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1.  Factors Associated With Health-Related Quality of Life of Student Pharmacists 
Objective. To assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of student pharmacists and explore factors related to HRQoL outcomes of student pharmacists in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program at a public university.
Methods. A survey instrument was administered to all student pharmacists in a PharmD program at a public university to evaluate differences and factors related to the HRQoL outcomes of first-year (P1), second-year (P2), third-year (P3), and fourth-year (P4) student pharmacists in the college. The survey instrument included attitudes and academic-related self-perception, a 12-item short form health survey, and personal information components.
Results. There were 304 students (68.6%) who completed the survey instrument. The average health state classification measure and mental health component scale (MCS-12) scores were significantly higher for P4 students when compared with the P1through P3 students. There was no difference observed in the physical component scale (PCS-12) scores among each of the 4 class years. Significant negative impact on HRQoL outcomes was observed in students with higher levels of confusion about how they should study (scale lack of regulation) and concern about not being negatively perceived by others (self-defeating ego orientation), while school satisfaction increased HRQoL outcomes (SF-6D, p<0.001; MCS-12, p=0.013). A greater desire to be judged capable (self-enhancing ego-orientation) and career satisfaction were positively associated with the PCS-12 scores (p<0.05).
Conclusion. Factors associated with the HRQoL of student pharmacists were confusion regarding how to study, ego orientation, satisfaction with the chosen college of pharmacy, and career satisfaction. First-year through third-year student pharmacists had lower HRQoL as compared with P4 students and the US general population. Support programs may be helpful for students to maintain or improve their mental and overall health.
doi:10.5688/ajpe7817
PMCID: PMC3930255  PMID: 24558275
health-related quality of life; student pharmacists; perceived self-efficacy; ego-orientation
2.  Academic Help-Seeking Behavior Among Student Pharmacists 
Objectives. To identify factors associated with academic help-seeking behavior among student pharmacists at a public university.
Methods. Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted to explore in depth perceptions of facilitators of and barriers to the help-seeking behavior and academic achievement of student pharmacists who had received a D or F grade in any year. A 4-part survey instrument was developed and administered to all student pharmacists and included sections for (1) attitudes and academic help-seeking behavior, (2) health status, (3) demographics, and (4) open comments. A structural equation modeling approach was used to assess relationships among domains of interest.
Results. Three student focus groups noted that helpfulness of faculty members and school administrators were 2 prominent facilitators of help-seeking behavior and academic achievement. Diminished quality of life caused by stress and depression was the primary barrier to help-seeking and achievement. Three hundred four (68.6%) student pharmacists completed the survey instrument. Academic help-seeking behavior was influenced mostly by perceived academic competence and perceived faculty helpfulness. In contrast, ambivalence and perception of help-seeking as threatening were 2 factors that were negatively associated with academic help-seeking behavior.
Conclusions. Academic help-seeking behavior was positively related to greater perceived academic competence and positive relationships among student pharmacists and faculty members.
doi:10.5688/ajpe7717
PMCID: PMC3578339  PMID: 23459559
help-seeking behavior; academic competence; ego orientation; student pharmacists; student affairs
3.  Job and Career Satisfaction Among Pharmacy Preceptors 
Objectives. To examine the perceived benefit of job and career satisfaction among pharmacist preceptors and to explore other factors that might influence satisfaction.
Methods. A cross-sectional self-administered survey instrument was mailed to pharmacists in the South Central region of the United States who had active 2010 licenses to investigate whether being a pharmacist preceptor increases job and career satisfaction.
Results. Twenty-three percent of the 363 respondents were active preceptors and 62% of these reported that they had been preceptors at some point in the past. Being an active preceptor was significantly related to increased job satisfaction (p = 0.01) but not to career satisfaction. Having a perceived benefit of continuing education and being professionally challenged at work also were associated with increased job and career satisfaction (p < 0.001).
Conclusions. Pharmacist preceptors have higher levels of self-reported job satisfaction.
doi:10.5688/ajpe758153
PMCID: PMC3220334  PMID: 22102743
preceptor; job satisfaction; career satisfaction practice experiences
4.  Impact of emergency contraception status on unintended pregnancy: observational data from a women’s health practice 
Pharmacy Practice  2010;8(3):173-178.
Objective:
This study aimed to determine if nonprescription emergency contraception (EC) availability impacted self-reported unintended pregnancy rates and to assess women’s knowledge and awareness of EC prior to and after nonprescription availability.
Methods:
A survey regarding contraception use and knowledge was verbally administered to a cross-sectional, convenience sample of 272 pregnant women receiving prenatal care at a large urban community women’s clinic between August 2003 and October 2008. Statistical analyses determined the differences between two groups (before [BA] and after, [AA] non-prescription EC availability in the U.S. drug market) in terms of self-reported unintended pregnancy rates, knowledge and awareness of EC.
Results:
The AA group reported higher incidence of unintended pregnancy when compared to the BA group (90.7% vs. 72.7%, P = 0.0172). The majority of both groups reported that they were not using any contraception at the time of conception (BA-84.4%; AA-83.3%). There was no significant difference in the participants’ awareness of EC between the two groups (BA-46.8% vs. AA-43.0%) nor was there a significant difference between the two groups in the self-reported willingness to use EC in the future (BA-53.1% vs. AA-63.4%). However, among participants who were unaware of EC, 61% reported they would consider using it in the future after receiving brief EC counseling from a pharmacist or student pharmacist. Neither age nor pregnancy intention was associated with self-reported EC awareness but there was an association with income (P = 0.0410) and education (P = 0.0021).
Conclusion:
The change from prescription-only to non-prescription status of EC in the U.S. drug market did not impact the unintended pregnancy rate in this patient population. Lack of knowledge and awareness is still a major barrier to widespread EC use.
PMCID: PMC4127052  PMID: 25126137
Contraception; Postcoital; Behind-the-Counter Drugs; Health Knowledge; Attitudes; Practice; United States
5.  Pharmacy Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors Regarding Emergency Contraception 
Objectives
To determine pharmacy students' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding emergency contraception.
Methods
A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a convenience sample of students prior to a regular class period. The 16-item survey instrument included both multiple-choice and true/false questions to assess knowledge and Likert-type scale questions regarding attitudes and behaviors. Frequency and descriptive statistics were calculated for all variables.
Results
Three hundred one pharmacy students were surveyed. Eighty-seven percent knew that Plan B had been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for nonprescription use, yet 33% believed that it worked by disrupting a newly implanted ovum. On a scale from 1-5 on which 5 = strongly agree, the mean item score was 1.5 for whether nonprescription emergency contraception should be available without counseling by a pharmacist, yet only 26.7% believed they were competent instructing patients on the use of emergency contraception.
Conclusions
Additional education is needed to prepare pharmacy students to provide informed pharmaceutical care to patients seeking emergency contraception, especially given the passage of legislation making the pharmacy the point of access for some emergency contraception products.
PMCID: PMC2690901  PMID: 19513164
emergency contraception; Plan B; attitudes; ethics; curriculum

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