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1.  Clinical pathways for fragility fractures of the pelvic ring: personal experience and review of the literature 
Fragility fractures of the pelvic ring (FFP) are increasing in frequency and require challenging treatment. A new comprehensive classification considers both fracture morphology and degree of instability. The classification system also provides recommendations for type and invasiveness of treatment. In this article, a literature review of treatment alternatives is presented and compared with our own experiences. Whereas FFP Type I lesions can be treated conservatively, FFP Types III and IV require surgical treatment. For FFP Type II lessions, percutaneous fixation techniques should be considered after a trial of conservative treatment. FFP Type III lesions need open reduction and internal fixation, whereas FFP Type IV lesions require bilateral fixation. The respective advantages and limitations of dorsal (sacroiliac screw fixation, sacroplasty, bridging plate fixation, transsacral positioning bar placement, angular stable plate) and anterior (external fixation, angular stable plate fixation, retrograde transpubic screw fixation) pelvic fixations are described.
PMCID: PMC4306730  PMID: 25323921
2.  Bilateral Pseudarthrosis of the Femoral Neck in a 25-Year-Old Male with Hereditary Hypophosphatemic Rickets 
Case Reports in Orthopedics  2014;2014:312712.
Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets (HHR) is a rare disorder of renal phosphate wasting and the most common form of heritable rickets. Here, we report a case of an active 25-year-old male with HHR showing atraumatic bilateral femoral neck pseudarthrosis after 4 years of consecutive knee pain. A conservative therapy was administered, taking into account both the risks of surgical treatment and the little impairment even in the sport activities which the patient experienced.
PMCID: PMC4052474  PMID: 24955267
3.  Traumatic atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation in an adolescent: a case report 
Atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation is rarely caused by trauma in adults. Usually, the treatment of choice is traction using Halo/Gardner-Wells fixation devices for up to six weeks.
Case presentation
We present the case of a 19-year-old Caucasian woman with traumatic atlantoaxial subluxation. Early reduction three hours after trauma and immobilization using only a soft collar were performed and yielded very good clinical results.
In the adult population, atlantoaxial subluxation is a rare condition but is severe if untreated. Early treatment implies a non-surgical approach and a good outcome. Conservative treatment is the recommended first step for this condition.
PMCID: PMC3275470  PMID: 22269577
4.  Cement-augmented dorsal instrumentation of the spine as a safe adjunct to the multimodal management of metastatic pheochromocytoma: a case report 
Malignant pheochromocytoma is a neuroendocrine tumor that originates from chromaffin tissue. Although osseous metastases are common, metastatic dissemination to the spine rarely occurs.
Five years after primary diagnosis of extra-adrenal, abdominal pheochromocytoma and laparoscopic extirpation, a 53-year old patient presented with recurrence of pheochromocytoma involving the spine, the pelvis, both proximal femora and the right humerus. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography revealed osteolytic lesions of numerous vertebrae (T1, T5, T10, and T12). In the case of T10, total destruction of the vertebral body with involvement of the rear edge resulted in the risk of vertebral collapse and subsequent spinal stenosis. Thus, dorsal instrumentation (T8-T12) and cement augmentation of T12 was performed after perioperative alpha- and beta-adrenergic blockade with phenoxybenzamine and bisoprolol.
After thorough preoperative evaluation to assess the risk for surgery and anesthesia, and appropriate perioperative management including pharmacological antihypertensive treatment, dorsal instrumentation of T8-T12 and cement augmentation of T12 prior to placing the corresponding pedicle screws did not result in hypertensive crisis or hemodynamic instability due to the release of catecholamines from metastatic lesions.
To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report describing cement-augmentation in combination with dorsal instrumentation to prevent osteolytic vertebral collapse in a patient with metastatic pheochromocytoma. With appropriate preoperative measures, cement-augmented dorsal instrumentation represents a safe approach to stabilize vertebral bodies with metastatic malignant pheochromocytoma. Nevertheless, direct manipulation of metastatic lesions should be avoided as far as possible in order to minimize the risk of hemodynamic complications.
PMCID: PMC3293075  PMID: 22222147
malignant pheochromocytoma; thoracic spine; adrenergic blockade; dorsal instrumentation; cement augmentation
5.  The calcar screw in angular stable plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures - a case study 
With new minimally-invasive approaches for angular stable plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures, the need for the placement of oblique inferomedial screws ('calcar screw') has increasingly been discussed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of calcar screws on secondary loss of reduction and on the occurrence of complications.
Patients with a proximal humeral fracture who underwent angular stable plate fixation between 01/2007 and 07/2009 were included. On AP views of the shoulder, the difference in height between humeral head and the proximal end of the plate were determined postoperatively and at follow-up. Additionally, the occurrence of complications was documented. Patients with calcar screws were assigned to group C+, patients without to group C-.
