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1.  Decline of Salmonella enterica Serotype Choleraesuis Infections, Taiwan 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2014;20(4):715-716.
doi:10.3201/eid2004.130240
PMCID: PMC3966396  PMID: 24655558
Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis; invasive infection; antimicrobial resistance; bacteria; Taiwan; zoonoses
2.  Increasing Ceftriaxone Resistance in Salmonellae, Taiwan 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2011;17(6):1086-1090.
In Taiwan, despite a substantial decline of Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis infections, strains resistant to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone persist. A self-transferable blaCMY-2-harboring IncI1 plasmid was identified in S. enterica serotypes Choleraesuis, Typhimurium, Agona, and Enteritidis and contributed to the overall increase of ceftriaxone resistance in salmonellae.
doi:10.3201/eid1706.101949
PMCID: PMC3358216  PMID: 21749777
Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis; nontyphoidal Salmonella; antimicrobial resistance; salmonellae; CMY-2; Tn6092; conjugative resistance plasmid; bacteria; Taiwan; letter
3.  High Rate of Reduced Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin and Ceftriaxone among Nontyphoid Salmonella Clinical Isolates in Asia▿  
This multinational study from Asia revealed that reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MIC, 0.125 to 1 μg/ml) in nontyphoid Salmonella isolates was common in Taiwan (48.1%) and Thailand (46.2%) and in S. enterica serotype Choleraesuis (68.8%) and S. Virchow (75.0%) from all countries. Reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC, 2 to 8 μg/ml) remained uncommon in Asia, except in Taiwan (38.0%) or in S. Typhimurium (25.0%) from all countries.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01297-08
PMCID: PMC2687261  PMID: 19332677
4.  Molecular Epidemiology and Clinical Manifestations of Viral Gastroenteritis in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients in Northern Taiwan▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2007;45(6):2054-2057.
By reverse transcription-PCR or PCR, among 257 children with nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis (AGE), rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, enteric adenovirus, and multiple viruses were identified in 78 (30.4%), 21 (8.2%), 7 (2.7%), 51 (19.8%), and 53 (20.6%) patients, respectively. Higher disease severity was found for AGE caused by multiple viruses and by rotavirus alone. The majority of rotaviruses isolated from 2004 to 2006 belonged to genotypes G1 (20.4%), G2 (16.5%), G3 (27.2%), and G9 (21.4%).
doi:10.1128/JCM.01519-06
PMCID: PMC1933068  PMID: 17442805
5.  Shanghai fever: a distinct Pseudomonas aeruginosa enteric disease 
Gut  2013;63(5):736-743.
Background
Shanghai fever, a community-acquired enteric illness associated with sepsis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was first described in 1918. The understanding of Shanghai fever is incomplete.
Objective
To delineate the clinical features and to examine the host and microbial factors associated with Shanghai fever.
Methods
We prospectively enrolled 27 consecutive previously healthy children with community-acquired P aeruginosa enteritis and sepsis between July 2003 and June 2012. An immunological investigation, including measurement of serum immunoglobulin levels and lymphocyte subpopulations, was performed. The clonal relationship of bacterial isolates was determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and the virulence of isolates was measured using cellular and animal models.
Results
The median age of the patients was 7 months; 24 (89%) were aged <1 year. The most common clinical manifestations were fever (100%), diarrhoea (96%) and shock (81%). Leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, high C-reactive protein levels, coagulopathy and hypoalbuminaemia were the key laboratory findings. Necrotising enteritis with or without bowel perforation, ecthyma gangrenosum and seizures were main complications. The death rate was 15%. No common primary immune deficiency was identified. MLST genotypes indicated that isolates from Shanghai fever were non-clonal, but they shared similar phenotypes which were invariably cytotoxic, invasive and adhesive in cellular experiments and caused prolonged gut colonisation and more death than respiratory and laboratory control strains in mice.
Conclusions
Shanghai fever is a sporadic community-acquired disease of previously healthy infants that manifests as sepsis associated with P aeruginosa enteric disease. Both host and microbial factors play a role in pathogenesis.
doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2013-304786
PMCID: PMC3995289  PMID: 23943780
Bacterial Infection; Bacterial Pathogenesis; Infectious Diarrhoea; Sepsis; Enteric Infections
6.  A Recombinant Horseshoe Crab Plasma Lectin Recognizes Specific Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns of Bacteria through Rhamnose 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e115296.
