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1.  Integrating an Elective Self-Care Experience With a Required Advanced Pharmacy Practice Community Experience 
The development, planning, implementation, and integration of a nonprescription medication (self-care) experience into an existing community advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences College of Pharmacy is described. The APPE will provide enhanced self-care education and skill development for students in response to the new Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education Standards and Guidelines for the Professional Program in Pharmacy Leading to the Doctor of Pharmacy Degree, which will take effect in July 2007. A description of the Advanced Community Pharmacy Over-The-Counter APPE is provided along with insights gleaned from the faculty involved.
PMCID: PMC1803710  PMID: 17332870
self-care; nonprescription drugs; advanced pharmacy practice experience; community practice
2.  Recommendations for the Successful Pursuit of Scholarship by Pharmacy Practice Faculty Members 
Scholarship has long been a basic expectation of faculty members at institutions of higher learning in the United States and elsewhere. This expectation is no less assumed in academic pharmacy. A number of organizations have verbalized and enforced this precept over the years.1-3 For example, this expectation is spoken to directly in the American Council for Pharmacy Education’s Accreditation Standards and Guidelines.4 This expectation is further emphasized in the draft document of the accreditation standards to be implemented in 2016, in Standard 20. Specifically, Element 20.2 states: “The college or school must create an environment that both requires and promotes scholarship, and must also develop mechanisms to assess both the quantity and quality of faculty scholarly productivity.”5 The successful pursuit of scholarship by clinical faculty members (those engaged in both clinical practice and teaching, without regard to tenure or clinical track status) is challenging. 6-10 Thus, faculty member job descriptions or models should be designed so clinical faculty members can successfully meet all academic job expectations, including productive and meaningful scholarship.
In 2012, an AACP Section of Teachers of Pharmacy Practice task force was charged with examining this issue and providing recommendations for models for clinical faculty members that would allow the successful pursuit of scholarship. The task force gathered information relating to the current state of affairs at a number of colleges and reviewed relevant literature. This information, along with personal experiences and much discussion and contemplation, led to some general observations as well as specific recommendations. This paper reiterates the task force’s observations and recommendations and provides further detail regarding our interpretation of the findings and basis for the eventual recommendations to the section.
PMCID: PMC4346816  PMID: 25741020
scholarship; clinical faculty; faculty models
3.  An Objective Standardized Clinical Examination (OSCE) in an Advanced Nonprescription Medicines Course 
To add an objective standardized clinical examination (OSCE) to a nonprescription medication elective and assess the impact on students' knowledge, skills, and satisfaction.
A nonprescription medicine elective was altered to incorporate more active learning and skill-assessment measures. Small group recitation sessions were added to review didactic material from a prior required nonprescription medicine course, and an objective standardized clinical examination was used to assess skills.
Thirty-four students completed the 3-case OSCE with an average grade of 88%. The standardized patients expressed differences in their satisfaction with the student pharmacists' care by ranking the students' overall performance. Students' grades for the course and course evaluations were similar to the previous year.
The addition of the OSCE to the elective course provided students with an enhanced mechanism for evaluation of their self-care education and skill development.
PMCID: PMC2933028  PMID: 21045940
self-care; nonprescription drugs; objective standardized clinical examination (OSCE); community practice
4.  Academic Help-Seeking Behavior Among Student Pharmacists 
Objectives. To identify factors associated with academic help-seeking behavior among student pharmacists at a public university.
Methods. Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted to explore in depth perceptions of facilitators of and barriers to the help-seeking behavior and academic achievement of student pharmacists who had received a D or F grade in any year. A 4-part survey instrument was developed and administered to all student pharmacists and included sections for (1) attitudes and academic help-seeking behavior, (2) health status, (3) demographics, and (4) open comments. A structural equation modeling approach was used to assess relationships among domains of interest.
Results. Three student focus groups noted that helpfulness of faculty members and school administrators were 2 prominent facilitators of help-seeking behavior and academic achievement. Diminished quality of life caused by stress and depression was the primary barrier to help-seeking and achievement. Three hundred four (68.6%) student pharmacists completed the survey instrument. Academic help-seeking behavior was influenced mostly by perceived academic competence and perceived faculty helpfulness. In contrast, ambivalence and perception of help-seeking as threatening were 2 factors that were negatively associated with academic help-seeking behavior.
Conclusions. Academic help-seeking behavior was positively related to greater perceived academic competence and positive relationships among student pharmacists and faculty members.
PMCID: PMC3578339  PMID: 23459559
help-seeking behavior; academic competence; ego orientation; student pharmacists; student affairs
5.  Web-based Multimedia Vignettes in Advanced Community Pharmacy Practice Experiences 
To evaluate the effectiveness of Web-based multimedia vignettes on complex drug administration techniques to augment the training of pharmacy students in advanced community pharmacy practice experiences.
During the orientation for a community APPE, students were randomly assigned to either a study group or control group After they began their APPE, students in the study group were given an Internet address to access multimedia vignettes which they were required to watch to augment their training and standardize their counseling of patients in the use of inhalers and ear and eye drops.
A 12-item questionnaire was administered to students in both groups at the orientation and again on the last day of the APPE to evaluate their knowledge of counseling patients in the use of inhalers and ear and eye drops. The control group did not experience any improvement in their counseling knowledge of the research topics during their month-long experience. Students in the intervention group scored higher on their postintervention test than students in the control group (p < 0.001).
Student learning outcomes from experiential training can be improved through the use of Web-based multimedia instructional vignettes.
PMCID: PMC2865405  PMID: 20498732
vignettes; technology; distance learning; advanced pharmacy practice experience; community pharmacy

Results 1-5 (5)