Cleidocranial dysplasia is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by defective ossification of the intramembraneous ossification (primarily the clavicles, cranium, and pelvis), and it is caused by mutations in the RUNX2 gene that is responsible for osteoblast differentiation. Spine deformities were of progressive nature and considered to be the major orthopedic abnormalities encountered in our practice in patients with cleidocranial dysplasia. We aimed to further delineate the underlying spine pathology and its etiological understanding. Extraspinal deformities were dealt with respectively.
Material and methods
In this paper, we describe 7 patients who were consistent with the phenotypic and the genotypic characterization of cleidocranial dysplasia. Reformatted computed tomography (CT) scans have been applied in several instances to further understand the underlying pathology of progressive spine tilting. Radiographs were sufficient to illustrate other skeletal malformations.
Anatomical survey demonstrates that a broad spectrum of frequently unrecognized orthopedic aberrations were encountered. We believe that torticollis has evolved in connection with the persistence of synchondrosis of the skull base and the upper cervical spine and these are strongly correlated to the well-known pathology of posterior occipital synchondrosis. Similarly, scoliosis and kyphoscoliosis resulted from the pathologic aberration of the cartilaginous stage of disrupted embryological development. All our results are discussed for the first time. Coxa vara, patellar dysplasia, and genu valgum were observed as extraspinal deformities.
This paper includes for the first time the anatomical analysis of the malformation complex of the craniocervical and the entire spine in patients with cleidocranial dysplasia. Reformatted CT scan was the modality of choice. We were able to illustrate that the persistence of skull base and the cervical spine synchondrosis were correlated with the pathological mechanism of the posterior occipital synchondrosis. Therefore, injuries to the craniocervical region in these patients might lead to a wide range of dreadful complications, ranging from complete atlanto-occipital or atlanto-axial dislocation to nondisplaced occipital condyle avulsion fractures with the possibility of morbid and or mortal outcome. On the other hand, the persistence of a cartilaginous spine was the reason behind the progressive spine tilting. This pathological form can be considered as a notoriously unpredictable malformation complex. The value of presenting these patients is to demonsterate that the genotype is not a precise index to assess the severity and the natural history of the phenotype.
cleidocranial dysplasia; spine and skeletal malformations; radiographs; CT scanning; orthopedic interventions
A leptosomic body type is tall and thin with long hands. Marfanoid features may be familial in nature or pathological, as occurs in congenital contractual arachnodactyly (Beal’s syndrome) and Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome mimicking some of the changes of Marfan syndrome, although not accompanied by luxation of lens and dissecting aneurysm of aorta.
In this article we collected eight patients who were consistent with the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome via phenotypic and genotypic characterization.
Our patients manifested a constellation of variable presentations of musculo-skeletal abnormalities ranging from developmental dysplasia of the hip, protrusio acetabuli, leg length inequality, patellar instability, scoliosis, to early onset osteoarthritis. Each abnormality has been treated accordingly.
This is the first paper which includes the diagnosis and the management of the associated musculo-skeletal abnormalities in patients with Marfan syndrome, stressing that patients with Marfan syndrome are exhibiting great variability in the natural history and the severity of musculo-skeletal abnormalities.
Marfan syndrome; musculo-skeletal abnormalities; phenotype; genotype; surgery
Angular deformities of the lower limbs are a common clinical problem encountered in pediatric orthopaedic practices particularly in patients with osteochondrodysplasias. The varus deformity is more common than the valgus deformity in achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia patients because of the unusual growth of the fibulae than that of the tibiae. We retrospectively reviewed six patients (four patients with achondroplasia and two patients with hypochondroplsia) with relevant limb deformities due to the above-mentioned entities. All patients manifested significant varus deformity of the lower limbs. Detailed phenotypic characterization, radiologic and genetic testing was carried out as baseline diagnostic tool. We described the re-alignment procedures, which have been applied accordingly. Therefore, bilateral multi-level procedures, multi-apical planning and limb lengthening have been successfully applied. While recognition of the underlying syndromic association in patients who are manifesting angular deformities is the baseline for proper orthopaedic management, this paper demonstrates how to evaluate and treat these complex patients.
Angular deformities; achondroplasia; hypochondroplasia; re-alignment procedures; limb lengthening; FGFR3 mutation.
