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author:("mum, Steven")
1.  Juvenile Paget’s Disease In An Iranian Kindred With Vitamin D Deficiency And Novel Homozygous TNFRSF11B Mutation 
Juvenile Paget’s disease (JPD) is a rare heritable osteopathy characterized biochemically by markedly increased serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity emanating from generalized acceleration of skeletal turnover. Affected infants and children typically suffer bone pain and fractures and deformities, become deaf, and have macrocranium. Some who survive to young adult life develop blindness from retinopathy engendered by vascular microcalcification. Most cases of JPD are caused by osteoprotegerin (OPG) deficiency due to homozygous loss-of-function mutations within the TNFRSF11B gene that encodes OPG. We report a 3-year-old Iranian girl with JPD and craniosynostosis who had vitamin D deficiency in infancy. She presented with fractures during the first year-of-life followed by bone deformities, delayed development, failure-to-thrive, and pneumonias. At 1 year-of-age, biochemical studies of serum revealed marked hyperphosphatasemia together with low-normal calcium and low inorganic phosphate and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Several family members in previous generations of this consanguineous kindred may also have had JPD and vitamin D deficiency. Mutation analysis showed homozygosity for a unique missense change (c.130T>C, p.Cys44Arg) in TNFRSF11B that would compromise the cysteine-rich domain of OPG that binds receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). Both parents were heterozygous for this mutation. The patient’s serum OPG level was extremely low and RANKL level markedly elevated. She responded well to rapid oral vitamin D repletion followed by pamidronate treatment given intravenously. Our patient is the first Iranian reported with JPD. Her novel mutation in TNFRSF11B plus vitamin D deficiency in infancy was associated with severe JPD uniquely complicated by craniosynostosis. Pamidronate treatment with vitamin D sufficiency can be effective treatment for the skeletal disease caused by the OPG deficiency form of JPD.
doi:10.1002/jbmr.1868
PMCID: PMC3663917  PMID: 23322328
alkaline phosphatase; bone remodeling; craniosynostosis; deafness; hyperphosphatasemia; hyperphosphatasia; osteoclast; osteolysis; osteoprotegerin; pamidronate; retinopathy; rickets; tumor necrosis factor; vascular calcification; vitamin D deficiency
2.  The Val432Leu polymorphism of the CYP1B1 gene is associated with differences in estrogen metabolism and bone density☆ 
Bone  2008;44(3):442-448.
Polymorphisms of the CYP450 genes that encode for the enzymes that metabolize estrogen are linked to hormone-related cancers. We investigated the impact of two polymorphisms of the CYP1B1 gene previously reported to be associated with hormone-related disorders on estrogen metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD), another hormone-dependent condition, in women from different ethnic backgrounds. Four hundred sixty-eight postmenopausal Caucasian women, 220 from St. Louis, MO, USA (mean age=63.5±0.53 years) and 248 from Palermo, Italy (mean age=72.9±0.44 years) participated in the study. Measurements of urinary estrogen metabolites by enzyme-linked immunoassay, serum estradiol by ultrasensitive radioimmnunoassay, and serum sex hormone-binding globulin by immunoradiometric assay were performed only in the American women, while BMD by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and genotyping by pyrosequencing were performed in both American and Italian women. Differences in the levels of metabolites, free estradiol index and BMD were analyzed by analysis of covariance. Analysis among the American participants for the Valine432Leucine polymorphism showed that, compared to women with the Val/Val genotype, women with the Leu allele (Val/Leu and Leu/Leu) had significantly higher log-transformed values of total urinary estrogen metabolite (ng/mg-creatinine) levels (1.23±0.04, 1.35±0.02, and 1.34±0.03; p=0.03), and significantly lower BMD (gm/cm2) in the lumbar spine (1.009±0.02, 0.955±0.01 and 0.931±0.02; p=0.03) and the femoral neck (0.748± 0.02, 0.717±0.01 and 0.693±001, p =0.03) for the Val/Val, Val/Leu and Leu/Leu genotypes respectively. There were no significant differences in the urinary metabolites and BMD in the different genotypes for the Alanine119Serine polymorphism among the American women. Meanwhile, a separate analysis among the Italian women revealed no significant differences in BMD among the different genotypes for the two polymorphisms investigated. In conclusion, women with the Leu allele for the CYP1B1 Val432polymorphism have increased estrogen catabolism, as indicated by higher urinary estrogen metabolites, compared to those with Val/Val genotype. This may lead to relative hypoestrogenism and lower BMD in the lumbar spine and femoral neck in these women. Our data suggest that through its effect on the rate of estrogen catabolism, the Val432Leu polymorphism of the CYP1B1 gene may represent as a possible genetic risk factor for osteoporosis in American women.
