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2.  Genetic Influences on Asthma Susceptibility in the Developing Lung 
Asthma is the leading serious pediatric chronic illness in the United States, affecting 7.1 million children. The prevalence of asthma in children under 4 years of age has increased dramatically in the last 2 decades. Existing evidence suggests that this increase in prevalence derives from early environmental exposures acting on a pre-existing asthma-susceptible genotype. We studied the origins of asthma susceptibility in developing lung in rat strains that model the distinct phenotypes of airway hyperresponsiveness (Fisher rats) and atopy (brown Norway [BN] rats). Postnatal BN rat lungs showed increased epithelial proliferation and tracheal goblet cell hyperplasia. Fisher pups showed increased lung resistance at age 2 weeks, with elevated neutrophils throughout the postnatal period. Diverse transcriptomic signatures characterized the distinct respiratory phenotypes of developing lung in both rat models. Linear regression across age and strain identified developmental variation in expression of 1,376 genes, and confirmed both strain and temporal regulation of lung gene expression. Biological processes that were heavily represented included growth and development (including the T Box 1 transcription factor [Tbx5], the epidermal growth factor receptor [Egfr], the transforming growth factor beta-1-induced transcript 1 [Tgfbr1i1]), extracellular matrix and cell adhesion (including collagen and integrin genes), and immune function (including lymphocyte antigen 6 (Ly6) subunits, IL-17b, Toll-interacting protein, and Ficolin B). Genes validated by quantitative RT-PCR and protein analysis included collagen III alpha 1 Col3a1, Ly6b, glucocorticoid receptor and Importin-13 (specific to the BN rat lung), and Serpina1 and Ficolin B (specific to the Fisher lung). Innate differences in patterns of gene expression in developing lung that contribute to individual variation in respiratory phenotype are likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2009-0412OC
PMCID: PMC3159089  PMID: 20118217
asthma susceptibility; lung development; developmental gene expression
3.  Modulation of Lgl1 by steroid, retinoic acid, and Vitamin D models complex transcriptional regulation during alveolarization 
Pediatric research  2010;67(4):375-381.
Alveolarization depends on circulating glucocorticoid (GC), retinoid (RA) and Vitamin D (VitD). Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a leading cause of neonatal morbidity, is associated with arrested alveolarization. In hyperoxia-exposed rats displaying features of BPD, reduced levels of Lgl1 normalize during recovery. We show that GC (100nM) stimulates (7–115 fold) and VitD (100µM) suppresses (2 fold) Lgl1 expression. RA (all trans/9-cis, 10µM) effects are biphasic. From postnatal (PN) days 7–10, RA was stimulatory (2 fold) at 24h, after which effects were inhibitory (3–15 fold). Lgl1 promoter-luciferase reporter assays confirmed that these agents operated at the transcriptional level. Interestingly, the individual inhibitory effects of VitD and RA on GC induction of Lgl1 were abrogated when both agents were present, suggesting that steric hindrance may influence promoter accessibility. Analysis of the proximity (<50 base pairs) of binding sites for overlapping VitD and RA receptors to that of the GC receptor identified 81% of promoters in 66 genes (including Lgl1) important in human lung development compared to 48% in a random set of 1000 genes. Complex integration of the effects of GC, RA, and VitD on gene expression in the postnatal lung is likely to contribute to the timely advance of alveolarization without attendant inflammation.
doi:10.1203/PDR.0b013e3181d23656
PMCID: PMC3104505  PMID: 20057335
4.  Inflammatory cytokines, goblet cell hyperplasia and altered lung mechanics in Lgl1+/- mice 
Respiratory Research  2009;10(1):83.
Background
Neonatal lung injury, a leading cause of morbidity in prematurely born infants, has been associated with arrested alveolar development and is often accompanied by goblet cell hyperplasia. Genes that regulate alveolarization and inflammation are likely to contribute to susceptibility to neonatal lung injury. We previously cloned Lgl1, a developmentally regulated secreted glycoprotein in the lung. In rat, O2 toxicity caused reduced levels of Lgl1, which normalized during recovery. We report here on the generation of an Lgl1 knockout mouse in order to determine whether deficiency of Lgl1 is associated with arrested alveolarization and contributes to neonatal lung injury.
Methods
An Lgl1 knockout mouse was generated by introduction of a neomycin cassette in exon 2 of the Lgl1 gene. To evaluate the pulmonary phenotype of Lgl1+/- mice, we assessed lung morphology, Lgl1 RNA and protein, elastin fibers and lung function. We also analyzed tracheal goblet cells, and expression of mucin, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 as markers of inflammation.
Results
Absence of Lgl1 was lethal prior to lung formation. Postnatal Lgl1+/- lungs displayed delayed histological maturation, goblet cell hyperplasia, fragmented elastin fibers, and elevated expression of TH2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13). At one month of age, reduced expression of Lgl1 was associated with elevated tropoelastin expression and altered pulmonary mechanics.
Conclusion
Our findings confirm that Lgl1 is essential for viability and is required for developmental processes that precede lung formation. Lgl1+/- mice display a complex phenotype characterized by delayed histological maturation, features of inflammation in the post-natal period and altered lung mechanics at maturity. Lgl1 haploinsufficiency may contribute to lung disease in prematurity and to increased risk for late-onset respiratory disease.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-10-83
PMCID: PMC2760518  PMID: 19772569

Results 1-4 (4)