To describe the quality of osteosynthesis after intertrochanteric fractures evaluation of tip apex distance (TAD) and position of the hip screw have been established. Furthermore, a slightly valgus fracture reduction has been suggested to reduce the risk of cut-out failure. However, uniform recommendations for optimal screw positioning and fracture reduction are still missing. The purpose of our study was to confirm potential risk factors for cut-out of hip screws of intertrochanteric fractures and to provide recommendations for practical clinical use.
A retrospective analysis of all patients with intertrochanteric fractures treated with a DHS or a gamma nail between January of 2007 and May of 2010 was performed at a level I trauma center.
Two hundred thirty-five patients with intertrochanteric fractures after intra- and extramedullary stabilization were analyzed. A TAD of more than 25 mm was demonstrated to be the most important factor for cut-out in stable and unstable fractures. Fracture reduction with a valgus NSA of 5–10° was associated with a trend towards a lower rate of screw cut-out while an anterior placement of the screw (Parker’s ratio index of <40) significantly increased cut-out incidence.
According to our results, the TAD should not exceed 25 mm in stable (AO/OTA A1) as well as unstable (AO/OTA A2) fractures. An increased anterior hip screw placement should be avoided while fracture reduction with a slight valgus Neck Shaft seems favorable.
We report a very rare case of a 16-year-old healthy athletic boy who sustained simultaneous bilateral transitional fractures of the proximal tibia after kicking a football with his right leg during a soccer game. Following minimal invasive plate osteosynthesis with bridging of the growth plate, the patient recovered rapidly without any growth disturbances.
Introduction. Cervical spinal cord injuries due to traumatic fractures are associated with persistent neurological deficits. Although clinical evidence is weak, early decompression, defined as <24–72 h, has been frequently proposed. Animal studies show better outcomes after early decompression within one hour or less, which can hardly ever be achieved in clinical practice. Case Presentation. A 37-year-old patient was hospitalized after being hit by a shying horse. After diagnosis of C4/5 fracture dislocation and complete paraplegia, she was intubated and sedated with deep relaxation. Emergency reduction was performed at approximately 120 minutes after trauma. Subsequently, a standard anterior decompression, discectomy, and fusion were carried out. She was then transferred to a specialized rehabilitation hospital. Her neurologic function improved from AIS grade A on admission to grade B postoperatively and grade D after four months of rehabilitation. One year after the accident, she was ambulatory without walking aids and restarted horse riding. Discussion and Conclusion. Rarely in clinical practice, decompression of the spine canal can be performed as early as in this case. This case highlights the potential benefit of utmost early reduction in cervical fracture dislocations with compression of the spinal cord.
Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is a very rare injury, which was previously only described in slightly more than 100 cases in the English literature. Occurrence after minor trauma is predominantly associated with certain medical conditions including chronic diseases and long-term use of certain drugs. We report the case of a 61-year-old healthy patient who sustained a simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture following minor trauma. Medical history was completely clear except of a long-term nasal corticosteroid medication due to allergic rhinitis.
For in vitro differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells/mesenchymal stromal cells into osteoblasts by 2-dimensional cell culture a variety of protocols have been used and evaluated in the past. Especially the external phosphate source used to induce mineralization varies considerably both in respect to chemical composition and concentration. In light of the recent findings that inorganic phosphate directs gene expression of genes crucial for bone development, the need for a standardized phosphate source in in vitro differentiation becomes apparent. We show that chemical composition (inorganic versus organic phosphate origin) and concentration of phosphate supplementation exert a severe impact on the results of gene expression for the genes commonly used as markers for osteoblast formation as well as on the composition of the mineral formed. Specifically, the intensity of gene expression does not necessarily correlate with a high quality mineralized matrix. Our study demonstrates advantages of using inorganic phosphate instead of β-glycerophosphate and propose colorimetric quantification methods for calcium and phosphate ions as cost- and time-effective alternatives to X-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy for determination of the calcium phosphate ratio and concentration of mineral matrix formed under in vitro-conditions. We critically discuss the different assays used to assess in vitro bone formation in respect to specificity and provide a detailed in vitro protocol that could help to avoid contradictory results due to variances in experimental design.
Blunt cardiac rupture is an exceedingly rare injury.