Objective: To further investigate the underlying pathology of axial and appendicular skeletal abnormalities such as painful spine stiffness, gait abnormalities, early onset osteoarthritis and patellar instability in patients with Stickler syndrome type I. Radiographic and tomographic analyses were organized.
Methods: From a series of Stickler syndrome patients followed from early life to late childhood. Ten patients (6 boys and four girls of different ethnic origins were consistent with the diagnosis of Stickler syndrome type I ). Phenotypic characterization was the baseline tool applied for all patients and genotypic correlation was performed on four families
Results: A constellation of axial abnormalities namely; anterolateral ossification of the anterior longitudinal spinal ligament with subsequent fusion of two cervical vertebrae, early onset Forestier disease (progressive spinal hyperostosis with subsequent vertebral fusion on top of bridging osteophytes and “Bamboo-like spine” resembling ankylosing spondylitis) and severe premature spine degeneration were evident. Appendicular abnormalities in connection with generalized epiphyseal dysplasia were the underlying aetiology in patients with Intoeing gait and femoral anteversion, early onset severe osteoarthritis of the weight bearing joint. Remarkable trochleo-patellar dysplasia secondary to severe osteoarthritis causing effectively the development of patellar instability was additional pathology. Mutation of COL2A1 has been confirmed as the causative gene for Stickler syndrome type I
Conclusion: We concluded that conventional radiographs and the molecular determination of a COL2A1 in patients with (Stickler syndrome type I) are insufficient tools to explain the reasons behind the tremendous magnitude of axial and appendicular skeletal abnormalities. We were able to modify the criteria of the clinical phenotype as designated by Rose et al in accordance with the novel axial and appendicular criteria as emerged from within our current study.
Stickler syndrome type I; Mutation of COL2A1 gene; Premature spine degeneration; Forestier disease; Intoeing gait; Osteoarthritis; Patellar instability; CT scan.
The aim of the article is fourfold; firstly, to detect the aetiology of torticollis in patients with Müllerian duct/renal aplasia-cervicothoracic somite dysplasia syndrome; secondly, spine pathology in Müllerian duct/renal aplasia-cervicothoracic somite dysplasia syndrome varies considerably from one patient to another and there are remarkable differences in severity and localization; thirdly, mismanagement of congenital spine pathology is a frequent cause of morbid/fatal outcome; and fourthly, the application of prophylactic surgical treatment to balance the growth of the spine at an early stage is mandatory. Reformatted CT scans helped in exploring the craniocervical and the entire spine in these patients. The reason behind torticollis ranged between aplasia of the posterior arch of the atlas, assimilation of the atlas and extensive fusion of the lower cervical vertebrae (bilateral failure of segmentation) in four patients; in one patient, in addition to the hypoplastic posterior arch of the atlas, we observed ossification of the anterior and the posterior longitudinal spinal ligaments giving rise to a block vertebrae-like suggestive of early senile ankylosing vertebral hyperostosis (Forestier disease). Scoliosis at different spine levels was attributable to variable spine defects. Pelvic ultrasound showed the classical renal agenesis in four patients; whereas in one patient, the MRI showed pelvic cake kidney (renal fused ectopia) associated with ovarian, uterine and vaginal abnormalities. This is the first exploratory study on the craniocervical and the entire spine in a group of patients with MURCS association.
MURCS association; Torticollis; Failure of segmentation; Forestier disease; Posterior spine ankylosis; CT scan
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is most often caused by mutations in the type I procollagen genes (COL1A1/COL1A2). We identified two children with substitutions in the type I procollagen C-propeptide cleavage site, which disrupt a unique processing step in collagen maturation and define a novel phenotype within OI. The patients have mild OI caused by mutations in COL1A1 (Patient 1: p.Asp1219Asn) or COL1A2 (Patient 2: p.Ala1119Thr), respectively. Patient 1 L1-L4 DXA z-score was +3.9 and pQCT vBMD was +3.1; Patient 2 had L1-L4 DXA z-score of 0.0 and pQCT vBMD of −1.8. Patient BMD contrasts with radiographic osteopenia and histomorphometry without osteosclerosis. Mutant procollagen processing is impaired in pericellular and in vitro assays. Patient dermal collagen fibrils have irregular borders. Incorporation of pC-collagen into matrix leads to increased bone mineralization. FT-IR imaging confirms elevated mineral/matrix ratios in both patients, along with increased collagen maturation in trabecular bone, compared to normal or OI controls. Bone mineralization density distribution revealed a marked shift toward increased mineralization density for both patients. Patient 1 has areas of higher and lower bone mineralization than controls; Patient 2’s bone matrix has a mineral content exceeding even classical OI bone. These patients define a new phenotype of high BMD OI and demonstrate that procollagen C-propeptide cleavage is crucial to normal bone mineralization.
