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1.  Uptake and Metabolism of N-Acetylglucosamine and Glucosamine by Streptococcus mutans 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2014;80(16):5053-5067.
Glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine are among the most abundant sugars on the planet, and their introduction into the oral cavity via the diet and host secretions, and through bacterial biosynthesis, provides oral biofilm bacteria with a source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. In this study, we demonstrated that the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans possesses an inducible system for the metabolism of N-acetylglucosamine and glucosamine. These amino sugars are transported by the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS), with the glucose/mannose enzyme II permease encoded by manLMN playing a dominant role. Additionally, a previously uncharacterized gene product encoded downstream of the manLMN operon, ManO, was shown to influence the efficiency of uptake and growth on N-acetylglucosamine and, to a lesser extent, glucosamine. A transcriptional regulator, designated NagR, was able to bind the promoter regions in vitro, and repress the expression in vivo, of the nagA and nagB genes, encoding N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate deacetylase and glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase, respectively. The binding activity of NagR could be inhibited by glucosamine-6-phosphate in vitro. Importantly, in contrast to the case with certain other Firmicutes, the gene for de novo synthesis of glucosamine-6-phosphate in S. mutans, glmS, was also shown to be regulated by NagR, and NagR could bind the glmS promoter region in vitro. Finally, metabolism of these amino sugars by S. mutans resulted in the production of significant quantities of ammonia, which can neutralize cytoplasmic pH and increase acid tolerance, thus contributing to enhanced persistence and pathogenic potential.
doi:10.1128/AEM.00820-14
PMCID: PMC4135778  PMID: 24928869
2.  Streptococcus mutans Extracellular DNA Is Upregulated during Growth in Biofilms, Actively Released via Membrane Vesicles, and Influenced by Components of the Protein Secretion Machinery 
Journal of Bacteriology  2014;196(13):2355-2366.
Streptococcus mutans, a major etiological agent of human dental caries, lives primarily on the tooth surface in biofilms. Limited information is available concerning the extracellular DNA (eDNA) as a scaffolding matrix in S. mutans biofilms. This study demonstrates that S. mutans produces eDNA by multiple avenues, including lysis-independent membrane vesicles. Unlike eDNAs from cell lysis that were abundant and mainly concentrated around broken cells or cell debris with floating open ends, eDNAs produced via the lysis-independent pathway appeared scattered but in a structured network under scanning electron microscopy. Compared to eDNA production of planktonic cultures, eDNA production in 5- and 24-h biofilms was increased by >3- and >1.6-fold, respectively. The addition of DNase I to growth medium significantly reduced biofilm formation. In an in vitro adherence assay, added chromosomal DNA alone had a limited effect on S. mutans adherence to saliva-coated hydroxylapatite beads, but in conjunction with glucans synthesized using purified glucosyltransferase B, the adherence was significantly enhanced. Deletion of sortase A, the transpeptidase that covalently couples multiple surface-associated proteins to the cell wall peptidoglycan, significantly reduced eDNA in both planktonic and biofilm cultures. Sortase A deficiency did not have a significant effect on membrane vesicle production; however, the protein profile of the mutant membrane vesicles was significantly altered, including reduction of adhesin P1 and glucan-binding proteins B and C. Relative to the wild type, deficiency of protein secretion and membrane protein insertion machinery components, including Ffh, YidC1, and YidC2, also caused significant reductions in eDNA.
doi:10.1128/JB.01493-14
PMCID: PMC4054167  PMID: 24748612
3.  Modification of Gene Expression and Virulence Traits in Streptococcus mutans in Response to Carbohydrate Availability 
The genetic and phenotypic responses of Streptococcus mutans, an organism that is strongly associated with the development of dental caries, to changes in carbohydrate availability were investigated. S. mutans UA159 or a derivative of UA159 lacking ManL, which is the EIIAB component (EIIABMan) of a glucose/mannose permease of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) and a dominant effector of catabolite repression, was grown in continuous culture to steady state under conditions of excess (100 mM) or limiting (10 mM) glucose. Microarrays using RNA from S. mutans UA159 revealed that 174 genes were differentially expressed in response to changes in carbohydrate availability (P < 0.001). Glucose-limited cells possessed higher PTS activity, could acidify the environment more rapidly and to a greater extent, and produced more ManL protein than cultures grown with excess glucose. Loss of ManL adversely affected carbohydrate transport and acid tolerance. Comparison of the histidine protein (HPr) in S. mutans UA159 and the manL deletion strain indicated that the differences in the behaviors of the strains were not due to major differences in HPr pools or HPr phosphorylation status. Therefore, carbohydrate availability alone can dramatically influence the expression of physiologic and biochemical pathways that contribute directly to the virulence of S. mutans, and ManL has a profound influence on this behavior.
doi:10.1128/AEM.03579-13
PMCID: PMC3911228  PMID: 24271168
4.  A galactose-specific sugar:phosphotransferase permease is prevalent in the non-core genome of Streptococcus mutans 
Molecular oral microbiology  2013;28(4):292-301.