We report a case of blunt cardiac trauma in a 43-year-old Caucasian German mother with pectus excavatum who presented after a car accident in which she had been sitting in the front seat holding her two-year-old boy in her arms. The mother was awake and alert during the initial two hours after the accident but then proceeded to hemodynamically collapse. The child did not sustain any severe injuries. Intraoperatively, a combined one-cm laceration of the left atrium and right ventricle was found.
Patients with pectus excavatum have an increased risk for cardiac rupture after blunt chest trauma because of compression between the sternum and spine. Therefore, patients with pectus excavatum and blunt chest trauma should be admitted to a Level I Trauma Center with a high degree of suspicion.
Blunt cardiac rupture; Pectus excavatum; Seatbelt injury
Nonunion and large bone defects present a therapeutic challenge to the surgeon and are often associated with significant morbidity. These defects are expensive to both the health care system and society. However, several surgical procedures have been developed to maximise patient satisfaction and minimise health-care-associated and socioeconomic costs. Integrating recent evidence into the diamond concept leads to one simple conclusion that not only provides us with answers to the “open questions” but also simplifies our entire understanding of bone healing. It has been shown that a combination of neo-osteogenesis and neovascularisation will restore tissue deficits, and that the optimal approach includes a biomaterial scaffold, cell biology techniques, a growth factor and optimisation of the mechanical environment. Further prospective, controlled, randomised clinical studies will determine the effectiveness and economic benefits of treatment with mesenchymal stem cells, not in comparison to other conventional surgical approaches but in direct conjunction with them.
AIM: To develop new fixation techniques for the treatment of periprosthetic fractures using intraprosthetic screw fixation with inserted threaded liners.
METHODS: A Vancouver B1 periprosthetic fracture was simulated in femur prosthesis constructs using sawbones and cemented regular straight hip stems. Fixation was then performed with either unicortical locked-screw plating using the less invasive stabilization system-plate or with intraprosthetic screw fixation using inserted liners. Two experimental groups were formed using either prostheses made of titanium alloy or prostheses made of cobalt chrome alloy. Fixation stability was compared in an axial load-to-failure model. Drilling was performed using a specially invented prosthesis drill with constantly applied internal cooling.
RESULTS: The intraprosthetic fixation model with titanium prostheses was superior to the unicortical locked-screw fixation in all tested devices. The intraprosthetic fixation model required 10 456 N ± 1892 N for failure and the unicortical locked-screw plating required 7649 N ± 653 N (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the second experimental group and the control group.
CONCLUSION: Intraprosthetic screw anchorage with special threaded liners enhances the primary stability in treating periprosthetic fractures by internal fixation.
Periprosthetic fracture; Less invasive stabilization system; Plate fixation; Intraprosthetic screw fixation; Material science; Biomechanical testing; Axial load-to-failure
AIM: To investigate the actual injury situation of seniors in traffic accidents and to evaluate the different injury patterns.
METHODS: Injury data, environmental circumstances and crash circumstances of accidents were collected shortly after the accident event at the scene. With these data, a technical and medical analysis was performed, including Injury Severity Score, Abbreviated Injury Scale and Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale. The method of data collection is named the German In-Depth Accident Study and can be seen as representative.
RESULTS: A total of 4430 injured seniors in traffic accidents were evaluated. The incidence of sustaining severe injuries to extremities, head and maxillofacial region was significantly higher in the group of elderly people compared to a younger age (P < 0.05). The number of accident-related injuries was higher in the group of seniors compared to other groups.
CONCLUSION: Seniors are more likely to be involved in traffic injuries and to sustain serious to severe injuries compared to other groups.
Traffic accidents; Seniors; Head injury; Injury severity score; Abbreviated injury scale
Bone transport can be performed with an external fixator alone or with the monorail technique which entails the combination of a fixator and an intramedullary nail. The purpose of this study was to compare the complication rates and long-term outcomes of these methods. Two groups of patients, the external fixator (n = 21) and the monorail group (n = 18), were compared. The average follow-up period was 7.9 ± 5.6 years and the mean defect length 8.3 ± 3.1 cm. Healing was achieved in 19 (90%) and 13 (72%) of the fixator and monorail patients, respectively. Six patients underwent amputations because of persistent infections (two in the fixator and four in the monorail group). The rate of deformities was significantly higher in the fixator group (p = 0.049). No statistically significant difference was found when comparing categories of the SF-36 test or the ability to work or do sports. The main advantages of the monorail method are reduction of the external fixation time and the lower rate of deformities. However, the authors recommend segmental transport with external fixator in patients with chronic infections.