Osteogenesis imperfecta; C-propeptide; collagen; C-proteinase; mineralization; high bone mass
Artificial induction of active DNA demethylation appears to be a possible and useful strategy in molecular biology research and therapy development. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was shown to cause phenotypic changes in embryonic stem cells altering the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles. Here we report that DMSO increases global and gene-specific DNA hydroxymethylation levels in pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. After 1 day, DMSO increased the expression of genes involved in DNA hydroxymethylation (TET) and nucleotide excision repair (GADD45) and decreased the expression of genes related to DNA methylation (Dnmt1, Dnmt3b, Hells). Already 12 hours after seeding, before first replication, DMSO increased the expression of the pro-apoptotic gene Fas and of the early osteoblastic factor Dlx5, which proved to be Tet1 dependent. At this time an increase of 5-methyl-cytosine hydroxylation (5-hmC) with a concomitant loss of methyl-cytosines on Fas and Dlx5 promoters as well as an increase in global 5-hmC and loss in global DNA methylation was observed. Time course-staining of nuclei suggested euchromatic localization of DMSO induced 5-hmC. As consequence of induced Fas expression, caspase 3/7 and 8 activities were increased indicating apoptosis. After 5 days, the effect of DMSO on promoter- and global methylation as well as on gene expression of Fas and Dlx5 and on caspases activities was reduced or reversed indicating down-regulation of apoptosis. At this time, up regulation of genes important for matrix synthesis suggests that DMSO via hydroxymethylation of the Fas promoter initially stimulates apoptosis in a subpopulation of the heterogeneous MC3T3-E1 cell line, leaving a cell population of extra-cellular matrix producing osteoblasts.
DNA Methylation; DNA hydroxymethylation; apoptosis; dimethylsulfoxide; osteoblasts
During bone remodeling osteoclasts resorb bone, thus removing material, e.g., damaged by microcracks, which arises as a result of physiological loading and could reduce bone strength. Such a process needs targeted bone resorption exactly at damaged sites. Osteocytic signaling plays a key role in this process, but it is not excluded that osteoclasts per se may possess toposensitivity to recognize and resorb damaged bone since it has been shown that resorption spaces are associated with microcracks. To address this question, we used an in vitro setup of a pure osteoclast culture and mineralized substrates with artificially introduced microcracks and microscratches. Histomorphometric analyses and statistical evaluation clearly showed that these defects had no effect on osteoclast resorption behavior. Osteoclasts did not resorb along microcracks, even when resorption started right beside these damages. Furthermore, quantification of resorption on three different mineralized substrates, cortical bone, bleached bone (bone after partial removal of the organic matrix), and dentin, revealed lowest resorption on bone, significantly higher resorption on bleached bone, and highest resorption on dentin. The difference between native and bleached bone may be interpreted as an inhibitory impact of the organic matrix. However, the collagen-based matrix could not be the responsible part as resorption was highest on dentin, which contains collagen. It seems that osteocytic proteins, stored in bone but not present in dentin, affect osteoclastic action. This demonstrates that osteoclasts per se do not possess a toposensitivity to remove microcracks but may be influenced by components of the organic bone matrix.
Osteoclast; Microcrack; Mineralized tissue; Toposensitivity
We report on a 5-year-old girl who presented with the full clinical criteria of Hallermann-Streiff syndrome (HSS). Classically, overtubulation (thin and gracile) bones are the characteristic and constant features in HSS. Interestingly, our present patient manifested unusual mid-diaphyseal endosteal thickening with subsequent medullary narrowing (defective endosteal resorption). To the best of our knowledge no previous reports described such unusual feature in a patient with HSS.
