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1.  Comparing live lecture, internet-based & computer-based instruction: A randomized controlled trial 
Background: Comparing computer and internet based instruction with traditional giving lecture would provide enough evidence to identify best teaching practice. In this study, we compared lecture, interactive internet based and computer based learning regarding medical students' knowledge acquisition and satisfaction in teaching pathophysiology of hematology and oncology.
Methods: Eighty four medical students were randomized into three groups and an identical faculty member conducted the instructions through the above mentioned methods. Students' knowledge was assessed one week before and immediately after the interventions by pre and posttest. Students' satisfaction was assessed using a validated 5-point Likert scale.
Results: The results showed that students' satisfaction was significantly higher in interactive internet based group than other ones (p=0.05). There were a significant increase between pre and posttest scores in all groups (p=0.000). We used ANCOVA to compare score changes in the study groups, with posttest scores as the dependent factor and pretest scores as covariate and knowledge acquisition was significantly higher in interactive internet based group than other two groups (p=0.026).
Conclusion: The study showed that although interactive internet based instruction is a difficult and time consuming method, it is recommended to integrate this method to medical curricula.
PMCID: PMC4322327
Internet based teaching; Computer based learning (CBL); Traditional instruction; Medical students
2.  Psychometric properties of the Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure in an Iranian hospital setting 
Medical Education Online  2014;19:10.3402/meo.v19.24546.
Background
Students’ perceptions of the educational environment are an important construct in assessing and enhancing the quality of medical training programs. Reliable and valid measurement, however, can be problematic – especially as instruments developed and tested in one culture are translated for use in another.
Materials and method
This study sought to explore the psychometric properties of the Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure (PHEEM) for use in an Iranian hospital training setting. We translated the instrument into Persian and ensured its content validity by back translation and expert review prior to administering it to 127 residents of Urmia University of Medical Science.
Results
Overall internal consistency of the translated measure was good (a=0.94). Principal components analysis revealed five factors accounting for 52.8% of the variance.
Conclusion
The Persian version of the PHEEM appears to be a reliable and potentially valid instrument for use in Iranian medical schools and may find favor in evaluating the educational environments of residency programs nationwide.
doi:10.3402/meo.v19.24546
PMCID: PMC4127829  PMID: 25109351
education environment; postgraduate; evaluation; psychometrics
3.  The validity of Iran’s national university entrance examination (Konkoor) for predicting medical students’ academic performance 
BMC Medical Education  2012;12:60.
Background
In Iran, admission to medical school is based solely on the results of the highly competitive, nationwide Konkoor examination. This paper examines the predictive validity of Konkoor scores, alone and in combination with high school grade point averages (hsGPAs), for the academic performance of public medical school students in Iran.
Methods
This study followed the cohort of 2003 matriculants at public medical schools in Iran from entrance through internship. The predictor variables were Konkoor total and subsection scores and hsGPAs. The outcome variables were (1) Comprehensive Basic Sciences Exam (CBSE) scores; (2) Comprehensive Pre-Internship Exam (CPIE) scores; and (3) medical school grade point averages (msGPAs) for the courses taken before internship. Pearson correlation and regression analyses were used to assess the relationships between the selection criteria and academic performance.
Results
There were 2126 matriculants (1374 women and 752 men) in 2003. Among the outcome variables, the CBSE had the strongest association with the Konkoor total score (r = 0.473), followed by msGPA (r = 0.339) and the CPIE (r = 0.326). While adding hsGPAs to the Konkoor total score almost doubled the power to predict msGPAs (R2 = 0.225), it did not have a substantial effect on CBSE or CPIE prediction.
Conclusions
The Konkoor alone, and even in combination with hsGPA, is a relatively poor predictor of medical students’ academic performance, and its predictive validity declines over the academic years of medical school. Care should be taken to develop comprehensive admissions criteria, covering both cognitive and non-cognitive factors, to identify the best applicants to become "good doctors" in the future. The findings of this study can be helpful for policy makers in the medical education field.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-12-60
PMCID: PMC3461424  PMID: 22840211

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