SUMMARY
Three genes predicted to encode the A, B and C domains of a sugar:phosphotransferase system (PTS) permease specific for galactose (EIIGal) were identified in the genomes of 35 of 57 recently-sequenced isolates of Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiological agent of human dental caries. Mutants defective in the EIIGal complex were constructed in 6 of the isolates and showed markedly reduced growth rates on galactose-based medium relative to the parental strains. An EIIGal-deficient strain constructed using the invasive serotype f strain OMZ175 (OMZ/IIGal) expressed significantly lower PTS activity when galactose was present as the substrate. Galactose was shown to be an effective inducer of catabolite repression in OMZ175, but not in the EIIGal-deficient strain. In a mixed-species competition assay with galactose as the sole carbohydrate source, OMZ/IIGal was less effective than the parental strain at competing with the oral commensal bacterium Streptococcus gordonii, which has a high-affinity galactose transporter. Thus, a significant proportion of S. mutans strains encode a galactose PTS permease that could enhance the ability of these isolates to compete more effectively with commensal streptococci for galactose in salivary constituents and the diet.
doi:10.1111/omi.12025
PMCID: PMC3661675  PMID: 23421335
phosphotransferase system; galactose-PTS; tagatose pathway; biofilm; dental caries
5.  Growth Phase and pH Influence Peptide Signaling for Competence Development in Streptococcus mutans 
Journal of Bacteriology  2014;196(2):227-236.
The development of competence by the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans is mediated primarily through the alternative sigma factor ComX (SigX), which is under the control of multiple regulatory systems and activates the expression of genes involved in DNA uptake and recombination. Here we report that the induction of competence and competence gene expression by XIP (sigX-inducing peptide) and CSP (competence-stimulating peptide) is dependent on the growth phase and that environmental pH has a potent effect on the responses to XIP. A dramatic decline in comX and comS expression was observed in mid- and late-exponential-phase cells. XIP-mediated competence development and responses to XIP were optimal around a neutral pH, although mid-exponential-phase cells remained refractory to XIP treatment, and acidified late-exponential-phase cultures were resistant to killing by high concentrations of XIP. Changes in the expression of the genes for the oligopeptide permease (opp), which appears to be responsible for the internalization of XIP, could not entirely account for the behaviors observed. Interestingly, comS and comX expression was highly induced in response to endogenously overproduced XIP or ComS in mid-exponential-phase cells. In contrast to the effects of pH on XIP, competence induction and responses to CSP in complex medium were not affected by pH, although a decreased response to CSP in cells that had exited early-exponential phase was observed. Collectively, these results indicate that competence development may be highly sensitive to microenvironments within oral biofilms and that XIP and CSP signaling in biofilms could be spatially and temporally heterogeneous.
doi:10.1128/JB.00995-13
PMCID: PMC3911236  PMID: 24163340
6.  Evolutionary and Population Genomics of the Cavity Causing Bacteria Streptococcus mutans 
Molecular Biology and Evolution  2012;30(4):881-893.
Streptococcus mutans is widely recognized as one of the key etiological agents of human dental caries. Despite its role in this important disease, our present knowledge of gene content variability across the species and its relationship to adaptation is minimal. Estimates of its demographic history are not available. In this study, we generated genome sequences of 57 S. mutans isolates, as well as representative strains of the most closely related species to S. mutans (S. ratti, S. macaccae, and S. criceti), to identify the overall structure and potential adaptive features of the dispensable and core components of the genome. We also performed population genetic analyses on the core genome of the species aimed at understanding the demographic history, and impact of selection shaping its genetic variation. The maximum gene content divergence among strains was approximately 23%, with the majority of strains diverging by 5–15%. The core genome consisted of 1,490 genes and the pan-genome approximately 3,296. Maximum likelihood analysis of the synonymous site frequency spectrum (SFS) suggested that the S. mutans population started expanding exponentially approximately 10,000 years ago (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3,268–14,344 years ago), coincidental with the onset of human agriculture. Analysis of the replacement SFS indicated that a majority of these substitutions are under strong negative selection, and the remainder evolved neutrally. A set of 14 genes was identified as being under positive selection, most of which were involved in either sugar metabolism or acid tolerance. Analysis of the core genome suggested that among 73 genes present in all isolates of S. mutans but absent in other species of the mutans taxonomic group, the majority can be associated with metabolic processes that could have contributed to the successful adaptation of S. mutans to its new niche, the human mouth, and with the dietary changes that accompanied the origin of agriculture.
doi:10.1093/molbev/mss278
PMCID: PMC3603310  PMID: 23228887
Streptococcus mutans; demographic inference; cavities; bacterial evolution; pan and core genome; infectious disease
7.  Phylogenomics and the Dynamic Genome Evolution of the Genus Streptococcus 
Genome Biology and Evolution  2014;6(4):741-753.