Horseshoe crab is an ancient marine arthropod that, in the absence of a vertebrate-like immune system, relies solely on innate immune responses by defense molecules found in hemolymph plasma and granular hemocytes for host defense. A plasma lectin isolated from the hemolymph of Taiwanese Tachypleus tridentatus recognizes bacteria and lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), yet its structure and mechanism of action remain unclear, largely because of limited availability of horseshoe crabs and the lack of a heterogeneous expression system. In this study, we have successfully expressed and purified a soluble and functional recombinant horseshoe crab plasma lectin (rHPL) in an Escherichia coli system. Interestingly, rHPL bound not only to bacteria and LPSs like the native HPL but also to selective medically important pathogens isolated from clinical specimens, such as Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae and Gram-positive Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes. The binding was demonstrated to occur through a specific molecular interaction with rhamnose in pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on the bacterial surface. Additionally, rHPL inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa PAO1 in a concentration-dependent manner. The results suggest that a specific protein-glycan interaction between rHPL and rhamnosyl residue may further facilitate development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for microbial pathogens.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0115296
PMCID: PMC4277298  PMID: 25541995
7.  Potential impact on kidney infection: a whole-genome analysis of Leptospira santarosai serovar Shermani 
Leptospira santarosai serovar Shermani is the most frequently encountered serovar, and it causes leptospirosis and tubulointerstitial nephritis in Taiwan. This study aims to complete the genome sequence of L. santarosai serovar Shermani and analyze the transcriptional responses of L. santarosai serovar Shermani to renal tubular cells. To assemble this highly repetitive genome, we combined reads that were generated from four next-generation sequencing platforms by using hybrid assembly approaches to finish two-chromosome contiguous sequences without gaps by validating the data with optical restriction maps and Sanger sequencing. Whole-genome comparison studies revealed a 28-kb region containing genes that encode transposases and hypothetical proteins in L. santarosai serovar Shermani, but this region is absent in other pathogenic Leptospira spp. We found that lipoprotein gene expression in both L. santarosai serovar Shermani and L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni were upregulated upon interaction with renal tubular cells, and LSS19962, a L. santarosai serovar Shermani-specific gene within a 28-kb region that encodes hypothetical proteins, was upregulated in L. santarosai serovar Shermani-infected renal tubular cells. Lipoprotein expression during leptospiral infection might facilitate the interactions of leptospires within kidneys. The availability of the whole-genome sequence of L. santarosai serovar Shermani would make it the first completed sequence of this species, and its comparison with that of other Leptospira spp. may provide invaluable information for further studies in leptospiral pathogenesis.
doi:10.1038/emi.2014.78
PMCID: PMC4274889
hypothetical proteins; Leptospira santarosai; leptospirosis; repetitive genome; whole-genome sequencing
8.  Evaluation of Gram-negative bacterial infection by a stable and conjugative bioluminescence plasmid in a mouse model 
Background
The green fluorescence protein (GFP)-associated fluorescence method and the luciferase-associated bioluminescence method are the two major methods for IVIS imaging system to investigate the bacterial infection in animal models. The aim of this study was to evaluate the infection route of Gram-negative bacteria carrying a stable and broad range of conjugative bioluminescence plasmid pSE-Lux1 in a mouse model.
Results
Both encapsulated and non-encapsulated Gram-negative bacteria were used as hosts to evaluate conjugation efficiency and plasmid stability of pSE-Lux1, a recombinant of pSE34 and luxABCDE operon. The plasmid conjugation efficiencies of pSE-Lux1 ranged from 10−3 to 10−7 in various Gram-negative bacteria. Plasmid pSE-Lux1 maintained in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella enterica serovars Choleraesues (abbreviated S. Choleraesuis) and Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), than in Acinetobacter baumannii and Serratia marcescens, was shown to be of better stability for at least four days. To investigate systemic bacterial infections, K. pneumoniae strain CG354 was intravenously injected, and then was clearly observed to be non-pathogenic to Balb/c mice for a long-term bioluminescence monitoring for 6 days. For examining dynamic distributions of gastrointestinal tract infection, the invasion protein SipB-deficient mutant OU5045△sipB and OU5046△sipB of S. serovar Typhimurium constructed in this study, compared to wild-type strain OU5045 and its virulence plasmid-less strain OU5046, were of less virulence to mice.