Hallermann-Streiff syndrome; Mid-diaphyseal thickening; Radiology
Idiopathic osteolysis or disappearing bone disease is a condition characterized by the spontaneous onset of rapid destruction and resorption of a single bone or multiple bones. Disappearing bone disorder is a disease of several diagnostic types. We are presenting three patients with osteolysis who have different underlying pathological features. Detailed phenotypic assessment, radiologic and CT scanning, and histological and genetic testing were the baseline diagnostic tools utilized for diagnosis of each osteolysis syndrome. The first patient was found to have Gorham-Stout syndrome (non-heritable). The complete destruction of pelvic bones associated with aggressive upward extension to adjacent bones (vertebral column and skull base) was notable and skeletal angiomatosis was detected. The second patient showed severe and aggressive non-hereditary multicentric osteolysis with bilateral destruction of the hip bones and the tarsal bones as well as a congenital unilateral solitary kidney and nephropathy. The third patient was phenotypically and genotypically compatible with Winchester syndrome resulting in multicentric osteolysis (autosomal recessive). Proven mutation of the (MMP2-Gen) was detected in this third patient that was associated with 3MCC deficiency (3-Methylcrontonyl CoA Carboxylase deficiency). The correct diagnoses in our 3 patients required the exclusion of malignant osteoclastic tumours, inflammatory disorders of bone, vascular disease, and neurogenic arthropathies using history, physical exam, and appropriate testing and imaging. This review demonstrates how to evaluate and treat these complex and difficult patients. Lastly, we described the various management procedures and treatments utilized for these patients.
Gorham-Stout disease; Angiomatosis; Nephropathy; Winchester syndrome; Histology; Genetics; 3-Methylcrontonyl CoA Carboxylase deficiency
We report on a 3-year-old boy with the full phenotypic features of Freeman Sheldon syndrome (FSS). Severe skew foot deformity has been recognized as additional skeletal abnormality. Parents were first degree cousins, raising the possibility of autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of severe skew foot deformity in a patient with (FSS).
Freeman-Sheldon syndrome; Skew foot deformity; Metatarsus adductus
Congenital cervico-thoracic kyphosis has been encountered in a girl with Pierre Robin sequence. The constellation of the spine malformation complex such as incomplete development of the vertebral bodies associated with defective ossification of the cervico-thoracic pedicles causing effectively the development of complete spinal cord injury at the kyphotic level of C7/T1 were present. Congenital kyphosis secondary to vertebral body hypoplasia has not been reported in connection with Pierre Robin sequence.
Pierre Robin sequence; vertebral body hypoplasia; kyphosis; paralysis; CT scan
The aim of this study was to perform a detailed tomographic analysis of the skull base, craniocervical junction, and the entire spine in seven patients with spondylocostal dysostosis syndrome.
Detailed scanning images have been organized in accordance with the most prominent clinical pathology. The reasons behind plagiocephaly, torticollis, short immobile neck, scoliosis and rigid back have been detected. Radiographic documentation was insufficient modality.
Detailed computed tomography scans provided excellent delineation of the osseous abnormality pattern in our patients.
This article throws light on the most serious osseous manifestations of spondylocostal dysostosis syndrome.
Spondylocostal dysostosis syndrome (SCD); Plagiocephaly; Torticollis; Scoliosis; CT scan
Desbuquois dysplasia is a rare, but well described syndrome with remarkable clinical and radiographic variability ranging from mild skeletal involvement with normal intelligence to those with early fatal outcome.
Distinctive radiographic features of Desbuquois dysplasia-typical hand type have been documented in a 3-year-old girl. Synophyrs, curly eyelashes and ptyrigium colli were additional findings.
The phenotypic variability of Desbuquois syndrome might be an element of diagnostic confusion. However, distinctive radiographic features should urgently requiring attention and are virtually diagnostic. We report what might be the first clinical report of Desbuquois dysplasia from a consanguineous family in Austria. Unusual facial dysmorphism resembling Cornelia-De Lange syndrome and early patellar ossification were additional unreported features in connection with Desbuquois dysplasia.
Cervical kyphosis may be potentially the most serious and, indeed, a life-threatening manifestation of Larsen syndrome because of the impingement on the spinal cord at the apex of the kyphosis. Abnormalities of the spine, specifically cervicothoracic kyphosis requires specific attention and management.