doi:10.1016/j.bone.2008.09.018
PMCID: PMC3966713  PMID: 18977467
Genetic research; Hormone; Receptors; Osteoporosis; Epidemiology; Menopause
3.  Whole-exome sequencing identifies mutations in the nucleoside transporter gene SLC29A3 in dysosteosclerosis, a form of osteopetrosis 
Human Molecular Genetics  2012;21(22):4904-4909.
Dysosteosclerosis (DSS) is the form of osteopetrosis distinguished by the presence of skin findings such as red-violet macular atrophy, platyspondyly and metaphyseal osteosclerosis with relative radiolucency of widened diaphyses. At the histopathological level, there is a paucity of osteoclasts when the disease presents. In two patients with DSS, we identified homozygous or compound heterozygous missense mutations in SLC29A3 by whole-exome sequencing. This gene encodes a nucleoside transporter, mutations in which cause histiocytosis–lymphadenopathy plus syndrome, a group of conditions with little or no skeletal involvement. This transporter is essential for lysosomal function in mice. We demonstrate the expression of Slc29a3 in mouse osteoclasts in vivo. In monocytes from patients with DSS, we observed reduced osteoclast differentiation and function (demineralization of calcium surface). Our report highlights the pleomorphic consequences of dysfunction of this nucleoside transporter, and importantly suggests a new mechanism for the control of osteoclast differentiation and function.
doi:10.1093/hmg/dds326
PMCID: PMC3607481  PMID: 22875837
4.  Effects of Polymorphisms of the Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG) Gene on Free Estradiol and Bone Mineral Density 
Bone  2009;45(6):1169-1174.
Background
Polymorphisms of the sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) gene are associated with differences in SHBG levels, influencing the risk for breast cancer and polycystic ovarian syndrome, but no association has been reported for osteoporosis in post-menopausal women.
Objective
To determine the effect of G to A substitution in the 5′UTR (rs1799941) and the Asp356Asn (rs6259) polymorphisms of the SHBG gene on bone mineral density (BMD).
Methods
This is a cross-sectional study in a university-based research center from May, 2002 to December, 2007. A total of two hundred and thirteen healthy postmenopausal Caucasian women > one year from last menstrual period participated to this study. Serum estradiol by ultrasensitive radioimmnunoassay, serum sex hormone-binding globulin by immunoradiometric assay, and urinary NTx by enzyme-linked immunoassay were measured. BMD measurements were performed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and genotyping by Pyrosequencing.
Results
There were no significant differences in SHBG levels associated with either rs1799941 or rs6259. Using a p value of <0.00625 for significance, we found that subjects with the A allele (GA+AA) for the rs1799941, had a trend for lower free estradiol index (FEI) compared to the GG genotype (p=0.04). They also had significantly lower BMD at the intertrochanter (p=0.003) and trend for lower BMD at the total hip (p=0.02). There was no significant difference in FEI levels between the genotypes for the rs6259 polymorphism, but women with the Asn allele (Asp/ Asn+Asn/Asn), had significantly lower BMD in the total femur (p=0.004) and intertrochanter (0.002) compared to those with the Asp/Asp genotype.
Conclusions
Our data suggest that polymorphisms of the SHBG gene are associated with significant differences in BMD at the proximal femur sites. Thus, genetic variations in the SHBG gene may influence BMD at the hip in postmenopausal women.
doi:10.1016/j.bone.2009.08.001
PMCID: PMC3689651  PMID: 19679209
sex hormone-binding globulin; free estradiol; bone mineral density; osteoporosis
5.  COL1 C-propeptide Cleavage Site Mutations Cause High Bone Mass Osteogenesis Imperfecta 
Human mutation  2011;32(6):598-609.