Conclusions
This is the first study to evaluate the conjugative and stable bioluminescence vehicle system of pSE-Lux1 in a wide range of Gram-negative bacteria, a system that can provide a useful reporter approach to trace systemic and gastrointestinal bacterial infections in a mouse model.
doi:10.1186/s12929-014-0078-y
PMCID: PMC4237811  PMID: 25135473
Conjugative plasmi; Plasmid stability; Bioluminescence; Mutagenesis; Gram-negative bacteria
9.  Clinical Features of Coxsackievirus A4, B3 and B4 Infections in Children 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e87391.
Background
Clinical features of coxsackievirus A4 (CA4), B3 (CB3) and B4 (CB4) infections in children have not been comprehensively described.
Methods/Principal Findings
From January 2004 to June 2012, a total of 386 children with culture-proven CA4, CB3 and CB4 infections treated at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, including 296 inpatients (CA4, 103; CB3, 131; CB4, 62) and 90 outpatients (CA4, 55; CB3, 14; CB4, 21), were included. From outpatients, only demographics were extracted and from inpatients, detailed clinical and laboratory data were collected retrospectively. The mean age was 32.1±30.2 months; male to female ratio was 1.3∶1. Children with CB3 infection were youngest (76.6% <3 years of age), and had a highest hospitalization rate (90.3%) and a longest duration of hospitalization (mean ± SD, 7.5±6.2 days). Herpangina (74.8%) was the most common presentation for children with CA4 infection, aseptic meningitis (26.7%) and young infant with fever (23.7%) for those with CB3 infection, and herpangina (32.3%) and tonsillitis/pharyngitis (27.4%) for children with CB4 infection. Almost all the inpatients had fever (97.6%). Twelve out of thirteen (92.3%) children with complications and ten of 11 children with long-term sequelae had CB3 infections. Two fatal cases were noted, one due to myocarditis with CA4 infection and CB3 were detected from the other case which had hepatic necrosis with coagulopathy. The remaining 285 children (96.3%) recovered uneventfully.
Conclusion
CA4, CB3 and CB4 infections in children had different clinical disease spectrums and involved different age groups. Though rare, severe diseases may occur, particularly caused by CB3.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0087391
PMCID: PMC3913601  PMID: 24504149
10.  Differential Genomic Variation between Short- and Long-Term Bacterial Evolution Revealed by Ultradeep Sequencing 
Genome Biology and Evolution  2013;5(3):572-577.
Mutation and selection are both thought to impact significantly the nucleotide composition of bacterial genomes. Earlier studies have compared closely related strains to obtain mutation patterns based on the hypothesis that these bacterial strains had diverged so recently that selection will not have had enough time to play its role. In this study, we used a SOLiD autosequencer that was based on a dual-base encoding scheme to sequence the genome of Staphylococcus aureus with a mapping coverage of over 5,000×. By directly counting the variation obtained from these ultradeep sequencing reads, we found that A → G was the predominant single-base substitution and 1 bp deletions were the major small indel. These patterns are completely different from those obtained by comparison of closely related S. aureus strains, where C → T accounted for a larger proportion of mutations and deletions were shown to occur at an almost equal frequency to insertion. These findings suggest that the genomic differences between closely related bacterial strains have already undergone selection and are therefore not representative of spontaneous mutation.
doi:10.1093/gbe/evt031
PMCID: PMC3622303  PMID: 23531725
bacterial genome; mutation; next-generation sequencing; selection
11.  Genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii highlights extensive lateral gene transfer and early evolution of tyrosine kinase signaling 
Genome Biology  2013;14(2):R11.
Background
The Amoebozoa constitute one of the primary divisions of eukaryotes, encompassing taxa of both biomedical and evolutionary importance, yet its genomic diversity remains largely unsampled. Here we present an analysis of a whole genome assembly of Acanthamoeba castellanii (Ac) the first representative from a solitary free-living amoebozoan.