The genus Streptococcus comprises important pathogens that have a severe impact on human health and are responsible for substantial economic losses to agriculture. Here, we utilize 46 Streptococcus genome sequences (44 species), including eight species sequenced here, to provide the first genomic level insight into the evolutionary history and genetic basis underlying the functional diversity of all major groups of this genus. Gene gain/loss analysis revealed a dynamic pattern of genome evolution characterized by an initial period of gene gain followed by a period of loss, as the major groups within the genus diversified. This was followed by a period of genome expansion associated with the origins of the present extant species. The pattern is concordant with an emerging view that genomes evolve through a dynamic process of expansion and streamlining. A large proportion of the pan-genome has experienced lateral gene transfer (LGT) with causative factors, such as relatedness and shared environment, operating over different evolutionary scales. Multiple gene ontology terms were significantly enriched for each group, and mapping terms onto the phylogeny showed that those corresponding to genes born on branches leading to the major groups represented approximately one-fifth of those enriched. Furthermore, despite the extensive LGT, several biochemical characteristics have been retained since group formation, suggesting genomic cohesiveness through time, and that these characteristics may be fundamental to each group. For example, proteolysis: mitis group; urea metabolism: salivarius group; carbohydrate metabolism: pyogenic group; and transcription regulation: bovis group.
doi:10.1093/gbe/evu048
PMCID: PMC4007547  PMID: 24625962
comparative genomics; phylogenetics; gene gain and loss; enrichment; lateral gene transfer
8.  Fueling the caries process: carbohydrate metabolism and gene regulation by Streptococcus mutans  
Journal of Oral Microbiology  2014;6:10.3402/jom.v6.24878.
The nature of the oral cavity and host behaviors has mandated that the oral microbiota evolve mechanisms for coping with environmental fluctuations, especially changes in the type and availability of carbohydrates. In the case of human dental caries, the presence of excess carbohydrates is often responsible for altering the local environment to be more favorable for species associated with the initiation and progression of disease, including Streptococcus mutans. Some of the earliest endeavors to understand how cariogenic species respond to environmental perturbations were carried out using chemostat cultivation, which provides fine control over culture conditions and bacterial behaviors. The development of genome-scale methodologies has allowed for the combination of sophisticated cultivation technologies with genome-level analysis to more thoroughly probe how bacterial pathogens respond to environmental stimuli. Recent investigations in S. mutans and other closely related streptococci have begun to reveal that carbohydrate metabolism can drastically impact pathogenic potential and highlight the important influence that nutrient acquisition has on the success of pathogens; inside and outside of the oral cavity. Collectively, research into pathogenic streptococci, which have evolved in close association with the human host, has begun to unveil the essential nature of careful orchestration of carbohydrate acquisition and catabolism to allow the organisms to persist and, when conditions allow, initiate or worsen disease.
doi:10.3402/jom.v6.24878
PMCID: PMC4157138  PMID: 25317251
carbohydrate transport; sugar phosphotransferase system; dental caries; biofilms; catabolite repression
9.  Core-Gene-Encoded Peptide Regulating Virulence-Associated Traits in Streptococcus mutans 
Journal of Bacteriology  2013;195(12):2912-2920.
Recently, high-coverage genome sequence of 57 isolates of Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiological agent of human dental caries, was completed. The SMU.1147 gene, encoding a 61-amino-acid (61-aa) peptide, was present in all sequenced strains of S. mutans but absent in all bacteria in current databases. Reverse transcription-PCR revealed that SMU.1147 is cotranscribed with scnK and scnR, which encode the histidine kinase and response regulator, respectively, of a two-component system (TCS). The C terminus of the SMU.1147 gene product was tagged with a FLAG epitope and shown to be expressed in S. mutans by Western blotting with an anti-FLAG antibody. A nonpolar mutant of SMU.1147 formed less biofilm in glucose-containing medium and grew slower than did the wild-type strain under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, at low pH, or in the presence of H2O2. Mutation of SMU.1147 dramatically reduced genetic competence and expression of comX and comY, compared to S. mutans UA159. The competence defect of the SMU.1147 mutant could not be overcome by addition of sigX-inducing peptide (XIP) in defined medium or by competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) in complex medium. Complementation with SMU.1147 on a plasmid restored all phenotypes. Interestingly, mutants lacking either one of the TCS components and a mutant lacking all three genes behaved like the wild-type strain for all phenotypes mentioned above, but all mutant strains grew slower than UA159 in medium supplemented with 0.3 M NaCl. Thus, the SMU.1147-encoded peptide affects virulence-related traits and dominantly controls quorum-sensing pathways for development of genetic competence in S. mutans.
