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author:("Kubo, michiko")
1.  Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators and Pharmacogenomic Variation in ZNF423 Regulation of BRCA1 Expression: Individualized Breast Cancer Prevention 
Cancer discovery  2013;3(7):812-825.
The selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) tamoxifen and raloxifene can reduce the occurrence of breast cancer in high risk women by 50%, but this FDA-approved prevention therapy is not often used. We attempted to identify genetic factors that contribute to variation in SERM breast cancer prevention using DNA from the NSABP P-1 and P-2 breast cancer prevention trials. An initial discovery genome-wide association study identified common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near the ZNF423 and CTSO genes that were associated with breast cancer risk during SERM therapy. We then showed that both ZNF423 and CTSO participated in the estrogen-dependent induction of BRCA1 expression, in both cases with SNP-dependent variation in induction. ZNF423 appeared to be an estrogen-inducible BRCA1 transcription factor. The odds ratio for differences in breast cancer risk during SERM therapy for subjects homozygous for both protective or both risk alleles for ZNF423 and CTSO was 5.71.
doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-13-0038
PMCID: PMC3710533  PMID: 23764426
tamoxifen; raloxifene; breast cancer prevention; ZNF423; CTSO; BRCA1; single nucleotide polymorphisms; genome-wide association study
2.  Impact of polymorphisms in drug pathway genes on disease-free survival in adults with acute myeloid leukemia 
Journal of human genetics  2013;58(6):353-361.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a clinically heterogeneous disease, with 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) ranging from under 10% to over 70% for distinct groups of patients. At our institution, cytarabine, etoposide and busulfan are used in first or second remission patients treated with a 2-step approach to autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that polymorphisms in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic pathway genes of these drugs are associated with DFS in AML patients. A total of 1659 variants in 42 genes were analyzed for their association with DFS using a Cox proportional hazards model. 154 genetically European patients were used for the primary analysis. An intronic SNP in ABCC3 (rs4148405) was associated with a significantly shorter DFS (HR=3.2, p=5.6 x 10(-6)) in our primary cohort. In addition a SNP in the GSTM1-GSTM5 locus, rs3754446, was significantly associated with a shorter DFS in all patients (HR=1.8, p=0.001 for 154 European ancestry; HR=1.7, p=0.028 for 125 non-European patients). Thus for the first time, genetic variants in drug pathway genes are shown to be associated with DFS in AML patients treated with chemotherapy-based autologous ASCT.
doi:10.1038/jhg.2013.38
PMCID: PMC4068832  PMID: 23677058
3.  Genome-wide association analysis of red blood cell traits in African Americans: the COGENT Network 
Human Molecular Genetics  2013;22(12):2529-2538.
Laboratory red blood cell (RBC) measurements are clinically important, heritable and differ among ethnic groups. To identify genetic variants that contribute to RBC phenotypes in African Americans (AAs), we conducted a genome-wide association study in up to ∼16 500 AAs. The alpha-globin locus on chromosome 16pter [lead SNP rs13335629 in ITFG3 gene; P < 1E−13 for hemoglobin (Hgb), RBC count, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), MCH and MCHC] and the G6PD locus on Xq28 [lead SNP rs1050828; P < 1E − 13 for Hgb, hematocrit (Hct), MCV, RBC count and red cell distribution width (RDW)] were each associated with multiple RBC traits. At the alpha-globin region, both the common African 3.7 kb deletion and common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) appear to contribute independently to RBC phenotypes among AAs. In the 2p21 region, we identified a novel variant of PRKCE distinctly associated with Hct in AAs. In a genome-wide admixture mapping scan, local European ancestry at the 6p22 region containing HFE and LRRC16A was associated with higher Hgb. LRRC16A has been previously associated with the platelet count and mean platelet volume in AAs, but not with Hgb. Finally, we extended to AAs the findings of association of erythrocyte traits with several loci previously reported in Europeans and/or Asians, including CD164 and HBS1L-MYB. In summary, this large-scale genome-wide analysis in AAs has extended the importance of several RBC-associated genetic loci to AAs and identified allelic heterogeneity and pleiotropy at several previously known genetic loci associated with blood cell traits in AAs.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddt087
PMCID: PMC3658166  PMID: 23446634
4.  Pharmacogenomics of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment for major depressive disorder: genome-wide associations and functional genomics 
The pharmacogenomics journal  2012;13(5):456-463.