Results
Ac encodes 15,455 compact intron-rich genes, a significant number of which are predicted to have arisen through inter-kingdom lateral gene transfer (LGT). A majority of the LGT candidates have undergone a substantial degree of intronization and Ac appears to have incorporated them into established transcriptional programs. Ac manifests a complex signaling and cell communication repertoire, including a complete tyrosine kinase signaling toolkit and a comparable diversity of predicted extracellular receptors to that found in the facultatively multicellular dictyostelids. An important environmental host of a diverse range of bacteria and viruses, Ac utilizes a diverse repertoire of predicted pattern recognition receptors, many with predicted orthologous functions in the innate immune systems of higher organisms.
Conclusions
Our analysis highlights the important role of LGT in the biology of Ac and in the diversification of microbial eukaryotes. The early evolution of a key signaling facility implicated in the evolution of metazoan multicellularity strongly argues for its emergence early in the Unikont lineage. Overall, the availability of an Ac genome should aid in deciphering the biology of the Amoebozoa and facilitate functional genomic studies in this important model organism and environmental host.
doi:10.1186/gb-2013-14-2-r11
PMCID: PMC4053784  PMID: 23375108
12.  Fish Tank Granuloma Caused by Mycobacterium marinum 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(7):e41296.
Introduction
Mycobacterium marinum causes skin and soft tissue, bone and joint, and rare disseminated infections. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between treatment outcome and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. A total of 27 patients with M. marinum infections were enrolled.
Methods
Data on clinical characteristics and therapeutic methods were collected and analyzed. We also determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 7 antibiotics against 30 isolates from these patients.
Results
Twenty-seven patients received antimycobacterial agents with or without surgical debridement. Eighteen patients were cured, 8 failed to respond to treatment, and one was lost to follow-up. The duration of clarithromycin (147 vs. 28; p = 0.0297), and rifampicin (201 vs. 91; p = 0.0266) treatment in the cured patients was longer than that in the others. Surgical debridement was performed in 10 out of the 18 cured patients, and in 1 of another group (p = 0.0417). All the 30 isolates were susceptible to clarithromycin, amikacin, and linezolid; 29 (96.7%) were susceptible to ethambutol; 28 (93.3%) were susceptible to sulfamethoxazole; and 26 (86.7%) were susceptible to rifampicin. However, only 1 (3.3%) isolate was susceptible to doxycycline.
Discussion
Early diagnosis of the infection and appropriate antimicrobial therapy with surgical debridement are the mainstays of successful treatment. Clarithromycin and rifampin are supposed to be more effective agents.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041296
PMCID: PMC3401166  PMID: 22911774
13.  Complete Genome and Transcriptomes of Streptococcus parasanguinis FW213: Phylogenic Relations and Potential Virulence Mechanisms 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(4):e34769.
Streptococcus parasanguinis, a primary colonizer of the tooth surface, is also an opportunistic pathogen for subacute endocarditis. The complete genome of strain FW213 was determined using the traditional shotgun sequencing approach and further refined by the transcriptomes of cells in early exponential and early stationary growth phases in this study. The transcriptomes also discovered 10 transcripts encoding known hypothetical proteins, one pseudogene, five transcripts matched to the Rfam and additional 87 putative small RNAs within the intergenic regions defined by the GLIMMER analysis. The genome contains five acquired genomic islands (GIs) encoding proteins which potentially contribute to the overall pathogenic capacity and fitness of this microbe. The differential expression of the GIs and various open reading frames outside the GIs at the two growth phases suggested that FW213 possess a range of mechanisms to avoid host immune clearance, to colonize host tissues, to survive within oral biofilms and to overcome various environmental insults. Furthermore, the comparative genome analysis of five S. parasanguinis strains indicates that albeit S. parasanguinis strains are highly conserved, variations in the genome content exist. These variations may reflect differences in pathogenic potential between the strains.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034769
PMCID: PMC3329508  PMID: 22529932
14.  Effect of Probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus on Citrobacter rodentium Colitis: The Role of Dendritic Cells 
Pediatric research  2009;65(2):169-175.