We report on a 3-year-old boy who presented with full clinical and the radiographic features of Larsen syndrome. There was significant vertebral body hypoplasia of C5/7 combined with spina bifida occulta from C1/T2, resulting in congenital cervical instability and kyphosis.
Congenital or developmental cervical kyphosis is a serious orthopaedic abnormality, which is associated with several syndromic associations such as Larsen syndrome, diastrophic dysplasia, chondrodysplasia punctata, camptomelic dysplasia, and neurofibromatosis.
Infantile cortical hyperostosis is characterised by hyperirritability, acute inflammation of soft tissue, and profound alterations of the shape and structure of the underlying bones, particularly the long bones, mandible, clavicles, or ribs.
We report on a clinical case of a 3-months-old baby girl of non-consanguineous parents. Multiple long bone swellings were the motive of referral to our department for clinical evaluation. Radiographic documentation was consistent with infantile cortical hyperostosis (Caffey disease). Interestingly, skull base sclerosis associated with excessive thickening was the most unusual malformation. We report a baby with mixed endochondral and intramembraneous ossification defects.
Bone dysplasias, mucopolysaccharidoses, and metabolic diseases are a group of disorders that cause abnormal growth, density, and skull base shape. Skull base sclerosis/thickening is a well-known malformation in connection with other forms of sclerosing bone disorders such as dysosteosclerosis, frontometaphyseal dysplasia, and progressive diaphyseal dysplasia with skull base involvement. It is noteworthy that our present patient had an unusually sclerosed/thickened skull base. Narrowing of skull foramina due to sclerosis of skull base is likely to result in cranial nerves deficits. In this baby, the pathology has been judged to be the result of child abuse and it is not, in this case considerable harm to his parents, and the doctor-parent relationship was the outcome.
Stickler syndrome is among the most common autosomal dominant connective tissue disorders but is often unrecognised and therefore not diagnosed by clinicians. Despite much speculation, the cause of osteochondrosis in general and osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) and Osgood Schlatter syndrome (OSS) in particular remain unclear. Etiological understanding is essential. We describe a pair of family subjects presented with OCD and OSS as a symptom complex rather than a diagnosis.
Detailed clinical and radiographic examinations were undertaken with emphasis on the role of MRI imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging may allow early prediction of articular lesion healing potential in patients with Stickler syndrome.
The phenotype of Stickler syndrome can be diverse and therefore misleading. The expectation that the full clinical criteria of any given genetic disorder such as Stickler syndrome will always be present can easily lead to an underestimation of these serious inheritable disorders. We report here two family subjects, a male proband and his aunt (paternal sister), both presented with the major features of Stickler syndrome. Tall stature with marfanoid habitus, astigmatism/congenital vitreous abnormality and submucus cleft palate/cleft uvula, and enlarged painful joints with early onset osteoarthritis. Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) and Osgood Schlatter syndrome (OSS) were the predominating joint abnormalities.
We observed that the nature of the articular and physeal abnormalities was consistent with a localised manifestation of a more generalised epiphyseal dysplasia affecting the weight-bearing joints. In these two patients, OCD and OSS appeared to be the predominant pathologic musculoskeletal consequences of an underlying Stickler's syndrome. It is empirical to consider generalised epiphyseal dysplasia as a major underlying causation that might drastically affect the weight-bearing joints.
Advanced bone maturation is a radiographic feature that might be encountered in a number of different forms of skeletal dysplasias such as Desbuquois dyspalsia, Larsen syndrome, the Reunion Island form of Larsen syndrome, diastrophic dysplasia, acrodysostosis, Catel-Manzke syndrome, a variant of metatropic dysplasia and Maroteaux-lamy syndrome.
We report on a 2-year- old boy from Slovakia was born to non-consanguineous parents. Prenatal and postnatal growth parameters were normal. Clubfoot and genu valgum were the most prominent orthopaedic abnormalities. Radiographic documentation showed bone age of 4 years and 8 months associated with the appearance of accessory ossification centers. Monkey wrench appearance of the proximal femora was a characteristic finding associated with significant vertebral changes.
The major skeletal changes in our patient include advanced carpal ossification, monkey wrench appearance of the proximal femora associated with significant vertebral changes. No joint dislocations, no hitchhiker thumbs and or dysmorphic facial features were present. The normality of his growth, facial features, intelligence, and palate as well as the characteristic radiographic features were to certain extent in favour of a mild form of Desbuquois dysplasia. Additional laboratory findings allowed us to exclude other disorders with abnormal metabolic parameters such as mucopolysaccharoidosis.