doi:10.1128/JB.00189-13
PMCID: PMC3697264  PMID: 23603743
10.  Correction: Phenotypic Heterogeneity of Genomically-Diverse Isolates of Streptococcus mutans 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):10.1371/annotation/ffff8cd5-b8fa-4d3c-a993-e5169198f1e6.
doi:10.1371/annotation/ffff8cd5-b8fa-4d3c-a993-e5169198f1e6
PMCID: PMC3826765  PMID: 24250771
11.  Microfluidic study of competence regulation in Streptococcus mutans: environmental inputs modulate bimodal and unimodal expression of comX 
Molecular microbiology  2012;86(2):258-272.
Summary
Streptococcus mutans regulates genetic competence through a complex network that receives inputs from a number of environmental stimuli, including two signaling peptides designated as CSP and XIP. The response of the downstream competence genes to these inputs shows evidence of stochasticity and bistability and has been difficult to interpret. We have used microfluidic, single-cell methods to study how combinations of extracellular signals shape the response of comX, an alternative sigma factor governing expression of the late competence genes. We find that the composition of the medium determines which extracellular signal (XIP or CSP) can elicit a response from comX and whether that response is unimodal or bimodal across a population of cells. In a chemically defined medium, exogenous CSP does not induce comX, whereas exogenous XIP elicits a comX response from all cells. In complex medium, exogenous XIP does not induce comX, whereas CSP elicits a bimodal comX response from the population. Interestingly, bimodal behavior required an intact copy of comS, which encodes the precursor of XIP. The comS-dependent capability for both unimodal and bimodal response suggests that a constituent – most likely peptides – of complex medium interacts with a positive feedback loop in the competence regulatory network.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2012.08187.x
PMCID: PMC3468698  PMID: 22845615
single-cell; bistability; quorum sensing; gene regulation; feedback; transformation
12.  Comprehensive Mutational Analysis of Sucrose-Metabolizing Pathways in Streptococcus mutans Reveals Novel Roles for the Sucrose Phosphotransferase System Permease 
Journal of Bacteriology  2013;195(4):833-843.
Sucrose is perhaps the most efficient carbohydrate for the promotion of dental caries in humans, and the primary caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans encodes multiple enzymes involved in the metabolism of this disaccharide. Here, we engineered a series of mutants lacking individual or combinations of sucrolytic pathways to understand the control of sucrose catabolism and to determine whether as-yet-undisclosed pathways for sucrose utilization were present in S. mutans. Growth phenotypes indicated that gtfBCD (encoding glucan exopolysaccharide synthases), ftf (encoding the fructan exopolysaccharide synthase), and the scrAB pathway (sugar-phosphotransferase system [PTS] permease and sucrose-6-PO4 hydrolase) constitute the majority of the sucrose-catabolizing activity; however, mutations in any one of these genes alone did not affect planktonic growth on sucrose. The multiple-sugar metabolism pathway (msm) contributed minimally to growth on sucrose. Notably, a mutant lacking gtfBC, which cannot produce water-insoluble glucan, displayed improved planktonic growth on sucrose. Meanwhile, loss of scrA led to growth stimulation on fructooligosaccharides, due in large part to increased expression of the fruAB (fructanase) operon. Using the LevQRST four-component signal transduction system as a model for carbohydrate-dependent gene expression in strains lacking extracellular sucrases, a PlevD-cat (EIIALev) reporter was activated by pulsing with sucrose. Interestingly, ScrA was required for activation of levD expression by sucrose through components of the LevQRST complex, but not for activation by the cognate LevQRST sugars fructose or mannose. Sucrose-dependent catabolite repression was also evident in strains containing an intact sucrose PTS. Collectively, these results reveal a novel regulatory circuitry for the control of sucrose catabolism, with a central role for ScrA.
doi:10.1128/JB.02042-12
PMCID: PMC3562097  PMID: 23222725
13.  Phenotypic Heterogeneity of Genomically-Diverse Isolates of Streptococcus mutans 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(4):e61358.