Purpose of the presented study is to answer the following questions: Are knee injuries associated with trauma mechanisms or concomitant injuries? Do injuries of the knee region aggravate treatment costs or prolong hospital stay in polytraumatized patients?
A retrospective analysis including 29.779 severely injured patients (Injury Severity Score [greater than or equal to] 16) from the Trauma Registry of the German Society for Trauma Surgery database (1993-2008) was conducted. Patients were subdivided into two groups; the "Knee" group (n=3.458, 11.6% of all patients) including all multiple trauma patients with knee injuries, and the "Non Knee" group (n=26.321) including the remaining patients. Patients with knee injuries were slightly younger, less often male gender and had a significantly increased ISS.
Patients in the Knee group suffered significantly more traffic accidents compared to the Non Knee group (82% vs. 52%, p<0.001). These injuries were more often caused by car or motorbike accidents. Severe thoracic and limb injuries (AIS[greater than or equal to]3) were more frequently found in the Knee group (p<0.001) while head injury was distributed equally. The overall hospital stay, ICU stay, and treatment costs were significantly higher for the Knee group (38.1 vs. 25.5 days, 15.2 vs. 11.4 days, 40,116 vs. 25,336 Euro, respectively; all p<0.001).
Traffic accidents are associated with an increased incidence of knee injuries than falls or attempted suicides. Furthermore, severe injuries of the limbs and chest are more common in polytraumatized patients with knee injuries. At last, treatment of these patients is prolonged and consequently more expensive.
Computer assisted surgery (CAS) was first used in neurosurgery. Currently, CAS has gained popularity in several surgical disciplines including urology and abdominal surgery. In trauma and orthopaedic surgery, computer assisted systems are used for fracture reduction, planning and positioning of implants as well as the accurate implantation of hip and knee prostheses. The patient’s anatomy is virtualized and the surgical instruments integrated into the digitized image background, thus allowing the surgeon to navigate the surgical instruments and the bone in an improved, virtual visual environment. CAS improves overall accuracy, reducing intraoperative radiation exposure and minimizing unnecessary surgical dissection combined with increased patient and surgeon safety. However, limitations include prolonged surgical time, technical errors and cost implications. This article will outline the current state of computer assisted trauma surgery including its implications and specific challenges in orthopaedic trauma surgery.
Computer assisted surgery; Navigation; Trauma; SI-screw; Femur; Femoral malrotation
Control of distraction rate with an intramedullary skeletal kinetic distractor (ISKD) may be problematic and a high distraction rate may result in insufficient bone regenerate.
Are distraction problems preventable when using the ISKD, and what are the risk factors for and radiologic types of insufficient bone regenerate during ISKD lengthening?
Patients and Methods
We analyzed 37 consecutive ISKD femoral lengthening procedures in 35 patients with a mean age 33 ± 11 years and minimum followup of 12 months (average, 27 ± 9 months; range, 12–55 months). The average length gain was 42.8 ± 12.9 mm.
Eight patients had problems during distraction: seven had “runaway nails” and one had a nondistracting nail. Insufficient bone regenerate developed in eight patients. Important risk factors were a distraction rate greater than 1.5 mm/day (9.1 times higher risk), age 30 years or older, smoking, and lengthening greater than 4 cm. Less important risk factors identified were creation of the osteotomy at the site of previous trauma or surgery and acute correction of associated deformities. We proposed a radiologic classification for failure of bone regeneration: partial regenerate failure (Type I) or complete failure resulting in a segmental defect subdivided according to a length of 3 cm or less (Type IIa) or greater than 3 cm (Type IIb).
Distraction problems with the ISKD were related mostly to internal malfunction of the lengthening mechanism. A distraction rate greater than 1.5 mm/day should be avoided in femoral intramedullary lengthening. Smoking should be a contraindication for femoral lengthening.
Level of Evidence
Level II, prognostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
The management of trauma patients differs depending upon the healthcare system available.
To compare the pre-hospital management and outcome of polytrauma patients between two countries with differing approaches to pre-hospital management.
