Atopobium parvulum (Weinberg et al. 1937) Collins and Wallbanks 1993 comb. nov. is the type strain of the species and belongs to the genomically yet unstudied Atopobium/Olsenella branch of the family Coriobacteriaceae. The species A. parvulum is of interest because its members are frequently isolated from the human oral cavity and are found to be associated with halitosis (oral malodor) but not with periodontitis. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of the genus Atopobium, and the 1,543,805 bp long single replicon genome with its 1369 protein-coding and 49 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
halitosis; obligately anaerobic; human respiratory tract; risk group 2; malodor; Coriobacteriaceae
Micromonospora species live in diverse environments and exhibit a broad range of functions, including antibiotic production, biocontrol, and degradation of complex polysaccharides. To learn more about these versatile actinomycetes, we sequenced the genome of strain L5, originally isolated from root nodules of an actinorhizal plant growing in Mexico.
Thermodesulfobacterium geofontis OPF15T (ATCC BAA-2454, JCM 18567) was isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park, and grows optimally at 83°C. The 1.6-Mb genome sequence was finished at the Joint Genome Institute and has been deposited for future genomic studies pertaining to microbial processes and nutrient cycles in high-temperature environments.
Marinitoga piezophila KA3 is a thermophilic, anaerobic, chemoorganotrophic, sulfur-reducing bacterium isolated from the Grandbonum deep-sea hydrothermal vent site at the East Pacific Rise (13°N, 2,630-m depth). The genome of M. piezophila KA3 comprises a 2,231,407-bp circular chromosome and a 13,386-bp circular plasmid. This genome was sequenced within Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute CSP 2010.
Halorhodospira halophila is among the most halophilic organisms known. It is an obligately photosynthetic and anaerobic purple sulfur bacterium that exhibits autotrophic growth up to saturated NaCl concentrations. The type strain H. halophila SL1 was isolated from a hypersaline lake in Oregon. Here we report the determination of its entire genome in a single contig. This is the first genome of a phototrophic extreme halophile. The genome consists of 2,678,452 bp, encoding 2,493 predicted genes as determined by automated genome annotation. Of the 2,407 predicted proteins, 1,905 were assigned to a putative function. Future detailed analysis of this genome promises to yield insights into the halophilic adaptations of this organism, its ability for photoautotrophic growth under extreme conditions, and its characteristic sulfur metabolism.
halophile; saturated salt; sulfur metabolism; purple sulfur bacterium; phototrophic
The strains Thermus oshimai JL-2 and Thermus thermophilus JL-18 each have a circular chromosome, 2.07 Mb and 1.9 Mb in size, respectively, and each has two plasmids ranging from 0.27 Mb to 57.2 kb. The megaplasmid of each strain contains a gene cluster for the reduction of nitrate to nitrous oxide, consistent with their incomplete denitrification phenotypes.
We describe the draft genome of the microcrustacean Daphnia pulex, which is only 200 Mb and contains at least 30,907 genes. The high gene count is a consequence of an elevated rate of gene duplication resulting in tandem gene clusters. More than 1/3 of Daphnia’s genes have no detectable homologs in any other available proteome, and the most amplified gene families are specific to the Daphnia lineage. The co-expansion of gene families interacting within metabolic pathways suggests that the maintenance of duplicated genes is not random, and the analysis of gene expression under different environmental conditions reveals that numerous paralogs acquire divergent expression patterns soon after duplication. Daphnia-specific genes – including many additional loci within sequenced regions that are otherwise devoid of annotations – are the most responsive genes to ecological challenges.