High coverage, whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing of 57 geographically- and genetically-diverse isolates of Streptococcus mutans from individuals of known dental caries status was recently completed. Of the 57 sequenced strains, fifteen isolates, were selected based primarily on differences in gene content and phenotypic characteristics known to affect virulence and compared with the reference strain UA159. A high degree of variability in these properties was observed between strains, with a broad spectrum of sensitivities to low pH, oxidative stress (air and paraquat) and exposure to competence stimulating peptide (CSP). Significant differences in autolytic behavior and in biofilm development in glucose or sucrose were also observed. Natural genetic competence varied among isolates, and this was correlated to the presence or absence of competence genes, comCDE and comX, and to bacteriocins. In general strains that lacked the ability to become competent possessed fewer genes for bacteriocins and immunity proteins or contained polymorphic variants of these genes. WGS sequence analysis of the pan-genome revealed, for the first time, components of a Type VII secretion system in several S. mutans strains, as well as two putative ORFs that encode possible collagen binding proteins located upstream of the cnm gene, which is associated with host cell invasiveness. The virulence of these particular strains was assessed in a wax-worm model. This is the first study to combine a comprehensive analysis of key virulence-related phenotypes with extensive genomic analysis of a pathogen that evolved closely with humans. Our analysis highlights the phenotypic diversity of S. mutans isolates and indicates that the species has evolved a variety of adaptive strategies to persist in the human oral cavity and, when conditions are favorable, to initiate disease.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061358
PMCID: PMC3628994  PMID: 23613838
14.  Gene Regulation by CcpA and Catabolite Repression Explored by RNA-Seq in Streptococcus mutans 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e60465.
A bacterial transcriptome of the primary etiological agent of human dental caries, Streptococcus mutans, is described here using deep RNA sequencing. Differential expression profiles of the transcriptome in the context of carbohydrate source, and of the presence or absence of the catabolite control protein CcpA, revealed good agreement with previously-published DNA microarrays. In addition, RNA-seq considerably expanded the repertoire of DNA sequences that showed statistically-significant changes in expression as a function of the presence of CcpA and growth carbohydrate. Novel mRNAs and small RNAs were identified, some of which were differentially expressed in conditions tested in this study, suggesting that the function of the S. mutans CcpA protein and the influence of carbohydrate sources has a more substantial impact on gene regulation than previously appreciated. Likewise, the data reveal that the mechanisms underlying prioritization of carbohydrate utilization are more diverse than what is currently understood. Collectively, this study demonstrates the validity of RNA-seq as a potentially more-powerful alternative to DNA microarrays in studying gene regulation in S. mutans because of the capacity of this approach to yield a more precise landscape of transcriptomic changes in response to specific mutations and growth conditions.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060465
PMCID: PMC3610829  PMID: 23555977
15.  Two Gene Clusters Coordinate Galactose and Lactose Metabolism in Streptococcus gordonii 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2012;78(16):5597-5605.
Streptococcus gordonii is an early colonizer of the human oral cavity and an abundant constituent of oral biofilms. Two tandemly arranged gene clusters, designated lac and gal, were identified in the S. gordonii DL1 genome, which encode genes of the tagatose pathway (lacABCD) and sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) enzyme II permeases. Genes encoding a predicted phospho-β-galactosidase (LacG), a DeoR family transcriptional regulator (LacR), and a transcriptional antiterminator (LacT) were also present in the clusters. Growth and PTS assays supported that the permease designated EIILac transports lactose and galactose, whereas EIIGal transports galactose. The expression of the gene for EIIGal was markedly upregulated in cells growing on galactose. Using promoter-cat fusions, a role for LacR in the regulation of the expressions of both gene clusters was demonstrated, and the gal cluster was also shown to be sensitive to repression by CcpA. The deletion of lacT caused an inability to grow on lactose, apparently because of its role in the regulation of the expression of the genes for EIILac, but had little effect on galactose utilization. S. gordonii maintained a selective advantage over Streptococcus mutans in a mixed-species competition assay, associated with its possession of a high-affinity galactose PTS, although S. mutans could persist better at low pHs. Collectively, these results support the concept that the galactose and lactose systems of S. gordonii are subject to complex regulation and that a high-affinity galactose PTS may be advantageous when S. gordonii is competing against the caries pathogen S. mutans in oral biofilms.
doi:10.1128/AEM.01393-12
PMCID: PMC3406145  PMID: 22660715
16.  Transcriptional Organization and Physiological Contributions of the relQ Operon of Streptococcus mutans 
Journal of Bacteriology  2012;194(8):1968-1978.