Materials and Methods:
The Scottish trauma and audit group (STAG) and the German trauma registry (GTR) databases were used to compare the management and outcome of trauma patients in Scotland and Germany. Severely injured patients (injury severity score (ISS) > 16) were analyzed for a 3 year period (2000 to 2002). Patient demographics, pre-hospital interventions, ISS, revised trauma score (RTS), time from scene of injury to arrival to the emergency department (ED), 120 day mortality and standardized mortality ratios using TRISS methodology were compared.
There were 227 patients identified from the STAG registry and 6878 patients from the GTR registry. There was a significant difference in ISS (24.9 vs. 29.8, P = 0.001, respectively). No significant difference was observed for the RTS (P = 0.2). There was a significantly higher rate of pre-hospital interventions in the German group (P < 0.001). The mean time from an injury to arrival to the ED (73 vs. 247 minutes, P = 0.001) was longer for the Scottish patients. There was no difference for an unadjusted mortality rate between the groups, but the standardized mortality ratio was significantly greater for the Scottish population (3.8 vs. 2.2, P = 0.036).
Despite variation in pre-hospital transfer times and interventions, no significant difference was demonstrated in RTS upon arrival, or for the unadjusted mortality rates.
Acute liver failure; intensive; treatment
With greater technological developments in the care of musculoskeletal patients, we are entering an era of rapid change in our understanding of the pathophysiology of traumatic injury; assessment and treatment of polytrauma and related disorders; and treatment outcomes. In developed countries, it is very likely that we will have algorithms for the approach to many musculoskeletal disorders as we strive for the best approach with which to evaluate treatment success. This debate article is founded on predictions of future health care needs that are solely based on the subjective inputs and opinions of the world's leading orthopedic surgeons.
Hence, it functions more as a forum-based rather than a scientific-based presentation. This exposé was designed to stimulate debate about the emerging patients' needs in the future predicted by leading orthopedic surgeons that provide some hint as to the right direction for orthopedic care and outlines the important topics in this area.
The authors aim to provide a general overview of orthopedic care in a typical developed country setting. However, the regional diversity of the United States and every other industrialized nation should be considered as a cofactor that may vary to some extent from our vision of improved orthopedic and trauma care of the musculoskeletal patient on an interregional level.
In this forum, we will define the current and future barriers in developed countries related to musculoskeletal trauma, total joint arthroplasty, patient safety and injuries related to military conflicts, all problems that will only increase as populations age, become more mobile, and deal with political crisis.
It is very likely that the future will bring a more biological approach to fracture care with less invasive surgical procedures, flexible implants, and more rapid rehabilitation methods. This international consortium challenges the trauma and implants community to develop outcome registries that are managed through health care offices and to prepare effectively for the many future challenges that lie in store for those who treat musculoskeletal conditions.
Global perspective; Future trends and needs; Algorithms of patient care; Quality assurance in Patient care; Registries
The diagnosis and therapy of blunt cerebrovascular injuries has become a focus since improved imaging technology allows adequate description of the injury. Although it represents a rare injury the long-term complications can be fatal but mostly prevented by adequate treatment.
A 33-year-old Caucasian man fell down a 7-meter scarp after losing control of his quad bike in a remote area. Since endotracheal intubation was unsuccessfully attempted due to the severe cervical swelling as well as oral bleeding an emergency tracheotomy was performed on scene. He was hemodynamically unstable despite fluid resuscitation and intravenous therapy with vasopressors and was transported by a helicopter to our trauma center. He had a stable fracture of the arch of the seventh cervical vertebra and fractures of the transverse processes of C5-C7 with involvement of the lateral wall of the transverse foramen. An abort of the left vertebral artery signal at the first thoracic vertebrae with massive hemorrhage as well as a laryngeal fracture was also detected. Further imaging showed retrograde filling of the left vertebral artery at C5 distal of the described abort. After stabilization and reconfirmation of intracranial perfusion during the clinical course weaning was started. At the time of discharge, he was aware and was able to move all extremities.
We report a rare case of a patient with vertebral artery dissection in combination with a laryngeal fracture after blunt trauma. Thorough diagnostic and frequent reassessments are recommended. Most patients can be managed with conservative treatment.
