntrophic cooperation with a partner methanogen. The draft genome sequence is 3.7 Mb, with a G+C content of 52.0%.