The molecular alarmone (p)ppGpp functions as a global regulator of gene expression in bacteria. In Streptococcus mutans, (p)ppGpp synthesis is catalyzed by three gene products: RelA, RelP, and RelQ. RelA is responsible for (p)ppGpp production during a stringent response, and RelP is the primary source of (p)ppGpp during exponential growth, but the role of RelQ has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we analyzed the four-gene relQ operon to establish how these gene products may affect homeostasis and stress tolerance in the dental caries pathogen S. mutans. Northern blotting and reverse transcriptase PCR demonstrated that relQ is cotranscribed with the downstream genes ppnK (NAD kinase), rluE (pseudouridine synthase), and pta (phosphotransacetylase). In addition, a promoter located within the rluE gene was shown to drive transcription of pta. Inactivation of relQ, ppnK, or rluE did not significantly affect growth of or stress tolerance by S. mutans, whereas strains lacking pta were more sensitive to acid and oxidative stresses. Interestingly, introduction of an rluE deletion into the pta mutant reversed the deleterious effects of the pta mutation on growth and stress tolerance. Accumulation of (p)ppGpp was also decreased in a pta mutant strain, whereas inactivation of relQ caused enhanced (p)ppGpp synthesis in exponential-phase cells. The results reveal an important role for the relQ operon in the expression of traits that are essential for persistence and pathogenesis by S. mutans and provide evidence for a molecular connection of acetate and (p)ppGpp metabolism with tolerance of acid and oxidative stresses.
doi:10.1128/JB.00037-12
PMCID: PMC3318469  PMID: 22343297
17.  Progress toward understanding the contribution of alkali generation in dental biofilms to inhibition of dental caries 
Alkali production by oral bacteria is believed to have a major impact on oral microbial ecology and to be inibitory to the initiation and progression of dental caries. A substantial body of evidence is beginning to accumulate that indicates the modulation of the alkalinogenic potential of dental biofilms may be a promising strategy for caries control. This brief review highlights recent progress toward understanding molecular genetic and physiologic aspects of important alkali-generating pathways in oral bacteria, and the role of alkali production in the ecology of dental biofilms in health and disease.
doi:10.1038/ijos.2012.54
PMCID: PMC3465751  PMID: 22996271
arginine; biofilm; dental caries; microbial ecology; urea
18.  Identification of the Streptococcus mutans LytST two-component regulon reveals its contribution to oxidative stress tolerance 
BMC Microbiology  2012;12:187.
Background
The S. mutans LrgA/B holin-like proteins have been shown to affect biofilm formation and oxidative stress tolerance, and are regulated by oxygenation, glucose levels, and by the LytST two-component system. In this study, we sought to determine if LytST was involved in regulating lrgAB expression in response to glucose and oxygenation in S. mutans.
Results
Real-time PCR revealed that growth phase-dependent regulation of lrgAB expression in response to glucose metabolism is mediated by LytST under low-oxygen conditions. However, the effect of LytST on lrgAB expression was less pronounced when cells were grown with aeration. RNA expression profiles in the wild-type and lytS mutant strains were compared using microarrays in early exponential and late exponential phase cells. The expression of 40 and 136 genes in early-exponential and late exponential phase, respectively, was altered in the lytS mutant. Although expression of comYB, encoding a DNA binding-uptake protein, was substantially increased in the lytS mutant, this did not translate to an effect on competence. However, a lrgA mutant displayed a substantial decrease in transformation efficiency, suggestive of a previously-unknown link between LrgA and S. mutans competence development. Finally, increased expression of genes encoding antioxidant and DNA recombination/repair enzymes was observed in the lytS mutant, suggesting that the mutant may be subjected to increased oxidative stress during normal growth. Although the intracellular levels of reaction oxygen species (ROS) appeared similar between wild-type and lytS mutant strains after overnight growth, challenge of these strains with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) resulted in increased intracellular ROS in the lytS mutant.
Conclusions
Overall, these results: (1) Reinforce the importance of LytST in governing lrgAB expression in response to glucose and oxygen, (2) Define a new role for LytST in global gene regulation and resistance to H2O2, and (3) Uncover a potential link between LrgAB and competence development in S. mutans.
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-12-187
PMCID: PMC3507848  PMID: 22937869
Stress; Oxygen; Competence; Cid/Lrg system; Streptococcus mutans
19.  Transcriptional Repressor Rex Is Involved in Regulation of Oxidative Stress Response and Biofilm Formation by Streptococcus mutans 
FEMS microbiology letters  2011;320(2):110-117.
