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Journal of neurosurgery. Spine (1)
Endo, Toshiki (2)
Ameenuddin, Syed (1)
Chen, Bingkun (1)
Currier, Bradford L. (1)
Gross, LouAnn (1)
Rooney, Gemma E. (1)
Schiefer, Terry K. (1)
Shimadzu, Hideyasu (1)
Spinner, Robert J. (1)
Vaishya, Sandeep (1)
Windebank, Anthony J. (1)
Yano, Machiko (1)
Yaszemski, Michael J. (1)
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Modelling temperature effects on milk production: a study on Holstein cows at a Japanese farm
Milk yield and its composition vary according to individual cows as well as to a variety of different environment conditions, such as temperature. Previous studies suggest that heat exerts considerable negative effects on milk production and its composition, especially during summer months. We investigate the production and fat composition of milk from individual dairy cows and develop a modelling framework that investigates the effect of temperature by extending a traditional lactation curve model onto a more flexible statistical modelling framework, a generalised additive model (GAM). The GAM simultaneously copes with multiple different conditions (temperature, parity, days of lactation, etc.), and, importantly, their non-linear relationships. Our analysis of retrospective data suggests that individual cows respond differently to heat; cows producing relatively high quantities of milk tend to be particularly sensitive to heat. Our model also suggests that most dairy cows studied fall into three distinct cases that underpin the variation of the milk fat ratio by different mechanisms.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/2193-1801-3-129) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Milk production; Milk fat; Heat stress; Lactation curves; Modelling; Test-day data
Importance of the vasculature in cyst formation after spinal cord injury
Rooney, Gemma E.
Schiefer, Terry K.
Currier, Bradford L.
Spinner, Robert J.
Yaszemski, Michael J.
Windebank, Anthony J.
Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
Glial scar and cystic formation greatly contribute to the inhibition of axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI). Attempts to promote axonal regeneration are extremely challenging in this type of hostile environment. The objective of this study was to examine the surgical methods that may be used to assess the factors that influence the level of scar and cystic formation in SCI.
In the first part of this study, a complete transection was performed at vertebral level T9–10 in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. The dura mater was either left open (control group) or was closed using sutures or hyaluronic acid. In the second part of the study, complete or subpial transection was performed, with the same dural closure technique applied to both groups. Histological analysis of longitudinal sections of the spinal cord was performed, and the percentage of scar and cyst formation was determined.
Dural closure using sutures resulted in significantly less glial scar formation (p = 0.0248), while incorporation of the subpial transection surgical technique was then shown to significantly decrease cyst formation (p < 0.0001).
In this study, the authors demonstrated the importance of the vasculature in cyst formation after spinal cord trauma and confirmed the importance of dural closure in reducing glial scar formation.
traumatic spinal cord injury; vascular injury; glial cell response to injury
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