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is most often caused by mutations in the type I procollagen genes (COL1A1/COL1A2). We identified two children with substitutions in the type I procollagen C-propeptide cleavage site, which disrupt a unique processing step in collagen maturation and define a novel phenotype within OI. The patients have mild OI caused by mutations in COL1A1 (Patient 1: p.Asp1219Asn) or COL1A2 (Patient 2: p.Ala1119Thr), respectively. Patient 1 L1-L4 DXA z-score was +3.9 and pQCT vBMD was +3.1; Patient 2 had L1-L4 DXA z-score of 0.0 and pQCT vBMD of −1.8. Patient BMD contrasts with radiographic osteopenia and histomorphometry without osteosclerosis. Mutant procollagen processing is impaired in pericellular and in vitro assays. Patient dermal collagen fibrils have irregular borders. Incorporation of pC-collagen into matrix leads to increased bone mineralization. FT-IR imaging confirms elevated mineral/matrix ratios in both patients, along with increased collagen maturation in trabecular bone, compared to normal or OI controls. Bone mineralization density distribution revealed a marked shift toward increased mineralization density for both patients. Patient 1 has areas of higher and lower bone mineralization than controls; Patient 2’s bone matrix has a mineral content exceeding even classical OI bone. These patients define a new phenotype of high BMD OI and demonstrate that procollagen C-propeptide cleavage is crucial to normal bone mineralization.
doi:10.1002/humu.21475
PMCID: PMC3103631  PMID: 21344539
Osteogenesis imperfecta; C-propeptide; collagen; C-proteinase; mineralization; high bone mass
6.  Camurati-Engelmann Disease: Unique Variant Featuring a Novel Mutation in TGFβ1 Encoding Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 and a Missense Change in TNFSF11 Encoding RANK Ligand 
We report a 32-year-old man and his 59-year-old mother with a unique and extensive variant of Camurati-Engelmann disease (CED) featuring histopathological changes of osteomalacia and alterations within TGFβ1 and TNFSF11 encoding TGFβ1 and RANKL, respectively. He suffered leg pain and weakness since childhood and reportedly grew until his late 20s, reaching 7 feet in height. He had deafness, perforated nasal septum, torus palatinus, disproportionately long limbs with knock-knees, low muscle mass, and pseudoclubbing. Radiographs revealed generalized skeletal abnormalities, including wide bones and cortical and trabecular bone thickening in keeping with CED, except that long bone ends were also affected. Lumbar spine and hip BMD Z-scores were + 7.7 and + 4.4, respectively. Biochemical markers of bone turnover were elevated. Hypocalciuria accompanied low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels. Pituitary hypogonadism and low serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 were present. Karyotype was normal. Despite vitamin D repletion, iliac crest histology revealed severe osteomalacia. Exon 1 of TNFRSF11A (RANK), exons 2, 3, and 4 of LRP5, and all coding exons and adjacent mRNA splice junctions of TNFRSF11B (OPG), SQSTM1 (sequestosome 1), and TNSALP (tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase) were intact. His asymptomatic and less dysmorphic 5′11″ mother, also with low serum 25(OH)D, had milder clinical, radiological, biochemical, and histopathological findings. Both individuals were heterozygous for a novel 12-bp duplication (c.27_38dup, p.L10_L13dup) in exon 1 of TGFβ1, predicting four additional leucine residues in the latency-associated-peptide segment of TGFβ1, consistent with CED. The son was also homozygous for a single base transversion in TNFSF11, predicting a nonconservative amino acid change (c.107C > G, p.Pro36Arg) in the intracellular domain of RANKL that was heterozygous in his nonconsanguineous parents. This TNFSF11 variant was not found in the SNP Database, nor in published TNFSF11 association studies, but it occurred in four of the 134 TNFSF11 alleles (3.0%) we tested randomly among individuals without CED. Perhaps the unique phenotype of this CED family is conditioned by altered RANKL activity. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
doi:10.1002/jbmr.283
PMCID: PMC3179308  PMID: 21541994
DEAFNESS; DIAPHYSEAL DYSPLASIA; OSTEOMALACIA; OSTEOSCLEROSIS; PERIOSTITIS; PREDNISONE; TORUS PALATINUS
7.  Dysosteosclerosis Presents as an “Osteoclast-Poor” Form of Osteopetrosis: Comprehensive Investigation of a 3-Year-Old Girl and Literature Review 
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research  2010;25(11):2527-2539.