The transcriptional repressor Rex has been implicated in regulation of energy metabolism and fermentative growth in response to redox potential. Streptococcus mutans, the primary causative agent of human dental caries, possesses a gene that encodes a protein with high similarity to members of the Rex family of proteins. In this study, we showed that Rex-deficiency compromised the ability of S. mutans to cope with oxidative stress and to form biofilms. The Rex-deficient mutant also accumulated less biofilm after 3-days than the wild-type strain, especially when grown in sucrose-containing medium, but produced more extracellular glucans than the parental strain. Rex-deficiency caused substantial alterations in gene transcription, including those involved in heterofermentative metabolism, NAD+ regeneration and oxidative stress. Among the up-regulated genes was gtfC, which encodes glucosyltransferase C, an enzyme primarily responsible for synthesis of water-insoluble glucans. These results reveal that Rex plays an important role in oxidative stress responses and biofilm formation by S. mutans.
doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2011.02293.x
PMCID: PMC3115380  PMID: 21521360
Redox sensing; oxidative stress; biofilm formation; Streptococcus mutans
20.  The Collagen-Binding Protein Cnm Is Required for Streptococcus mutans Adherence to and Intracellular Invasion of Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells ▿  
Infection and Immunity  2011;79(6):2277-2284.
Streptococcus mutans is considered the primary etiologic agent of dental caries, a global health problem that affects 60 to 90% of the population, and a leading causative agent of infective endocarditis. It can be divided into four different serotypes (c, e, f, and k), with serotype c strains being the most common in the oral cavity. In this study, we demonstrate that in addition to OMZ175 and B14, three other strains (NCTC11060, LM7, and OM50E) of the less prevalent serotypes e and f are able to invade primary human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC). Invasive strains were also significantly more virulent than noninvasive strains in the Galleria mellonella (greater wax worm) model of systemic disease. Interestingly, the invasive strains carried an additional gene, cnm, which was previously shown to bind to collagen and laminin in vitro. Inactivation of cnm rendered the organisms unable to invade HCAEC and attenuated their virulence in G. mellonella. Notably, the cnm knockout strains did not adhere to HCAEC as efficiently as the parental strains did, indicating that the loss of the invasion phenotype observed for the mutants was linked to an adhesion defect. Comparisons of the invasive strains and their respective cnm mutants did not support a correlation between biofilm formation and invasion. Thus, Cnm is required for S. mutans invasion of endothelial cells and possibly represents an important virulence factor of S. mutans that may contribute to cardiovascular infections and pathologies.
doi:10.1128/IAI.00767-10
PMCID: PMC3125845  PMID: 21422186
21.  The Major Autolysin of Streptococcus gordonii Is Subject to Complex Regulation and Modulates Stress Tolerance, Biofilm Formation, and Extracellular-DNA Release▿ 
Journal of Bacteriology  2011;193(11):2826-2837.
A gene, designated atlS, encoding a major autolysin from Streptococcus gordonii, was identified and characterized. The predicted AtlS protein is 1,160 amino acids and 127 kDa and has a conserved β1,4-N-acetylmuramidase domain. Zymographic analysis of wild-type S. gordonii revealed peptidoglycan hydrolase activities with molecular masses of 130 and 90 kDa that were absent in an atlS deletion mutant. Western blotting revealed that the 90-kDa band was derived from the 130-kDa protein. Inactivation of atlS resulted in formation of long chains by the cells, markedly decreased autolytic capacity, poor biofilm formation, diminished tolerance of acid and oxidative stress, and decreased production of extracellular DNA (eDNA). The biofilm-forming capacity of the atlS mutant could be almost completely restored to that of the wild-type strain by adding purified recombinant AtlA autolysin of S. mutans but was only partially restored by addition of eDNA. Autolysis, eDNA release, and atlS expression increased sharply when cells entered stationary phase and were greatly enhanced in cells growing with aeration. The LytST and VicRK two-component systems were both required for the induction of atlS by aeration, and purified LytT was able to bind to the promoter region of atlS in vitro. Thus, AtlS and its associated regulatory cascade dominantly control phenotypes of S. gordonii that are critical to colonization, persistence, and competition with other commensal and pathogenic oral bacteria in response to the redox environment and growth domain.
doi:10.1128/JB.00056-11
PMCID: PMC3133117  PMID: 21478346
22.  The Streptococcus mutans Cid and Lrg systems modulate virulence traits in response to multiple environmental signals 
Microbiology  2010;156(Pt 10):3136-3147.
The tight control of autolysis by Streptococcus mutans is critical for proper virulence gene expression and biofilm formation. A pair of dicistronic operons, SMU.575/574 (lrgAB) and SMU.1701/1700 (designated cidAB), encode putative membrane proteins that share structural features with the bacteriophage-encoded holin family of proteins, which modulate host cell lysis during lytic infection. Analysis of S. mutans lrg and cid mutants revealed a role for these operons in autolysis, biofilm formation, glucosyltransferase expression and oxidative stress tolerance. Expression of lrgAB was repressed during early exponential phase and was induced over 1000-fold as cells entered late exponential phase, whereas cidAB expression declined from early to late exponential phase. A two-component system encoded immediately upstream of lrgAB (LytST) was required for activation of lrgAB expression, but not for cid expression. In addition to availability of oxygen, glucose levels were revealed to affect lrg and cid transcription differentially and significantly, probably through CcpA (carbon catabolite protein A). Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the Cid/Lrg system can affect several virulence traits of S. mutans, and its expression is controlled by two major environmental signals, oxygen and glucose. Moreover, cid/lrg expression is tightly regulated by LytST and CcpA.