Desulfotomaculum ruminis Campbell and Postgate 1965 is a member of the large genus Desulfotomaculum which contains 30 species and is contained in the family Peptococcaceae. This species is of interest because it represents one of the few sulfate-reducing bacteria that have been isolated from the rumen. Here we describe the features of D. ruminis together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 3,969,014 bp long chromosome with a total of 3,901 protein-coding and 85 RNA genes is the second completed genome sequence of a type strain of the genus Desulfotomaculum to be published, and was sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Community Sequencing Program 2009.
anaerobic; motile; sporulating; mesophilic; sulfate-reducer; hydrogen sulfide; incomplete oxidizer; mixotrophic; CSP 2009; Peptococcaceae; Clostridiales
Serratia plymuthica AS13 is a plant-associated Gammaproteobacteria, isolated from rapeseed roots. It is of special interest because of its ability to inhibit fungal pathogens of rapeseed and to promote plant growth. The complete genome of S. plymuthica AS13 consists of a 5,442,549 bp circular chromosome. The chromosome contains 4,951 protein-coding genes, 87 tRNA genes and 7 rRNA operons. This genome was sequenced as part of the project entitled “Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens” within the 2010 DOE-JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP2010).
Gram-negative; non-sporulating; motile; plant-associated; chemoorganotrophic; Enterobacteriaceae
Paenibacillus sp.Y412MC10 was one of a number of organisms isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA under permit from the National Park Service. The isolate was initially classified as a Geobacillus sp. Y412MC10 based on its isolation conditions and similarity to other organisms isolated from hot springs at Yellowstone National Park. Comparison of 16 S rRNA sequences within the Bacillales indicated that Geobacillus sp.Y412MC10 clustered with Paenibacillus species, and the organism was most closely related to Paenibacillus lautus. Lucigen Corp. prepared genomic DNA and the genome was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the DOE Joint Genome Institute. The genome sequence was deposited at the NCBI in October 2009 (NC_013406). The genome of Paenibacillus sp. Y412MC10 consists of one circular chromosome of 7,121,665 bp with an average G+C content of 51.2%. Comparison to other Paenibacillus species shows the organism lacks nitrogen fixation, antibiotic production and social interaction genes reported in other paenibacilli. The Y412MC10 genome shows a high level of synteny and homology to the draft sequence of Paenibacillus sp. HGF5, an organism from the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) Reference Genomes. This, combined with genomic CAZyme analysis, suggests an intestinal, rather than environmental origin for Y412MC10.
Geobacillus sp. Y412MC10; Paenibacillus sp. Y412MC10; Obsidian Hot Spring
Thauera aminoaromatica strain MZ1T, an isolate belonging to genus Thauera, of the family Rhodocyclaceae and the class the Betaproteobacteria, has been characterized for its ability to produce abundant exopolysaccharide and degrade various aromatic compounds with nitrate as an electron acceptor. These properties, if fully understood at the genome-sequence level, can aid in environmental processing of organic matter in anaerobic cycles by short-circuiting a central anaerobic metabolite, acetate, from microbiological conversion to methane, a critical greenhouse gas. Strain MZ1T is the first strain from the genus Thauera with a completely sequenced genome. The 4,496,212 bp chromosome and 78,374 bp plasmid contain 4,071 protein-coding and 71 RNA genes, and were sequenced as part of the DOE Community Sequencing Program CSP_776774.
Thauera aminoaromatica; MZ1T; genome
Saccharomonospora marina Liu et al. 2010 is a member of the genus Saccharomonospora, in the family Pseudonocardiaceae that is poorly characterized at the genome level thus far. Members of the genus Saccharomonospora are of interest because they originate from diverse habitats, such as leaf litter, manure, compost, surface of peat, moist, over-heated grain, and ocean sediment, where they might play a role in the primary degradation of plant material by attacking hemicellulose. Organisms belonging to the genus are usually Gram-positive staining, non-acid fast, and classify among the actinomycetes. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence (permanent draft status), and annotation. The 5,965,593 bp long chromosome with its 5,727 protein-coding and 57 RNA genes was sequenced as part of the DOE funded Community Sequencing Program (CSP) 2010 at the Joint Genome Institute (JGI).