Follow-up was possible in 60 patients (C+ 6.7 ± 5.6 M/C- 5.0 ± 2.8 M). Humeral head necrosis occurred in 6 (C+, 15.4%) and 3 (C-, 14.3%) cases. Cut-out of the proximal screws was observed in 3 (C+, 7.7%) and 1 (C-, 4.8%) cases. In each group, 1 patient showed delayed union. Implant failure or lesions of the axillary nerve were not observed. In 44 patients, true AP and Neer views were available to measure the head-plate distance. There was a significant loss of reduction in group C- (2.56 ± 2.65 mm) compared to C+ (0.77 ± 1.44 mm; p = 0.01).
The placement of calcar screws in the angular stable plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures is associated with less secondary loss of reduction by providing inferomedial support. An increased risk for complications could not be shown.
PMCID: PMC3189144  PMID: 21943090
Proximal humerus; fracture; locked screw; locking plate
6.  Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) for the treatment of large and complex cartilage lesions of the knee 
Complex cartilage lesions of the knee including large cartilage defects, kissing lesions, and osteoarthritis (OA) represent a common problem in orthopaedic surgery and a challenging task for the orthopaedic surgeon. As there is only limited data, we performed a prospective clinical study to investigate the benefit of autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) for this demanding patient population.
Fifty-one patients displaying at least one of the criteria were included in the present retrospective study: (1.) defect size larger than 10 cm2; (2.) multiple lesions; (3.) kissing lesions, cartilage lesions Outerbridge grade III-IV, and/or (4.) mild/moderate osteoarthritis (OA). For outcome measurements, the International Cartilage Society's International Knee Documentation Committee's (IKDC) questionnaire, as well as the Cincinnati, Tegner, Lysholm and Noyes scores were used. Radiographic evaluation for OA was done using the Kellgren score.
Results and Discussion
Patient's age was 36 years (13-61), defects size 7.25 (3-17.5) cm2, previous surgical procedures 1.94 (0-8), and follow-up 30 (12-63) months. Instruments for outcome measurement indicated significant improvement in activity, working ability, and sports. Mean ICRS grade improved from 3.8 preoperatively to grade 3 postoperatively, Tegner grade 1.4 enhanced to grade 3.39. The Cincinnati score enhanced from 25.65 to 66.33, the Lysholm score from 33.26 to 64.68, the Larson score from 43.59 to 79.31, and Noyes score from 12.5 to 46.67, representing an improvement from Cincinnati grade 3.65 to grade 2.1. Lysholm grade 4 improved to grade 3.33, and Larson grade 3.96 to 2.78 (Table 1), (p < 0.001). Patients with kissing cartilage lesions had similar results as patients with single cartilage lesions.
Mean scores and grades at surgery (Tx) and at follow-up
Our results suggest that ACI provides mid-term results in patients with complex cartilage lesions of the knee. If long term results will confirm our findings, ACI may be a considered as a valuable tool for the treatment of complex cartilage lesions of the knee.
PMCID: PMC3114778  PMID: 21599992
7.  A New Incision Technique to Reduce Tibiofemoral Mismatch in Rotationplasty 
Rotationplasty provides stable and durable biologic reconstruction after tumor resection around the knee and renders reliable results, in young patients. However, after resection of the tumor, there is often a mismatch between the circumference of the proximal (femoral) and the distal (tibial) parts. Because rotationplasty includes an intercalary amputation where the ends are readapted, there is always a mismatch of the proximal and distal circumferences of the soft tissue envelope. To facilitate skin closure without tension and to avoid impaired wound healing and subsequent infections, the type of incision is critical and must be carefully planned. We present a new incision technique for rotationplasty about the knee. Half of the difference of the incision length of the proximal and distal circumferences represents the base of the triangle proximally, medially and laterally of the thigh. After adapting both ends, the peak of this flat triangle is distally adapted via a vertical incision which allows it to match unequal circumferences. This technique was used in eight patients, in all of whom the wounds healed uneventfully.
PMCID: PMC2853676  PMID: 19756901
8.  Is the Internal Rotation Lag Sign a Sensitive Test for Detecting Hip Abductor Tendon Ruptures after Total Hip Arthroplasty? 
Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most frequently performed procedures in orthopaedics and weakness of external rotators is often recognized thereafter. However, the etiology of lateral hip pain is multifaceted. For the diagnosis of abductor tendon rupture, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold standard. As not every patient can be subjected to MRI, a clinical diagnostic test for easy detection of lesions of the abductor tendon is missing. Here, we present the internal rotation lack sign indicating abductor tendon pathology.