A genome-wide association (GWA) study of treatment outcomes (response and remission) of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) was conducted using 529 subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). While no SNP associations reached the genome-wide level of significance, 14 SNPs of interest were identified for functional analysis. The rs11144870 SNP in riboflavin kinase (RFK) gene on chromosome 9 was associated with eight week treatment response (OR = 0.42, p = 1.04×10−6). The rs915120 SNP in the G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 (GRK5) gene on chromosome 10 was associated with eight week remission (OR = 0.50, p = 1.15×10−5). Both SNPs were shown to influence transcription by a reporter gene assay and to alter nuclear protein binding using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. This report represents an example of joining functional genomics with traditional GWA study results derived from a GWA analysis of SSRI treatment outcomes. The goal of this analytic strategy is to provide insights into the potential relevance of biologically plausible observed associations.
doi:10.1038/tpj.2012.32
PMCID: PMC3941038  PMID: 22907730
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; SSRI; genome-wide association study; GWA; functional genomics; major depressive disorder
5.  The Construction of Risk Prediction Models Using GWAS Data and Its Application to a Type 2 Diabetes Prospective Cohort 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e92549.
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Various models using clinical and/or genetic risk factors have been developed for T2D risk prediction. However, analysis considering algorithms for genetic risk factor detection and regression methods for model construction in combination with interactions of risk factors has not been investigated. Here, using genotype data of 7,360 Japanese individuals, we investigated risk prediction models, considering the algorithms, regression methods and interactions. The best model identified was based on a Bayes factor approach and the lasso method. Using nine SNPs and clinical factors, this method achieved an area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.8057 on an independent test set. With the addition of a pair of interaction factors, the model was further improved (p-value 0.0011, AUC 0.8085). Application of our model to prospective cohort data showed significantly better outcome in disease-free survival, according to the log-rank trend test comparing Kaplan-Meier survival curves (). While the major contribution was from clinical factors rather than the genetic factors, consideration of genetic risk factors contributed to an observable, though small, increase in predictive ability. This is the first report to apply risk prediction models constructed from GWAS data to a T2D prospective cohort. Our study shows our model to be effective in prospective prediction and has the potential to contribute to practical clinical use in T2D.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0092549
PMCID: PMC3961382  PMID: 24651836
6.  Integration of cell line and clinical trial genome-wide analyses supports a polygenic architecture of paclitaxel-induced sensory peripheral neuropathy 
Purpose
We sought to demonstrate the relevance of a lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) model in the discovery of clinically relevant genetic variants affecting chemotherapeutic response by comparing LCL genome-wide association study (GWAS) results to clinical GWAS results.
Experimental Design
A GWAS of paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity was performed in 247 LCLs from the HapMap Project and compared to a GWAS of sensory peripheral neuropathy in breast cancer patients (n=855) treated with paclitaxel in the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 40101 trial. Significant enrichment was assessed by permutation resampling analysis.
Results
We observed an enrichment of LCL cytotoxicity-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the sensory peripheral neuropathy-associated SNPs from the clinical trial with concordant allelic directions of effect (empirical P = 0.007). Of the 24 SNPs that overlap between the clinical trial (P < 0.05) and the preclinical cytotoxicity study (P < 0.001), 19 of them are expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), which is a significant enrichment of this functional class (empirical P = 0.0447). One of these eQTLs is located in RFX2, which encodes a member of the DNA-binding regulatory factor X family. Decreased expression of this gene by siRNA resulted in increased sensitivity of NS-1 (rat pheochromocytoma) cells to paclitaxel as measured by reduced neurite outgrowth and increased cytotoxicity, functionally validating the involvement of RFX2 in nerve cell response to paclitaxel.
Conclusions
The enrichment results and functional example imply that cellular models of chemotherapeutic toxicity may capture components of the underlying polygenic architecture of related traits in patients.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-2618
PMCID: PMC3549006  PMID: 23204130
pharmacogenomics; clinical trial; cell lines; paclitaxel; genome-wide association
7.  High density genotyping study identifies four new susceptibility loci for atopic dermatitis 
Nature genetics  2013;45(7):808-812.
Atopic dermatitis is a common inflammatory skin disease with a strong heritable component. Pathogenetic models consider keratinocyte differentiation defects and immune alterations as scaffolds1, and recent data indicate a role for autoreactivity in at least a subgroup of patients2. With filaggrin (FLG) a major locus causing a skin barrier deficiency was identified3. To better define risk variants and identify additional susceptibility loci, we densely genotyped 2,425 German cases and 5,449 controls using the Immunochip array, followed by replication in 7,196 cases and 15,480 controls from Germany, Ireland, Japan and China. We identified 4 new susceptibility loci for atopic dermatitis and replicated previous associations. This brings the number of atopic dermatitis risk loci reported in individuals of European ancestry to 11. We estimate that these susceptibility loci together account for 14.4% of the heritability for atopic dermatitis.
doi:10.1038/ng.2642
PMCID: PMC3797441  PMID: 23727859
8.  Gene-Gene Combination Effect and Interactions among ABCA1, APOA1, SR-B1, and CETP Polymorphisms for Serum High-Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol in the Japanese Population 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e82046.