aerobic; chemoheterotrophic; Gram-positive; vegetative and aerial mycelia; spore-forming; non-motile; marine bacterium; Pseudonocardiaceae; CSP 2010
Saccharomonospora azurea Runmao et al. 1987 is a member of the genus Saccharomonospora, which is in the family Pseudonocardiaceae and thus far poorly characterized genomically. Members of the genus Saccharomonospora are of interest because they originate from diverse habitats, such as leaf litter, manure, compost, the surface of peat, and moist and over-heated grain, and may play a role in the primary degradation of plant material by attacking hemicellulose. Next to S. viridis, S. azurea is only the second member in the genus Saccharomonospora for which a completely sequenced type strain genome will be published. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence with project status ‘Improved high quality draft’, and the annotation. The 4,763,832 bp long chromosome with its 4,472 protein-coding and 58 RNA genes was sequenced as part of the DOE funded Community Sequencing Program (CSP) 2010 at the Joint Genome Institute (JGI).
aerobic; chemoheterotrophic; Gram-positive; vegetative and aerial mycelia; spore-forming; non-motile; soil bacterium; Pseudonocardiaceae; CSP 2010
A plant-associated member of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Serratia plymuthica strain AS12 was isolated from rapeseed roots. It is of scientific interest because it promotes plant growth and inhibits plant pathogens. The genome of S. plymuthica AS12 comprises a 5,443,009 bp long circular chromosome, which consists of 4,952 protein-coding genes, 87 tRNA genes and 7 rRNA operons. This genome was sequenced within the 2010 DOE-JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP2010) as part of the project entitled “Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens”.
Facultative anaerobe; gram-negative; motile; non-sporulating; mesophilic; chemoorganotrophic; agriculture; Enterobacteriaceae; CSP 2010
Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic ruminal bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome of this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology and cellulosome biology and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation products is ethanol.
Serratia plymuthica are plant-associated, plant beneficial species belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The members of the genus Serratia are ubiquitous in nature and their life style varies from endophytic to free-living. S. plymuthica AS9 is of special interest for its ability to inhibit fungal pathogens of rapeseed and to promote plant growth. The genome of S. plymuthica AS9 comprises a 5,442,880 bp long circular chromosome that consists of 4,952 protein-coding genes, 87 tRNA genes and 7 rRNA operons. This genome is part of the project entitled “Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens” awarded through the 2010 DOE-JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP2010).
motile; non-sporulating; mesophile; Gram-negative; free living; plant-associated; chemoorganotrophic; Enterobacteriaceae; CSP 2010
Polynucleobacter necessarius subsp. asymbioticus strain QLW-P1DMWA-1T is a planktonic freshwater bacterium affiliated with the family Burkholderiaceae (class Betaproteobacteria). This strain is of interest because it represents a subspecies with cosmopolitan and ubiquitous distribution in standing freshwater systems. The 16S-23S ITS genotype represented by the sequenced strain comprised on average more than 10% of bacterioplankton in its home habitat. While all strains of the subspecies P. necessarius asymbioticus are free-living freshwater bacteria, strains belonging to the only other subspecies, P. necessarius subsp. necessarius are obligate endosymbionts of the ciliate Euplotes aediculatus. The two subspecies of P. necessarius are the instances of two closely related subspecies that differ in their lifestyle (free-living vs. obligate endosymbiont), and they are the only members of the genus Polynucleobacter with completely sequenced genomes. Here we describe the features of P. necessarius subsp. asymbioticus, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 2,159,490 bp long chromosome with a total of 2,088 protein-coding and 48 RNA genes is the first completed genome sequence of the genus Polynucleobacter to be published and was sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Community Sequencing Program 2006.
aerobic; chemoorganotrophic; Gram-negative; non-motile; free-living; planktonic; freshwater habitats; Burkholderiaceae; Betaproteobacteria; CSP2006
Alicycliphilus denitrificans strain BC and A. denitrificans strain K601T degrade cyclic hydrocarbons. These strains have been isolated from a mixture of wastewater treatment plant material and benzene-polluted soil and from a wastewater treatment plant, respectively, suggesting their role in bioremediation of soil and water. Although the strains are phylogenetically closely related, there are some clear physiological differences. The hydrocarbon cyclohexanol, for example, can be degraded by strain K601T but not by strain BC. Furthermore, both strains can use nitrate and oxygen as an electron acceptor, but only strain BC can use chlorate as electron acceptor. To better understand the nitrate and chlorate reduction mechanisms coupled to the oxidation of cyclic compounds, the genomes of A. denitrificans strains BC and K601T were sequenced. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of A. denitrificans strains BC and K601T.