Morquio syndrome is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder, a mucopolysaccharidosis (PMS), characterized by abnormal metabolism of glycosaminoglycans. Major treatable concerns in patients with MPS type IV involve C1 to C2 instability, genu valgum, and hip subluxation. All patients demonstrate characteristic acetabular dysplasia and failure of ossification of the superolateral femoral head.
We report on a 6-year-old boy whose prime presentation was a waddling gait associated with pain since early childhood. Radiographic documentation showed progressive acetabulo-femoral dysplasia associated with additional skeletal deformities. Laboratory investigations showed increased urinary keratan sulfate and reduced leukocyte enzymatic activity of N-Acetyl-Galaktosamin-6-sulfate-sulfatase. Mucopolysaccharoidosis type IV A (Morquio syndrome) has been identified.
Patients with Morquio syndrome usually appear normal at birth but exhibit growth failure and spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia as infants. Most children are brought to a physician for investigation of what the parents perceive as an abnormal appearance by 12 to 18 months of age and thoracic kyphosis is supposed to be the first appearing deformity. In our present patient progressive acetabular dysplasia was the prime orthopaedic presentation causing effectively the development of a painful waddling gait.
Most cases of caudal regression are sporadic or associated with gestational/maternal diabetes. The condition is thought to be part of a spectrum including imperforate anus, sacral agenesis and sirenomelia. Infants of diabetic mothers have two to three times the average incidence of congenital anomalies.
We report on a 7-year-old boy from non-consanguineous family in Austria was born with features of caudal regression syndrome. A constellation of malformation complex such as caudal regression syndrome and anorectal malformation complex were evident at birth. Of great interest was the abnormal articulation between the pelvis and the remaining abnormal spine. Spinal-pelvic instability, dislocation of the hip, and knee-flexion contracture associated with popliteal webbing were the major orthopaedic abnormalities.
We showed that an offspring of a diabetic mother was at significant risk of developing caudal regression syndrome. Our present patient demonstrated type1 of Welch and Aterman classification. There was total sacral agenesis associated with subtotal lumbar agenesis. The lowest vertebrae were resting above an iliac amphiathrosis. We strongly encourage primary care providers to discuss the consequences of maternal diabetes mellitus as part of routine anticipatory guidance for antenatal/prenatal management. Careful diabetic control in the preconceptional period and the first eight weeks of pregnancy may lower the chances of congenital anomalies.
Impaired mitochondrial function and ectopic lipid deposition in skeletal muscle and liver have been linked to decreased insulin sensitivity. As growth hormone (GH) excess can reduce insulin sensitivity, we examined the impact of previous acromegaly (AM) on glucose metabolism, lipid storage and muscular ATP turnover.
Participants and Methods
Seven AM (4f/3 m, age: 46±4 years, BMI: 28±1 kg/m2) and healthy volunteers (CON: 3f/4 m, 43±4 years, 26±2 kg/m2) matched for age and body mass underwent oral glucose testing for assessment of insulin sensitivity (OGIS) and ß-cell function (adaptation index, ADAP). Whole body oxidative capacity was measured with indirect calorimetry and spiroergometry. Unidirectional ATP synthetic flux (fATP) was assessed from 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of calf muscle. Lipid contents of tibialis anterior (IMCLt) and soleus muscles (IMCLs) and liver (HCL) were measured with 1H MRS.
Despite comparable GH, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) and insulin sensitivity, AM had ∼85% lower ADAP (p<0.01) and ∼21% reduced VO2max (p<0.05). fATP was similarly ∼25% lower in AM (p<0.05) and related positively to ADAP (r = 0.744, p<0.01), but negatively to BMI (r = −0.582, p<0.05). AM had ∼3fold higher HCL (p<0.05) while IMCLt and IMCLs did not differ between the groups.
Humans with a history of acromegaly exhibit reduced insulin secretion, muscular ATP synthesis and oxidative capacity but elevated liver fat content. This suggests that alterations in ß-cell function and myocellular ATP production may persist despite normalization of GH secretion after successful treatment of acromegaly.