Dysosteosclerosis (DSS), an extremely rare dense bone disease, features short stature and fractures and sometimes optic atrophy, cranial nerve palsy, developmental delay, and failure of tooth eruption in infancy or early childhood consistent with osteopetrosis (OPT). Bone histology during childhood shows unresorbed primary spongiosa from deficient osteoclast action. Additionally, there is remarkable progressive flattening of all vertebrae and, by adolescence, paradoxical metaphyseal osteopenia with thin cortical bone. Reports of consanguinity indicate autosomal recessive inheritance, yet more affected males than females suggest X-linked recessive inheritance. We investigated a nonconsanguineous girl with DSS. Osteosclerosis was discovered at age 7 months. Our studies, spanning ages 11 to 44 months, showed weight at approximately 50th percentile, and length diminishing from approximately 30th percentile to –2.3 SD. Head circumference was +4 SD. The patient had frontal bossing, blue sclera, normal teeth, genu valgum, and unremarkable joints. Radiographs showed orbital and facial sclerosis, basilar thickening, bone-in-bone appearance of the pelvis, sclerotic long bone ends, and fractures of ribs and extremities. Progressive metaphyseal widening occurred as vertebrae changed from ovoid to flattened and became beaked anteriorly. A hemogram was normal. Consistent with OPT, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations reflected dietary calcium levels. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and TRACP-5b were subnormal. The iliac crest contained excessive primary spongiosa and no osteoclasts. No mutations were identified in the splice sites or exons for the genes encoding chloride channel 7, T-cell immune regulator 1, OPT-associated transmembrane protein 1, and monocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and its receptor C-FMS, ANKH, OPG, RANK, and RANKL. Genomic copy-number microarray was unrevealing. Hence, DSS is a distinctive OPT of unknown etiology featuring osteoclast deficiency during early childhood. How osteopenia follows is an enigma of human skeletal pathobiology. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
doi:10.1002/jbmr.131
PMCID: PMC3179286  PMID: 20499338
bone remodeling; erlenmeyer flask deformity; osteoclast; osteosclerosis; RANKL; skeletal dysplasia
8.  Clinical Studies in Familial VCP Myopathy Associated With Paget Disease of Bone and Frontotemporal Dementia 
Inclusion body myopathy with Paget disease of the bone (PDB) and/or frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD, OMIM 167320), is a progressive autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the Valousin-containing protein (VCP, p97 or CDC48) gene. IBMPFD can be difficult to diagnose. We assembled data on a large set of families to illustrate the number and type of misdiagnoses that occurred. Clinical analysis of 49 affected individuals in nine families indicated that 42 (87%) of individuals had muscle disease. The majority were erroneously diagnosed with limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD), facioscapular muscular dystrophy, peroneal muscular dystrophy, late adult onset distal myopathy, spinal muscular atrophy, scapuloperoneal muscular dystrophy, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) among others. Muscle biopsies showed rimmed vacuoles characteristic of an inclusion body myopathy in 7 of 18 patients (39%), however, inclusion body myopathy was correctly diagnosed among individuals in only families 5 and 15. Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) was diagnosed in 13 individuals (27%) at a mean age of 57 years (range 48.9–60.2 years); however, several individuals had been diagnosed with Alzheimer disease. Histopathological examination of brains of three affected individuals revealed a pattern of ubiquitin positive neuronal intranuclear inclusions and dystrophic neurites. These families expand the clinical phenotype in IBMPFD, a complex disorder caused by mutations in VCP. The presence of PDB in 28 (57%) individuals suggests that measuring serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity may be a useful screen for IBMPFD in patients with myopathy.
doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.31862
PMCID: PMC2467391  PMID: 18260132
autosomal dominant; hereditary inclusion body myopathy; limb-girdle muscular dystrophy; Paget disease of bone; frontotemporal dementia; chromosome 9p13.3-12; VCP (valosin-containing protein)

Results 1-8 (8)