Modulation of the intestinal immune response early in life by administration of probiotic bacteria may be an effective strategy for preventing or attenuating infectious diarrhea. We preinoculated the mice early in life with the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (La) at age 2 wk. Dendritic cells (DCs) were collected and purified from mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and spleens of the BalbC/ByJ mice. DC isolation and adoptive transfer was used to examine the function of probiotics. We demonstrated that when mice were adoptively transferred with La-primed DCs (t-LaDC) instead of oral consumption with La, there was a similar effect on fecal bacteria counts, IgA levels, and colonic histopathology, as well as cytokine levels in MLN when there was intestinal bacterial infection. The above findings suggest that DCs play a key role in probiotics attenuating Citrobacter rodentium (Cr) colitis. Moreover, the location of La-primed DC hints that there is interaction of DCs and T cells in the digestive system of the host. Up-regulated expression of a surface marker on DCs indicated that inoculation with probiotics will stimulate the function of DCs, thereby further increasing immune response triggered by DC.
doi:10.1203/PDR.0b013e31818d5a06
PMCID: PMC3206789  PMID: 19262293
15.  Seroprevalence and Severity of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A H1N1 in Taiwan 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(9):e24440.
Background
This study is to determine the seroprevalence of the pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus (pH1N1) in Taiwan before and after the 2009 pandemic, and to estimate the relative severity of pH1N1 infections among different age groups.
Methodology/Principal Findings
A total of 1544 and 1558 random serum samples were collected from the general population in Taiwan in 2007 and 2010, respectively. Seropositivity was defined by a hemagglutination inhibition titer to pH1N1 (A/Taiwan/126/09) ≥1:40. The seropositivity rate of pH1N1 among the unvaccinated subjects and national surveillance data were used to compare the proportion of infections that led to severe diseases and fatalities among different age groups. The overall seroprevalence of pH1N1 was 0.91% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.43–1.38) in 2007 and significantly increased to 29.9% (95% CI 27.6–32.2) in 2010 (p<0.0001), with the peak attack rate (55.4%) in 10–17 year-old adolescents, the lowest in elderly ≥65 years (14.1%). The overall attack rates were 20.6% (188/912) in unvaccinated subjects. Among the unvaccinated but infected populations, the estimated attack rates of severe cases per 100,000 infections were significantly higher in children aged 0–5 years (54.9 cases, odds ratio [OR] 4.23, 95% CI 3.04–5.90) and elderly ≥ 65years (22.4 cases, OR 2.76, 95% CI 1.99–3.83) compared to adolescents aged 10–17 years (13.0 cases). The overall case-fatality rate was 0.98 per 100,000 infections without a significant difference in different age groups.
Conclusions/Significance
Pre-existing immunity against pH1N1 was rarely identified in Taiwanese at any age in 2007. Young children and elderly – the two most lower seroprotection groups showed the greatest vulnerability to clinical severity after the pH1N1 infections. These results imply that both age groups should have higher priority for immunization in the coming flu season.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024440
PMCID: PMC3164718  PMID: 21909433
16.  Group B Streptococcal Disease in Nonpregnant Patients: Emergence of Highly Resistant Strains of Serotype Ib in Taiwan in 2006 to 2008 ▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2010;48(7):2571-2574.
Among the 228 group B Streptococcus (GBS) isolates recovered in 2006 to 2008, higher resistance to erythromycin (58.3%) and clindamycin (57.9%) was found in isolates with certain resistance phenotypes. Serotype Ib isolates (24.6%) were the second most prevalent serotype, next to serotype V (29.4%), and showed the highest resistance rates to erythromycin (91.0%) and clindamycin (82.1%).
doi:10.1128/JCM.00810-10
PMCID: PMC2897481  PMID: 20444969
17.  Multidrug Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: Risk Factors for Appearance of Imipenem Resistant Strains on Patients Formerly with Susceptible Strains 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(4):e9947.
Background
Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) is an important nosocomial pathogen usually susceptible to carbapenems; however, growing number of imipenem resistant MDRAB (IR-MDRAB) poses further clinical challenge. The study was designed to identify the risk factors for appearance of IR-MDRAB on patients formerly with imipenem susceptible MDRAB (IS-MDRAB) and the impact on clinical outcomes.
