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1.  Web-based Multimedia Vignettes in Advanced Community Pharmacy Practice Experiences 
To evaluate the effectiveness of Web-based multimedia vignettes on complex drug administration techniques to augment the training of pharmacy students in advanced community pharmacy practice experiences.
During the orientation for a community APPE, students were randomly assigned to either a study group or control group After they began their APPE, students in the study group were given an Internet address to access multimedia vignettes which they were required to watch to augment their training and standardize their counseling of patients in the use of inhalers and ear and eye drops.
A 12-item questionnaire was administered to students in both groups at the orientation and again on the last day of the APPE to evaluate their knowledge of counseling patients in the use of inhalers and ear and eye drops. The control group did not experience any improvement in their counseling knowledge of the research topics during their month-long experience. Students in the intervention group scored higher on their postintervention test than students in the control group (p < 0.001).
Student learning outcomes from experiential training can be improved through the use of Web-based multimedia instructional vignettes.
PMCID: PMC2865405  PMID: 20498732
vignettes; technology; distance learning; advanced pharmacy practice experience; community pharmacy
2.  Factors Associated With Health-Related Quality of Life of Student Pharmacists 
Objective. To assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of student pharmacists and explore factors related to HRQoL outcomes of student pharmacists in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program at a public university.
Methods. A survey instrument was administered to all student pharmacists in a PharmD program at a public university to evaluate differences and factors related to the HRQoL outcomes of first-year (P1), second-year (P2), third-year (P3), and fourth-year (P4) student pharmacists in the college. The survey instrument included attitudes and academic-related self-perception, a 12-item short form health survey, and personal information components.
Results. There were 304 students (68.6%) who completed the survey instrument. The average health state classification measure and mental health component scale (MCS-12) scores were significantly higher for P4 students when compared with the P1through P3 students. There was no difference observed in the physical component scale (PCS-12) scores among each of the 4 class years. Significant negative impact on HRQoL outcomes was observed in students with higher levels of confusion about how they should study (scale lack of regulation) and concern about not being negatively perceived by others (self-defeating ego orientation), while school satisfaction increased HRQoL outcomes (SF-6D, p<0.001; MCS-12, p=0.013). A greater desire to be judged capable (self-enhancing ego-orientation) and career satisfaction were positively associated with the PCS-12 scores (p<0.05).
Conclusion. Factors associated with the HRQoL of student pharmacists were confusion regarding how to study, ego orientation, satisfaction with the chosen college of pharmacy, and career satisfaction. First-year through third-year student pharmacists had lower HRQoL as compared with P4 students and the US general population. Support programs may be helpful for students to maintain or improve their mental and overall health.
PMCID: PMC3930255  PMID: 24558275
health-related quality of life; student pharmacists; perceived self-efficacy; ego-orientation
3.  Academic Help-Seeking Behavior Among Student Pharmacists 
Objectives. To identify factors associated with academic help-seeking behavior among student pharmacists at a public university.
Methods. Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted to explore in depth perceptions of facilitators of and barriers to the help-seeking behavior and academic achievement of student pharmacists who had received a D or F grade in any year. A 4-part survey instrument was developed and administered to all student pharmacists and included sections for (1) attitudes and academic help-seeking behavior, (2) health status, (3) demographics, and (4) open comments. A structural equation modeling approach was used to assess relationships among domains of interest.
Results. Three student focus groups noted that helpfulness of faculty members and school administrators were 2 prominent facilitators of help-seeking behavior and academic achievement. Diminished quality of life caused by stress and depression was the primary barrier to help-seeking and achievement. Three hundred four (68.6%) student pharmacists completed the survey instrument. Academic help-seeking behavior was influenced mostly by perceived academic competence and perceived faculty helpfulness. In contrast, ambivalence and perception of help-seeking as threatening were 2 factors that were negatively associated with academic help-seeking behavior.
Conclusions. Academic help-seeking behavior was positively related to greater perceived academic competence and positive relationships among student pharmacists and faculty members.
PMCID: PMC3578339  PMID: 23459559
help-seeking behavior; academic competence; ego orientation; student pharmacists; student affairs
4.  Multi-Institutional Study of Women and Underrepresented Minority Faculty Members in Academic Pharmacy 
Objectives. To examine trends in the numbers of women and underrepresented minority (URM) pharmacy faculty members over the last 20 years, and determine factors influencing women faculty members’ pursuit and retention of an academic pharmacy career.
Methods. Twenty-year trends in women and URM pharmacy faculty representation were examined. Women faculty members from 9 public colleges and schools of pharmacy were surveyed regarding demographics, job satisfaction, and their academic pharmacy career, and relationships between demographics and satisfaction were analyzed.
Results. The number of women faculty members more than doubled between 1989 and 2009 (from 20.7% to 45.5%), while the number of URM pharmacy faculty members increased only slightly over the same time period. One hundred fifteen women faculty members completed the survey instrument and indicated they were generally satisfied with their jobs. The academic rank of professor, being a nonpharmacy practice faculty member, being tenured/tenure track, and having children were associated with significantly lower satisfaction with fringe benefits. Women faculty members who were tempted to leave academia for other pharmacy sectors had significantly lower salary satisfaction and overall job satisfaction, and were more likely to indicate their expectations of academia did not match their experiences (p<0.05).
Conclusions. The significant increase in the number of women pharmacy faculty members over the last 20 years may be due to the increased number of female pharmacy graduates and to women faculty members’ satisfaction with their careers. Lessons learned through this multi-institutional study and review may be applicable to initiatives to improve recruitment and retention of URM pharmacy faculty members.
PMCID: PMC3298405  PMID: 22412206
underrepresented minority faculty members; women faculty members; recruitment; retention; diversity
6.  An Objective Standardized Clinical Examination (OSCE) in an Advanced Nonprescription Medicines Course 
To add an objective standardized clinical examination (OSCE) to a nonprescription medication elective and assess the impact on students' knowledge, skills, and satisfaction.
A nonprescription medicine elective was altered to incorporate more active learning and skill-assessment measures. Small group recitation sessions were added to review didactic material from a prior required nonprescription medicine course, and an objective standardized clinical examination was used to assess skills.
Thirty-four students completed the 3-case OSCE with an average grade of 88%. The standardized patients expressed differences in their satisfaction with the student pharmacists' care by ranking the students' overall performance. Students' grades for the course and course evaluations were similar to the previous year.
The addition of the OSCE to the elective course provided students with an enhanced mechanism for evaluation of their self-care education and skill development.
PMCID: PMC2933028  PMID: 21045940
self-care; nonprescription drugs; objective standardized clinical examination (OSCE); community practice
7.  Integrating an Elective Self-Care Experience With a Required Advanced Pharmacy Practice Community Experience 
The development, planning, implementation, and integration of a nonprescription medication (self-care) experience into an existing community advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences College of Pharmacy is described. The APPE will provide enhanced self-care education and skill development for students in response to the new Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education Standards and Guidelines for the Professional Program in Pharmacy Leading to the Doctor of Pharmacy Degree, which will take effect in July 2007. A description of the Advanced Community Pharmacy Over-The-Counter APPE is provided along with insights gleaned from the faculty involved.
PMCID: PMC1803710  PMID: 17332870
self-care; nonprescription drugs; advanced pharmacy practice experience; community practice

Results 1-7 (7)