doi:10.1099/mic.0.039586-0
PMCID: PMC3068699  PMID: 20671018
23.  The EIIABMan Phosphotransferase System Permease Regulates Carbohydrate Catabolite Repression in Streptococcus gordonii▿ †  
Commensal oral streptococci play critical roles in oral biofilm formation and promote dental health by competing with, and antagonizing the growth of, pathogenic organisms, such as Streptococcus mutans. Efficient utilization of the spectrum of carbohydrates in the oral cavity by commensal streptococci is essential for their persistence, and yet very little is known about the regulation of carbohydrate catabolism by these organisms. Carbohydrate catabolite repression (CCR) in the abundant oral commensal Streptococcus gordonii strain DL-1 was investigated using the exo-β-d-fructosidase gene (fruA) and a fructose/mannose sugar:phosphotransferase (PTS) enzyme II operon (levDEFG) as model systems. Functional studies confirmed the predicted roles of FruA and LevD in S. gordonii. ManL, the AB domain of a fructose/mannose-type enzyme II PTS permease, contributed to utilization of glucose, mannose, galactose, and fructose and exerted primary control over CCR of the fruA and levD operons. Unlike in S. mutans, ManL-dependent CCR was not sugar specific, and galactose was very effective at eliciting CCR in S. gordonii. Inactivation of the apparent ccpA homologue of S. gordonii actually enhanced CCR of fruA and levD, an effect likely due to its demonstrated role in repression of manL expression. Thus, there are some similarities and fundamental differences in CCR control mechanisms between the oral pathogen S. mutans and the oral commensal S. gordonii that may eventually be exploited to enhance the competitiveness of health-associated commensals in oral biofilms.
doi:10.1128/AEM.02385-10
PMCID: PMC3067331  PMID: 21239541
24.  A Transcriptional Regulator and ABC Transporters Link Stress Tolerance, (p)ppGpp, and Genetic Competence in Streptococcus mutans▿ †  
Journal of Bacteriology  2010;193(4):862-874.
Streptococcus mutans, a primary agent of dental caries, has three (p)ppGpp synthases: RelA, which is required for a mupirocin-induced stringent response; RelP, which produces (p)ppGpp during exponential growth and is regulated by the RelRS two-component system; and RelQ. Transcription of relPRS and a gene cluster (SMu0835 to SMu0837) located immediately upstream was activated in cells grown with aeration and during a stringent response, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis predicted that SMu0836 and SMu0837 encode ABC exporters, which we designated rcrPQ (rel competence-related) genes, respectively. SMu0835 (rcrR) encodes a MarR family transcriptional regulator. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that RcrR functions as an autogenous negative regulator of the expression of the rcrRPQ operon. A mutant in which a polar insertion replaced the SMu836 gene (Δ836polar) grew more slowly and had final yields that were lower than those of the wild-type strain. Likewise, the Δ836polar strain had an impaired capacity to form biofilms, grew poorly at pH 5.5, and was more sensitive to oxidative stressors. Optimal expression of rcrPQ required RelP and vice versa. Replacement of rcrR with a nonpolar antibiotic resistance marker (Δ835np), which leads to overexpression of rcrPQ, yielded a strain that was not transformable with exogenous DNA. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the expression of comYA and comX was dramatically altered in the Δ835np and Δ836polar mutants. Collectively, the data support the suggestion that the rcrRPQ gene products play a critical role in physiologic homeostasis and stress tolerance by linking (p)ppGpp metabolism, acid and oxidative stress tolerance, and genetic competence.
doi:10.1128/JB.01257-10
PMCID: PMC3028664  PMID: 21148727
25.  Protocols to Study the Physiology of Oral Biofilms 
The oral cavity harbors several hundred different bacterial species that colonize both hard (teeth) and soft tissues, forming complex populations known as microbial biofilms. It is widely accepted that the phenotypic characteristics of bacteria grown in biofilms are substantially different from those grown in suspensions. Because biofilms are the natural habitat for the great majority of oral bacteria, including those contributing to oral diseases, a better understanding of the physiology of adherent populations is clearly needed to control oral microbes in health and disease. In this chapter, we use oral streptococci as examples for studying the physiology of oral biofilms.
doi:10.1007/978-1-60761-820-1_7
PMCID: PMC3130507  PMID: 20717780
Biofilm; oral streptococci; Streptococcus; enzymatic assays; stress; production of polysaccharides

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