Desulfovibrio africanus strain Walvis Bay is an anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacterium capable of producing methylmercury (MeHg), a potent human neurotoxin. The mechanism of methylation by this and other organisms is unknown. We present the 4.2-Mb genome sequence to provide further insight into microbial mercury methylation and sulfate-reducing bacteria.
Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20 (formerly Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20) is a Gram-negative mesophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB), known to corrode ferrous metals and to reduce toxic radionuclides and metals such as uranium and chromium to sparingly soluble and less toxic forms. We present the 3.7-Mb genome sequence to provide insights into its physiology.
Chromohalobacter salexigens is one of nine currently known species of the genus Chromohalobacter in the family Halomonadaceae. It is the most halotolerant of the so-called ‘moderately halophilic bacteria’ currently known and, due to its strong euryhaline phenotype, it is an established model organism for prokaryotic osmoadaptation. C. salexigens strain 1H11T and Halomonas elongata are the first and the second members of the family Halomonadaceae with a completely sequenced genome. The 3,696,649 bp long chromosome with a total of 3,319 protein-coding and 93 RNA genes was sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Program DOEM 2004.
aerobic; chemoorganotrophic; Gram-negative; motile; moderately halophilic; halo tolerant; ectoine synthesis; Halomonadaceae; Gammaproteobacteria; DOEM 2004
The family Hyphomonadaceae within the Alphaproteobacteria is largely comprised of bacteria isolated from marine environments with striking morphologies and an unusual mode of cell growth. Here, we report the complete genome sequence Hirschia baltica, which is only the second a member of the Hyphomonadaceae with a published genome sequence. H. baltica is of special interest because it has a dimorphic life cycle and is a stalked, budding bacterium. The 3,455,622 bp long chromosome and 84,492 bp plasmid with a total of 3,222 protein-coding and 44 RNA genes were sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Program CSP 2008.
aerobic; chemoheterotrophic; mesophile; Gram-negative; motile; budding; stalk-forming; Hyphomonadaceae; Alphaproteobacteria; CSP 2008
Allochromatium vinosum formerly Chromatium vinosum is a mesophilic purple sulfur bacterium belonging to the family Chromatiaceae in the bacterial class Gammaproteobacteria. The genus Allochromatium contains currently five species. All members were isolated from freshwater, brackish water or marine habitats and are predominately obligate phototrophs. Here we describe the features of the organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence of a member of the Chromatiaceae within the purple sulfur bacteria thriving in globally occurring habitats. The 3,669,074 bp genome with its 3,302 protein-coding and 64 RNA genes was sequenced within the Joint Genome Institute Community Sequencing Program.
purple sulfur bacteria; Chromatiaceae; versatile
Desulfovibrio desulfuricans strain ND132 is an anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) capable of producing methylmercury (MeHg), a potent human neurotoxin. The mechanism of methylation by this and other organisms is unknown. We present the 3.8-Mb genome sequence to provide further insight into microbial mercury methylation.
Ferroglobus placidus belongs to the order Archaeoglobales within the archaeal phylum Euryarchaeota. Strain AEDII12DO is the type strain of the species and was isolated from a shallow marine hydrothermal system at Vulcano, Italy. It is a hyperthermophilic, anaerobic chemolithoautotroph, but it can also use a variety of aromatic compounds as electron donors. Here we describe the features of this organism together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 2,196,266 bp genome with its 2,567 protein-coding and 55 RNA genes was sequenced as part of a DOE Joint Genome Institute Laboratory Sequencing Program (LSP) project.
Archaea; Euryarchaeota; Archaeoglobales; hydrothermal vent; hyperthermophile; anaerobe