Hydrogels are potentially useful for many purposes in regenerative medicine including drug and growth factor delivery, as single scaffold for bone repair or as a filler of pores of another biomaterial in which host mesenchymal progenitor cells can migrate in and differentiate into matrix-producing osteoblasts. Collagen type I is of special interest as it is a very important and abundant natural matrix component. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether rat bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs) are able to adhere to, to survive, to proliferate and to migrate in collagen type I hydrogels and whether they can adopt an osteoblastic fate. rBMSCs were obtained from rat femora and plated on collagen type I hydrogels. Prior to harvest by day 7, 14, and 21, hydrogels were fluorescently labeled, cryo-cut and analyzed by fluorescent-based and laser scanning confocal microscopy to determine cell proliferation, migration, and viability. Osteogenic differentiation was determined by alkaline phosphatase activity. Collagen type I hydrogels allowed the attachment of rBMSCs to the hydrogel, their proliferation, and migration towards the inner part of the gel. rBMSCs started to differentiate into osteoblasts as determined by an increase in alkaline phosphatase activity after two weeks in culture. This study therefore suggests that collagen type I hydrogels could be useful for musculoskeletal regenerative therapies.
Collagen type I hydrogel; bone marrow stromal cells; cell migration; osteogenic differentiation; bone regeneration
Removal of intramedullary nails often is relegated to younger surgeons but may be difficult and challenging. We describe difficulties with removal of an incarcerated expandable femoral nail and a new technique for retrograde mobilization of an intramedullary nail through a small infrapatellar incision. No special device was necessary for successful implant removal.
Level of Evidence: Level V, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Compartment syndrome of the lower leg or foot, a severe complication with a low incidence, is mostly caused by high-energy deceleration trauma. The diagnosis is based on clinical examination and intracompartmental pressure measurement. The most sensitive clinical symptom of compartment syndrome is severe pain. Clinical findings must be documented carefully. A fasciotomy should be performed when the difference between compartment pressure and diastolic blood pressure is less than 30 mm Hg or when clinical symptoms are obvious. Once the diagnosis is made, immediate fasciotomy of all compartments is required. Fasciotomy of the lower leg can be performed either by one lateral incision or by medial and lateral incisions. The compartment syndrome of the foot requires thorough examination of all compartments with special focus on the calcaneal compartment. Depending on the injury, clinical examination, and compartment pressure, fasciotomy is recommended via a dorsal and/or medial plantar approach. Surgical management does not eliminate the risk of developing nerve and muscle dysfunction. When left untreated, poor outcomes with contractures, toe deformities, paralysis, and sensory neuropathy can be expected. In severe cases, amputation may be necessary.
Level of Evidence: Level III. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Treatment of polytrauma patients remains a medical as well as socioeconomic challenge. Although diagnostics and therapy improved during the last decades, multiple injuries are still the major cause of fatalities in patients below 45 years of age. Organ dysfunction and organ failure are major complications in patients with major injuries and contribute to mortality during the clinical course. Profound understanding of the systemic pathophysiological response is crucial for innovative therapeutic approaches. Therefore, experimental studies in various animal models are necessary. This review is aimed at providing detailed information of common trauma models in small as well as in large animals.
Long bone non-unions may lead to recurrent surgical procedures and in-hospital stays. Thus, restrictions of the health-related quality of life and of socioeconomic parameters might be expected. Knowledge of the impact on several parameters of professional life is sparse. Therefore, we analyzed the outcome in patients following non-unions of the tibial and femoral shaft after fracture compared to patients with uneventful healing.
Material and Methodology:
51 patients following non-unions of the the femoral (FNU) or tibial shaft (TNU) were compared to 51 patients (groups FH and TH) with uneventful fracture healing. Physical and mental health was assessed using the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Impact of Event Scale (IES). We also analyzed employment status and the usage of medical aids.
Scores of the SF-12 physical and psychological were lower in group TNU compared to group TH, the score of SF-12 physical but not psychological was significantly lower in group FNU compared to FH. Compared to uneventful healing, a significantly more frequent usage of medical aids was found in both non-union groups. A higher incidence of early retirement and unemployment was found in group FNU but not in group TNU.
There is a profound influence on the quality of life following femoral or tibial non-unions after trauma. Compared to patients with uneventful fracture healing, patients with tibial and even more so femoral non-union show worse scores of the SF-12. Medical aids are frequently used following both, femoral and tibial non-unions. Not tibial, but femoral non-unions frequently lead to severe restrictions in professional life such as early retirement and unemployment.