Background/Objective
Gene-gene interactions in the reverse cholesterol transport system for high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) are poorly understood. The present study observed gene-gene combination effect and interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ABCA1, APOA1, SR-B1, and CETP in serum HDL-C from a cross-sectional study in the Japanese population.
Methods
The study population comprised 1,535 men and 1,515 women aged 35–69 years who were enrolled in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study. We selected 13 SNPs in the ABCA1, APOA1, CETP, and SR-B1 genes in the reverse cholesterol transport system. The effects of genetic and environmental factors were assessed using general linear and logistic regression models after adjusting for age, sex, and region.
Principal Findings
Alcohol consumption and daily activity were positively associated with HDL-C levels, whereas smoking had a negative relationship. The T allele of CETP, rs3764261, was correlated with higher HDL-C levels and had the highest coefficient (2.93 mg/dL/allele) among the 13 SNPs, which was statistically significant after applying the Bonferroni correction (p<0.001). Gene-gene combination analysis revealed that CETP rs3764261 was associated with high HDL-C levels with any combination of SNPs from ABCA1, APOA1, and SR-B1, although no gene-gene interaction was apparent. An increasing trend for serum HDL-C was also observed with an increasing number of alleles (p<0.001).
Conclusions
The present study identified a multiplier effect from a polymorphism in CETP with ABCA1, APOA1, and SR-B1, as well as a dose-dependence according to the number of alleles present.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0082046
PMCID: PMC3869658  PMID: 24376512
9.  HLA-DQB1*03 Confers Susceptibility to Chronic Hepatitis C in Japanese: A Genome-Wide Association Study 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e84226.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) establishes a chronic infection in 70-80% of infected individuals. Many researchers have examined the effect of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) on viral persistence because of its critical role in the immune response against exposure to HCV, but almost all studies have proven to be inconclusive. To identify genetic risk factors for chronic HCV infection, we analyzed 458,207 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 481 chronic HCV patients and 2,963 controls in a Japanese cohort. Next, we performed a replication study with an independent panel of 4,358 cases and 1,114 controls. We further confirmed the association in 1,379 cases and 25,817 controls. In the GWAS phase, we found 17 SNPs that showed suggestive association (P < 1 × 10-5). After the first replication study, we found one intronic SNP in the HLA-DQ locus associated with chronic HCV infection, and when we combined the two studies, the association reached the level of genome-wide significance. In the second replication study, we again confirmed the association (Pcombined = 3.59 × 10−16, odds ratio [OR] = 0.79). Subsequent analysis revealed another SNP, rs1130380, with a stronger association (OR=0.72). This nucleotide substitution causes an amino acid substitution (R55P) in the HLA-DQB1 protein specific to the DQB1*03 allele, which is common worldwide. In addition, we confirmed an association with the previously reported IFNL3-IFNL4 locus and propose that the effect of DQB1*03 on HCV persistence might be affected by the IFNL4 polymorphism. Our findings suggest that a common amino acid substitution in HLA-DQB1 affects susceptibility to chronic infection with HCV in the Japanese population and may not be independent of the IFNL4 genotype.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084226
PMCID: PMC3871580  PMID: 24376798
10.  Common variants at CDKAL1 and KLF9 are associated with body mass index in East Asian populations 
Nature genetics  2012;44(3):10.1038/ng.1086.
Obesity is a disorder with complex genetic etiology, and its epidemic is a worldwide problem. Although multiple genetic loci associated with body mass index (BMI), the most common measure of obesity, have been identified in European populations, few studies have focused on Asian populations. Here, we report a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and replication studies with 62,245 East Asian subjects, which identified two novel BMI-associated loci in the CDKAL1 locus at 6p22 (rs2206734, P = 1.4 × 10−11) and the KLF9 locus at 9q21 (rs11142387, P = 1.3 × 10−9), as well as previously reported loci (the SEC16B, BDNF, FTO, MC4R, and GIPR loci; P < 5.0 × 10−8). We subsequently performed gene–gene interaction analysis and identified an interaction (P = 2.0 × 10−8) between SNPs in the KLF9 locus (rs11142387) and the GDF8 locus at 2q32 (rs13034723). These findings should provide useful insights into the etiology of obesity.
