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1.  Disease monitoring of patients with chronic heart failure 
Heart  2007;93(4):519-523.
doi:10.1136/hrt.2005.078519
PMCID: PMC1861485  PMID: 17401072
disease monitoring; chronic heart failure; B‐type natriuretic peptide
2.  Haemodynamic, endocrine and renal actions of adrenomedullin 5 in an ovine model of heart failure 
AM5 (adrenomedullin 5), a newly described member of the CGRP (calcitonin gene-related peptide) family, is reported to play a role in normal cardiovascular physiology. The effects of AM5 in HF (heart failure), however, have not been investigated. In the present study, we intravenously infused two incremental doses of AM5 (10 and 100 ng/min per kg of body weight each for 90 min) into eight sheep with pacing-induced HF. Compared with time-matched vehicle control infusions, AM5 produced progressive and dose-dependent increases in left ventricular dP/dt(max) [LD (low dose), +56 mmHg/s and HD (high dose), +152 mmHg/s] and cardiac output (+0.83 l/min and +1.81 l/min), together with decrements in calculated total peripheral resistance (−9.4 mmHg/min per litre and −14.7 mmHg/min per litre), mean arterial pressure (−2.8 mmHg and −8.4 mmHg) and LAP (left atrial pressure; −2.6 mmHg and −5.6 mmHg) (all P<0.001). HD AM5 significantly raised PRA (plasma renin activity) (3.5-fold increment, P<0.001), whereas plasma aldosterone levels were unchanged over the intra-infusion period and actually fell in the post-infusion period (70% decrement, P<0.01), resulting in a marked decrease in the aldosterone/PRA ratio (P<0.01). Despite falls in LAP, plasma atrial natriuretic peptide and B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations were maintained relative to controls. AM5 infusion also induced significant increases in urine volume (HD 2-fold increment, P<0.05) and urine sodium (2.7-fold increment, P<0.01), potassium (1.7-fold increment, P<0.05) and creatinine (1.4-fold increment, P<0.05) excretion and creatinine clearance (60% increment, P<0.05). In conclusion, AM5 has significant haemodynamic, endocrine and renal actions in experimental HF likely to be protective and compensatory in this setting. These results suggest that AM5 may have potential as a therapeutic agent in human HF.
doi:10.1042/CS20110483
PMCID: PMC3259696  PMID: 22087608
adenomedullin 5; haemodynamics; heart failure; hormone; renal function; AM5, adrenomedullin 5; AngII, angiotensin II; ANP, atrial natriuretic peptide; AVP, arginine vasopressin; BNP, B-type natriuretic peptide; BP, blood pressure; CGRP, calcitonin gene-related peptide; CLR, calcitonin receptor-like receptor; CO, cardiac output; CTPR, calculated total peripheral resistance; HD, high dose; HF, heart failure; i.c.v., intracerebroventricular; i.v., intravenous; LAP, left atrial pressure; LD, low dose; LV, left ventricular; MAP, mean arterial pressure; NEP, neutral endopeptidase; PRA, plasma renin activity; RAMP, receptor activity-modifying protein
3.  Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is not related to cardiac natriuretic peptide in nulliparous and lactating women 
Background
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with heightened risk of cardiovascular disease. Potential mechanisms include involvement of vitamin D in regulation of renin-angiotensin system and manufacture and secretion of cardiac natriuretic peptides. Our aim was to document relationships between 25 hydroxyvitamin [25(OH)D] and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and plasma renin activity (PRA) levels and to document the effect of vitamin D administration on NT-proBNP and PRA levels in vitamin D deficient subjects.
Methods
Serum 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), plasma or serum NT-proBNP and PRA levels were measured at baseline in nulliparous and lactating women and after 2 months of oral vitamin D2 (2,000 IU/day or 60,000 IU/month) supplementation to lactating women.
Results
Baseline levels of 25(OH)D were low (<50 nmol/L) in most women whereas PRA and NT-proBNP levels were within the normal range. There were no significant correlations between baseline 25(OH)D or PTH with NT-proBNP and PRA. Vitamin D administration over a 2-month period in lactating women was associated with a decline in NT-proBNP (by 9.1 ± 2.0 pmol/L; p < 0.001) and PRA (by 0.32 ± 0.17 nmol/L/hr; p = 0.064). However, there were no significant correlations between the changes from baseline in 25(OH)D and either NT-proBNP (r = -0.04, p = 0.8) or PRA (r = -0.04, p = 0.8).
Conclusion
We found no significant correlations between 25(OH)D or PTH with NT-proBNP and PRA in vitamin D deficient women. Further information is required to clarify the effects of vitamin D administration on cardiac structure and function.
doi:10.1186/1472-6823-9-4
PMCID: PMC2646736  PMID: 19178708
5.  Hypertension, hypertrophy, heart failure 
Heart  1996;76(3 Suppl 3):92-97.
PMCID: PMC484495  PMID: 8983668
7.  Hypoglycaemia following removal of phaeochromocytoma: case report and review of the literature 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  1982;58(682):503-506.
Hypoglycaemia may complicate removal of a phaeochromocytoma, but its pathogenesis is not well understood. The sixth such case in the world literature is reported together with details of glucose tolerance testing and hormone levels before and after extirpation of an adrenal phaeochromocytoma. The mechanism of hypoglycaemia probably relates to a sudden decrease in circulating catecholamines which allows a rebound increase in insulin release and in peripheral glucose uptake. It is suggested that blood sugar levels should be monitored routinely after surgery for phaeochromocytoma.
PMCID: PMC2426546  PMID: 7134092
8.  ANP and BNP Responses to Dehydration in the One-Humped Camel and Effects of Blocking the Renin-Angiotensin System 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e57806.
The objectives of this study were to investigate and compare the responses of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in the circulation of hydrated, dehydrated, and dehydrated losartan - treated camels; and to document the cardiac storage form of B-type natriuretic peptide in the camel heart. Eighteen male camels were used in the study: control or hydrated camels (n = 6), dehydrated camels (n = 6) and dehydrated losartan-treated camels (n = 6) which were dehydrated and received the angiotensin II (Ang II) AT-1 receptor blocker, losartan, at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight intravenously for 20 days. Control animals were supplied with feed and water ad-libitum while both dehydrated and dehydrated-losartan treated groups were supplied with feed ad-libitum but no water for 20 days. Compared with time-matched controls, dehydrated camels exhibited a significant decrease in plasma levels of both ANP and BNP. Losartan-treated camels also exhibited a significant decline in ANP and BNP levels across 20 days of dehydration but the changes were not different from those seen with dehydration alone. Size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography of extracts of camel heart indicated that proB-type natriuretic peptide is the storage form of the peptide.
We conclude first, that dehydration in the camel induces vigorous decrements in circulating levels of ANP and BNP; second, blockade of the renin-angiotensin system has little or no modulatory effect on the ANP and BNP responses to dehydration; third, proB-type natriuretic peptide is the storage form of this hormone in the heart of the one-humped camel.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057806
PMCID: PMC3596322  PMID: 23516417
9.  The renin-angiotensin system and the heart 
Heart  1996;76(3 Suppl 3):2.
PMCID: PMC484479  PMID: 8977357

Results 1-9 (9)