Methodology/Principal Findings
A retrospective case control study was carried out for 209 consecutive episodes of IS-MDRAB infection or colonization from August 2001 to March 2005. Forty-nine (23.4%) episodes with succeeding clinical isolates of IR-MDRAB were defined as the cases and 160 (76.6%) with all subsequent clinical isolates of IS-MDRAB were defined as the controls. Quantified antimicrobial selective pressure, “time at risk”, severity of illness, comorbidity, and demographic data were incorporated for multivariate analysis, which revealed imipenem or meropenem as the only significant independent risk factor for the appearance of IR-MDRAB (adjusted OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.27). With selected cases and controls matched to exclude exogenous source of IR-MDRAB, multivariate analysis still identified carbapenem as the only independent risk factor (adjusted OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.92). Case patients had a higher crude mortality rate compared to control patients (57.1% vs. 31.3%, p = 0.001), and the mortality of case patients was associated with shorter duration of “time at risk”, i.e., faster appearance of IR-MDRAB (adjusted OR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.98).
Conclusions/Significance
Judicious use of carbapenem with deployment of antibiotics stewardship measures is critical for reducing IR-MDRAB and the associated unfavorable outcome.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009947
PMCID: PMC2846922  PMID: 20369056
18.  Characterization of 13 multi-drug resistant Salmonella serovars from different broiler chickens associated with those of human isolates 
BMC Microbiology  2010;10:86.
Background
Salmonella are frequently isolated from chickens and their products. Prevalent serogroups and serovars of Salmonella as well as their genotypes and antibiograms were determined for cloacal samples from 1595 chickens. To understand the possible serovar and H antigens for transmission between chicken and human, serovars and their H antigens of 164 chicken and 5314 human isolates were compared.
Results
Prevalence of Salmonella differed among chicken lines and ages. Chicken and human isolates belonged mainly to serogroup B, C1, C2-C3, D, and E. 13 serovars and 66 serovars were identified for chicken and human isolates respectively. The common serovars for chicken and human isolates were S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Albany, S. Derby, and S. Anatum and shared common H1 antigens "g complex; i; e,h; and z4,z24" and H2 antigens "1 complex and -". In human isolates, H1 antigen "i" and H2 antigen "-" were common in all serogroups. In chicken, antimicrobial susceptibility differed among serogroups, serovars and three counties. All isolates were susceptible to cefazolin and ceftriaxone, but highly resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, flumequine, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and tetracycline. Except those isolates of serogroup C1 of Chick group and serogroup G, all isolates were multi-drug resistance. Only S. Kubacha, S. Typhimurium, S. Grampian, and S. Mons were resistant to ciprofloxacin and/or enrofloxacin.
Conclusion
In chicken, prevalent serogroups and serovars were associated with chicken ages, lines and regions; and flouroquinolone-resistant and MDR isolates emerged. H1 antigens "g complex and i" and H2 antigens "1 complex and -" might be important for transmission of Salmonella between chicken and human.
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-10-86
PMCID: PMC2859872  PMID: 20307324
19.  Clonal dissemination of the multi-drug resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Braenderup, but not the serovar Bareilly, of prevalent serogroup C1 Salmonella from Taiwan 
BMC Microbiology  2009;9:264.
Background
Nontyphoidal Salmonella is the main cause of human salmonellosis. In order to study the prevalent serogroups and serovars of clinical isolates in Taiwan, 8931 Salmonellae isolates were collected from 19 medical centers and district hospitals throughout the country from 2004 to 2007. The pulsed-field eletrophoresis types (PFGE) and antibiotic resistance profiles of Salmonella enterica serovars Bareilly (S. Bareilly) and Braenderup (S. Braenderup) were compared, and multi-drug resistance (MDR) plasmids were characterized.