Non-union; posttraumatic complications; long bone fracture.
Computer-assisted surgery (CAS) can act as an intraoperative ruler in high tibial osteotomy (HTO) to visualize continuously the leg during surgery.
The aim of the study is to evaluate the accuracy of CAS with respect to preoperative planning and postoperative deviation from the planned leg axis in HTO. In addition, the influence of surgeon experience as well as operation time and perioperative complications are analyzed.
A prospective multicenter study case series with follow-up at 6 weeks was performed in six centers. Medial open-wedge HTO with Tomofix® was done using computer assisted navigation technique with the Brainlab VV Osteotomy 1.0 module.
Fifty-one patients with medial gonarthritis were treated with navigated HTO. The follow-up rate was 98%. The majority of HTO–CAS patients fell within the tolerated limit of ±3° for leg axis deviation, however, seven patients were reported with deviations outside of this range: three patients had deviations of >3°–4.5° and four patients >4.5°, respectively. Eight intraoperative complications were documented, partially resulting from technical problems associated with the navigation system. During the 6-week follow-up period, three postoperative complications were experienced, all not associated with navigation technology.
In about 85% of cases, a perfect result in terms of deviation of the planned mechanical leg axis could be achieved. Computer assistance in HTO proved to be a helpful tool regarding intraoperative control of leg axis.
Level of evidence
Level I, High quality prospective study (all patients were enrolled at the same preoperative planning point with ≥80% follow-up of enrolled patients).
Knee; Tibia; Osteotomy; Surgery, computer-assisted; Bone and bones; Navigation; Planning
Sural nerve injuries are an evident risk especially of minimal‐invasive surgical Achilles tendon repair. However, detailed anatomical studies focusing on the relationship of the sural nerve with the Achilles tendon at various levels are scarce, even pending in two planes.
To determine the position and course of the sural nerve in relation to the Achilles tendon in two planes after trans‐section and computer‐assisted determination.
The exact course of the sural nerve was determined in 10 cadavers (55.3 years, 19–89 years), using a computer‐assisted method in two planes (transversal/sagittal).
The sural nerve crossed the Achilles tendon at 11 (8.7–12.4) cm proximal to the tuber calcanei. The distance between the lateral crossing and the proximal musculotendineus junction was 35 (20–58) mm. Starting from the tuber calcanei, the distance was 2/2 mm (transversal/sagittal plane) at 11 cm proximal to the tuber calcanei, 4/4 mm at 10 cm proximal, 5/6 mm at 9 cm, 8/10 mm at 5 cm and 11/18 mm at the tuber calcanei.
In the lateral crossing region of the sural nerve and the lateral proximal Achilles tendon 9–12 cm proximal to the tuber calcanei, a close relationship of both anatomical structures can be visualised using computer‐assisted measurements; caution is suggested to prevent sural nerve entrapment in either open or percutaneous Achilles tendon repair.
Traumatic paediatric arterial injuries are a great challenge due to low incidence and specific characteristics of paediatric anatomy and physiology. The aim of the present study was to investigate their epidemiology, diagnostic and therapeutic options and complications. Furthermore, the prognostic value of the Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) was evaluated.
In a retrospective clinical study 44 children aged 9.0 ± 3.2 years treated for traumatic extremity arterial lesions in our Level I trauma center between 1971 and 2006 were enrolled. Exclusion criteria were age > 14, venous and iatrogenic vascular injury. Demographic data, mechanism of injury, severity of arterial lesions (by Vollmar and MESS), diagnostic and therapeutic management, complications and outcome were evaluated.
The most commonly injured vessel was the femoral artery (25%) followed by the brachial artery (22.7%). The mechanism of injury was penetrating (31.8%), isolated severe blunt extremity trauma (29.6%), multiple trauma (25%) and humeral supracondylar fractures (13.6%). In 63.6% no specific vascular diagnostic procedure was performed in favour of emergency surgery. Surgical reconstructive strategies were preferred (68.2%). A MESS < 7 was associated with initial (p < 0.05) and definite limb salvage (p < 0.001) of the lower extremity.
Traumatic paediatric vascular injuries are very rare. The most common situations of vascular lesions in childhood were penetrating injuries and fractures of the extremities either as isolated injuries or in multiply injured patients. In paediatric patients, the MESS could serve as a basis for decision making for limb salvage or amputation.