The patient is placed in lateral position on a stretcher with hips and knees in neutral position. The knee is flexed to 45° and the hip passively abducted and elevated by the investigator. With the foot passively abducted, the patient is then asked to bring his knee in direction to the examination table. This motion is also tested passively. The test is regarded positive, if no internal rotation is possible and/or if this is painful. If groin pain is elicited during either of the exercises, the test is also rated positive.
We evaluated this test in 20 patients clinically and by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All patients demonstrated a positive internal rotation lag sign. Twelve of them lag of internal rotation and evidence of anterior abductor tendon rupture on MRI, 8 with lag of internal rotation and no evidence of abductor tendon rupture.
The new clinical diagnostic sign presented here may improve the diagnosis of abductor tendon rupture in the future.
Level of Evidence: Diagnostic study, level I.
PMCID: PMC3086859  PMID: 21496316
9.  Preferential Expression of the Secreted and Membrane forms of Tumor Endothelial Marker 7 transcripts in Osteosarcoma 
Anticancer research  2009;29(11):4317-4322.
High expression of tumor endothelial marker 7 (TEM7) is correlated with osteogenic sarcoma (OS) metastasis and poor survival of patients. The TEM7 gene produces four alternatively spliced transcripts with distinct functional domains; the expression pattern of these transcripts in OS is unknown.
Materials and Methods
mRNA expression was assessed in 5 OS cell lines, 7 normal bone, and 9 OS tumor specimens by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.
All OS cell lines, 6/9 tumors but none of the bone specimens expressed mRNA of TEM7 secreted forms 1 and 2. A total of 3/5 OS cell lines, 8/9 of tumors and 4/7 of bone specimens expressed mRNA of the TEM7 intracellular form. One out of 5 cell lines, 2/7 tumors and none of the bone specimens expressed mRNA of the TEM7 membrane form. The secreted forms had 20-fold higher expression in metastatic (LM7) compared to non-metatstatic (SAOS-2) cells.
The mRNA of secreted and the membrane forms of TEM7 are preferentially expressed in OS.
PMCID: PMC2800050  PMID: 20032373
TEM7; alternative splicing; osteosarcoma; PCR; metastasis
10.  Treatment of femoral neck fractures in elderly patients over 60 years of age - which is the ideal modality of primary joint replacement? 
Femoral neck fractures in the elderly are frequent, represent a great health care problem, and have a significant impact on health insurance costs. Reconstruction options using hip arthroplasty include unipolar or bipolar hemiarthroplasty (HA), and total hip arthroplasty (THA). The purpose of this review is to discuss the indications, limitations, and pitfalls of each of these techniques.
The Pubmed database was searched for all articles on femoral neck fracture and for the reconstruction options presented in this review using the search terms "femoral neck fracture", "unipolar hemiarthroplasty", "bipolar hemiarthroplasty", and "total hip arthroplasty". In addition, cross-referencing was used to cover articles eventually undetected by the respective search strategies. The resulting articles were then reviewed with regard to the different techniques, outcome and complications of the distinct reconstruction options.
THA yields the best functional results in patients with displaced femoral neck fractures with complication rates comparable to HA. THA is beneficially implanted using an anterior approach exploiting the internervous plane between the tensor fasciae latae and the sartorius muscles allowing for immediate full weight-bearing. Based on our findings, bipolar hemiarthroplasty, similar to unipolar hemiarthroplasty, cannot restorate neither anatomical nor biomechanical features of the hip joint. Therefore, it can only be recommended as a second line of defense-procedure for patients with low functional demands and limited live expectancy.
THA is the treatment of choice for femoral neck fractures in patients older than 60 years. HA should only be implanted in patients with limited life expectancy.
PMCID: PMC2972258  PMID: 20961437
11.  Osteoblastic and Osteolytic Human Osteosarcomas can be Studied with a new Xenograft Mouse Model Producing Spontaneous Metastases 
Cancer investigation  2009;27(4):435-442.
There is no animal model that reflects the histological and radiographical heterogeneity of osteosarcoma. We assessed seven osteosarcoma cell lines for their potential to develop orthotopic tumors and lung metastasis in SCID mice. Whereas radiologically, 143B developed osteolytic tumors, SaOS-LM7 developed osteoblastic primary tumors. The mineralization status was confirmed by assessing the alkaline phosphatase activity and the microarray expression profile. We herein report a xenograft orthotopic osteosarcoma mouse model to assess osteoblastic and osteolytic lesions, which may contribute in the search for new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.