Results
Over 95% of human salmonellosis in Taiwan was caused by five Salmonella serogroups: B, C1, C2-C3, D1, and E1. S. Typhymurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Stanley and S. Newport were the four most prevalent serovars, accounting for about 64% of isolates. While only one or two major serovars from four of the most prevalent serogroups were represented, four predominant serovars were found in serogroup C1 Salmonellae. The prevalence was decreasing for S. Choleraeuis and S. Braenderup, and S. Virchow and increasing for S. Bareilly. S. Braenderup mainly caused gastroenteritis in children; in contrast, S. Bareiley infected children and elderly people. Both serovars differed by XbaI-PFGE patterns. Almost all S. Bareilly isolates were susceptible to antibiotics of interest, while all lacked plasmids and belonged to one clone. Two distinct major clones in S. Braenderup were cluster A, mainly including MDR isolates with large MDR plasmid from North Taiwan, and cluster B, mainly containing susceptible isolates without R plasmid from South Taiwan. In cluster A, there were two types of conjugative R plasmids with sizes ranging from 75 to 130 kb. Type 1 plasmids consisted of replicons F1A/F1B, blaTEM, IS26, and a class 1 integron with the genes dfrA12-orfF-aadA2-qacEΔ1-sulI. Type 2 plasmids belonged to incompatibility group IncI, contained tnpA-blaCMY-2-blc-sugE genetic structures and lacked both IS26 and class 1 integrons. Although type 2 plasmids showed higher conjugation capability, type 1 plasmids were the predominant plasmid.
Conclusions
Serogroups B, C1, C2-C3, D1, and E1 of Salmonella caused over 95% of human salmonellosis. Two prevalent serovars within serogroup C1, S. Bareilly and cluster B of S. Braenderup, were clonal and drug-susceptible. However, cluster A of S. Braenderup was MDR and probably derived from susceptible isolates by acquiring one of two distinct conjugative R plasmids.
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-9-264
PMCID: PMC2806260  PMID: 20017951
20.  Truncated tni Module Adjacent to the Complex Integron of Salmonella Genomic Island 1 in Salmonella enterica Serovar Virchow ▿  
Salmonella genomic island 1 was identified for the first time in Salmonella enterica serovar Virchow isolated from humans in Taiwan. The complex class 1 integron conferring multidrug resistance was shown to be inserted within open reading frame (ORF) S023 and contains for the first time a partial transpositional module. The 5-bp target duplication flanking the complex integron suggests that its insertion in ORF S023 was by transposition.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01015-08
PMCID: PMC2630650  PMID: 19015337
21.  Genome evolution driven by host adaptations results in a more virulent and antimicrobial-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 14 
BMC Genomics  2009;10:158.
Background
Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 14 is one of the most common pneumococcal serotypes that cause invasive pneumococcal diseases worldwide. Serotype 14 often expresses resistance to a variety of antimicrobial agents, resulting in difficulties in treatment. To gain insight into the evolution of virulence and antimicrobial resistance traits in S. pneumoniae from the genome level, we sequenced the entire genome of a serotype 14 isolate (CGSP14), and carried out comprehensive comparison with other pneumococcal genomes. Multiple serotype 14 clinical isolates were also genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST).
Results
Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the CGSP14 acquired a number of new genes by horizontal gene transfer (HGT), most of which were associated with virulence and antimicrobial resistance and clustered in mobile genetic elements. The most remarkable feature is the acquisition of two conjugative transposons and one resistance island encoding eight resistance genes. Results of MLST suggested that the major driving force for the genome evolution is the environmental drug pressure.
Conclusion
The genome sequence of S. pneumoniae serotype 14 shows a bacterium with rapid adaptations to its lifecycle in human community. These include a versatile genome content, with a wide range of mobile elements, and chromosomal rearrangement; the latter re-balanced the genome after events of HGT.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-10-158
PMCID: PMC2678160  PMID: 19361343
22.  Prevalence and Characterization of Multidrug-Resistant (Type ACSSuT) Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strains in Isolates from Four Gosling Farms and a Hatchery Farm▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2007;46(2):522-526.