PMCID: PMC2723944  PMID: 19212826
Osteosarcoma; Animal Model; Xenograft; Orthotopic; Lung metastasis
12.  Sclerosing Epithelioid Fibrosarcoma: Case Presentation and a Systematic Review 
In sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF), a rare variant of low-grade fibrosarcoma, treatment results and therapeutic options are poorly characterized. We systematically analyzed the data of all 89 patients (43 female, 46 male; mean age, 47 years [range, 14–87 years]) reported in the literature concerning clinical presentation, histopathology, differential diagnosis, treatment, survival rates, and prognosis, and we present an additional case. Information detailing treatment, disease control, and followup was available in 60 (67%), 75 (84%), and 68 patients (76%), respectively. Case history was variable with one-third of patients reporting a painful, enlarging mass. Ten patients (13%) presented with metastases, 23 (31%) had metastases develop after diagnosis, and 28 (37%) had local recurrence. Low cellularity, mild pleomorphy, and sclerotic hyaline matrix of SEF suggest a benign clinical behavior, and cell morphology allows for the wide differential diagnosis of benign, pseudosarcomatous, and malignant proliferations. In addition to surgery, 11 patients (15%) had chemotherapy, 22 (29%) had postoperative radiation therapy, and three (4%) had a combination of both. Twenty-three patients (34%) died from their disease after a mean of 46 months, 24 (35%) were alive with disease, and 20 (31%) were alive without evidence of disease. Patients with SEF of the head and neck had the worst prognosis.
Level of Evidence: Level III, prognostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11999-008-0205-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC2384045  PMID: 18340502
13.  Treatment of focal degenerative cartilage defects with polymer-based autologous chondrocyte grafts: four-year clinical results 
Second-generation autologous chondrocyte implantation with scaffolds stabilizing the grafts is a clinically effective procedure for cartilage repair. In this ongoing prospective observational case report study, we evaluated the effectiveness of BioSeed®-C, a cell-based cartilage graft based on autologous chondrocytes embedded in fibrin and a stable resorbable polymer scaffold, for the treatment of clinical symptomatic focal degenerative defects of the knee.
Clinical outcome after 4-year clinical follow-up was assessed in 19 patients with preoperatively radiologically confirmed osteoarthritis and a Kellgren-Lawrence score of 2 or more. Clinical scoring was performed before implantation of the graft and 6, 12, and 48 months after implantation using the Lysholm score, the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, and the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) score. Cartilage regeneration and articular resurfacing were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 4 years after implantation of the autologous cartilage graft.
Significant improvement (P < 0.05) of the Lysholm and ICRS scores was observed as early as 6 months after implantation of BioSeed®-C and remained stable during follow-up. The IKDC score showed significant improvement compared with the preoperative situation at 12 and 48 months (P < 0.05). The KOOS showed significant improvement in the subclasses pain, activities of daily living, and knee-related quality of life 6 months as well as 1 and 4 years after implantation of BioSeed®-C in osteoarthritic defects (P < 0.05). MRI analysis showed moderate to complete defect filling with a normal to incidentally hyperintense signal in 16 out of 19 patients treated with BioSeed®-C. Two patients without improvement in the clinical and MRI scores received a total knee endoprosthesis after 4 years.
The results show that the good clinical outcome achieved 1 year after implantation of BioSeed®-C remains stable over the course of a period of 4 years and suggest that implanting BioSeed®-C is a promising treatment option for the repair of focal degenerative defects of the knee.
PMCID: PMC2688178  PMID: 19265548
14.  Treatment of posttraumatic and focal osteoarthritic cartilage defects of the knee with autologous polymer-based three-dimensional chondrocyte grafts: 2-year clinical results 
Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is an effective clinical procedure for the regeneration of articular cartilage defects. BioSeed®-C is a second-generation ACI tissue engineering cartilage graft that is based on autologous chondrocytes embedded in a three-dimensional bioresorbable two-component gel-polymer scaffold. In the present prospective study, we evaluated the short-term to mid-term efficacy of BioSeed-C for the arthrotomic and arthroscopic treatment of posttraumatic and degenerative cartilage defects in a group of patients suffering from chronic posttraumatic and/or degenerative cartilage lesions of the knee. Clinical outcome was assessed in 40 patients with a 2-year clinical follow-up before implantation and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after implantation by using the modified Cincinnati Knee Rating System, the Lysholm score, the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, and the current health assessment form (SF-36) of the International Knee Documentation Committee, as well as histological analysis of second-look biopsies. Significant improvement (p < 0.05) in the evaluated scores was observed at 1 and/or 2 years after implantation of BioSeed-C, and histological staining of the biopsies showed good integration of the graft and formation of a cartilaginous repair tissue. The Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score showed significant improvement in the subclasses pain, other symptoms, and knee-related quality of life 2 years after implantation of BioSeed-C in focal osteoarthritic defects. The results suggest that implanting BioSeed-C is an effective treatment option for the regeneration of posttraumatic and/or osteoarthritic defects of the knee.
PMCID: PMC1906819  PMID: 17451597

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