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains of phage types DT104 and U302 are often resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline (the ACSSuT resistance type) and are major zoonotic pathogens. Increased consumption of goose meat may enhance the risk of transferring S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and other enteric pathogens from geese to human due to the consumption of meats from infected geese or improper preparation of meats. Therefore, we characterized S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strains isolated from four goose farms (farms A, B, C, and D) and one hatchery farm (farm E) to determine the epidemic and genetic differences among them. Antibiotic susceptibility tests and multiplex PCR confirmed that 77.6% (52/67) of strains were ACSSuT strains isolated from farms A, C, and E. Antibiotic-susceptible strains were isolated mostly from farm B, and no strain was observed in farm D. All ACSSuT strains harbored a 94.7-kb virulence plasmid and contained one 1.1-kb conserved segment identical to that of Salmonella genomic island 1. Four genotypes were determined among these S. enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of XbaI-digested DNA fragments. Most isolates (85.29%; 29/34) of major genotype Ib were ACSSuT strains isolated mainly from goslings of farm C and egg membranes of farm E, a hatchery farm, suggesting that S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strains in isolates from goslings might originate from its hatchery, from the egg membranes to the gosling fluff after hatching. Multiple phage types, types 8, 12, U283, DT104, and U302, were identified. In conclusion, geese were a reservoir of diverse multidrug-resistant (type ACSSuT) S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strains, and each farm was colonized with genetically closely related S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strains.
doi:10.1128/JCM.00709-07
PMCID: PMC2238140  PMID: 18077649
23.  Increasing Ceftriaxone Resistance and Multiple Alterations of Penicillin-Binding Proteins among Penicillin-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates in Taiwan▿  
The rate of nonsusceptibility of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae strains to ceftriaxone increased significantly in Taiwan in 2005. Approximately 90% of the ceftriaxone-nonsusceptible isolates were found to be of four major serotypes (serotypes 6B, 14, 19F, and 23F). Seven amino acid alterations in the penicillin-binding protein 2B transpeptidase-encoding region specifically contributed to the resistance.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01563-06
PMCID: PMC2043203  PMID: 17591850
24.  Draft Genome Sequence of the Sexually Transmitted Pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis 
Science (New York, N.Y.)  2007;315(5809):207-212.
We describe the genome sequence of the protist Trichomonas vaginalis, a sexually transmitted human pathogen. Repeats and transposable elements comprise about two-thirds of the ~160-megabase genome, reflecting a recent massive expansion of genetic material. This expansion, in conjunction with the shaping of metabolic pathways that likely transpired through lateral gene transfer from bacteria, and amplification of specific gene families implicated in pathogenesis and phagocytosis of host proteins may exemplify adaptations of the parasite during its transition to a urogenital environment. The genome sequence predicts previously unknown functions for the hydrogenosome, which support a common evolutionary origin of this unusual organelle with mitochondria.
doi:10.1126/science.1132894
PMCID: PMC2080659  PMID: 17218520
25.  Detection of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Phage Types DT102, DT104, and U302 by Multiplex PCR 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2006;44(7):2354-2358.
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a common cause of nontyphoidal salmonellosis in humans and animals. Multidrug-resistant serovar Typhimurium phage type DT104, which emerged in the 1990s, has become widely distributed in many countries. A total of 104 clinical isolates of Salmonella serogroup B were collected from three major hospitals in Taiwan during 1997 to 2003 and were examined by a multiplex PCR targeting the resistance genes and the spv gene of the virulence plasmid. A total of 51 isolates (49%) were resistant to all drugs (ACSSuT [resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and tetracycline]), and all contained a 1.25-kb PCR fragment of integron that is part of the 43-kb Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1). The second group was resistant to SSu (28%), and the third was susceptible to all five drugs (13%). Fifty-nine isolates were serotyped to be serovar Typhimurium by the tube agglutination method using H antisera. The virulence plasmid was found in 54 (91.5%) of the 59 serovar Typhimurium isolates. A majority (94.1%) of the Salmonella serogroup B isolates with the ACSSuT resistance pattern harbored a virulence plasmid. Phage typing identified three major phage types: DT104, DT120, and U302. Analysis of the isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed six genotypes. We found two genotypes in DT104 strains, two in DT120, and the other two in U302. The presence of a monophasic serovar (4,5,12:i:−) has added difficulty in the determination of the serovars of multidrug-resistant Salmonella serogroup B isolates. Nevertheless, the multiplex PCR devised in the present study appears to be efficient and useful in the rapid identification of ACSSuT-type serovar Typhimurium with SGI1, irrespective of their phage types.
doi:10.1128/JCM.00171-06
PMCID: PMC1489530  PMID: 16825349

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