doi:10.1038/ng.1086
PMCID: PMC3838874  PMID: 22344221
11.  Polymorphisms in PPAR Genes (PPARD, PPARG, and PPARGC1A) and the Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease in Japanese: Cross-Sectional Data from the J-MICC Study 
PPAR Research  2013;2013:980471.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is well known as a strong risk factor for both end stage renal disease and cardiovascular disease. To clarify the association of polymorphisms in the PPAR genes (PPARD, PPARG, and PPARGC1A) with the risk of CKD in Japanese, we examined this association among the Japanese subjects using the cross-sectional data of J-MICC (Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort) Study. The subjects for this analysis were 3,285 men and women, aged 35–69 years, selected from J-MICC Study participants; genotyping was conducted by multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based Invader assay. The prevalence of CKD was determined for CKD stages 3–5 (defined as eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2). Participants with CKD accounted for 17.3% of the study population. When those with PPARD T-842C T/T were defined as reference, those with PPARD T-842C T/C and C/C demonstrated the OR for CKD of 1.26 (95%CI 1.04–1.53) and 1.31 (95%CI 0.83–2.06), respectively. There were no significant associations between the polymorphisms in other PPAR genes and the risk of CKD. The present study found a significantly increased risk of CKD in those with the C allele of PPARD T-842C, which may suggest the possibility of personalized risk estimation of this life-limiting disease in the near future.
doi:10.1155/2013/980471
PMCID: PMC3830885  PMID: 24288525
12.  Genome Wide Analysis of Drug-Induced Torsades de Pointes: Lack of Common Variants with Large Effect Sizes 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e78511.
Marked prolongation of the QT interval on the electrocardiogram associated with the polymorphic ventricular tachycardia Torsades de Pointes is a serious adverse event during treatment with antiarrhythmic drugs and other culprit medications, and is a common cause for drug relabeling and withdrawal. Although clinical risk factors have been identified, the syndrome remains unpredictable in an individual patient. Here we used genome-wide association analysis to search for common predisposing genetic variants. Cases of drug-induced Torsades de Pointes (diTdP), treatment tolerant controls, and general population controls were ascertained across multiple sites using common definitions, and genotyped on the Illumina 610k or 1M-Duo BeadChips. Principal Components Analysis was used to select 216 Northwestern European diTdP cases and 771 ancestry-matched controls, including treatment-tolerant and general population subjects. With these sample sizes, there is 80% power to detect a variant at genome-wide significance with minor allele frequency of 10% and conferring an odds ratio of ≥2.7. Tests of association were carried out for each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) by logistic regression adjusting for gender and population structure. No SNP reached genome wide-significance; the variant with the lowest P value was rs2276314, a non-synonymous coding variant in C18orf21 (p  =  3×10−7, odds ratio = 2, 95% confidence intervals: 1.5–2.6). The haplotype formed by rs2276314 and a second SNP, rs767531, was significantly more frequent in controls than cases (p  =  3×10−9). Expanding the number of controls and a gene-based analysis did not yield significant associations. This study argues that common genomic variants do not contribute importantly to risk for drug-induced Torsades de Pointes across multiple drugs.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078511
PMCID: PMC3819377  PMID: 24223155
13.  Genome-Wide Association Study of Breast Cancer in the Japanese Population 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e76463.
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in worldwide including Japan. Several studies have identified common genetic variants to be associated with the risk of breast cancer. Due to the complex linkage disequilibrium structure and various environmental exposures in different populations, it is essential to identify variants associated with breast cancer in each population, which subsequently facilitate the better understanding of mammary carcinogenesis. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) as well as whole-genome imputation with 2,642 cases and 2,099 unaffected female controls. We further examined 13 suggestive loci (P<1.0×10−5) using an independent sample set of 2,885 cases and 3,395 controls and successfully validated two previously-reported loci, rs2981578 (combined P-value of 1.31×10−12, OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.16–.30) on chromosome 10q26 (FGFR2), rs3803662 (combined P-value of 2.79×10−11, OR = 1.21; 95% CI = 1.15–.28) and rs12922061 (combined P-value of 3.97×10−10, OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.15–.31) on chromosome 16q12 (TOX3-LOC643714). Weighted genetic risk score on the basis of three significantly associated variants and two previously reported breast cancer associated loci in East Asian population revealed that individuals who carry the most risk alleles in category 5 have 2.2 times higher risk of developing breast cancer in the Japanese population than those who carry the least risk alleles in reference category 1. Although we could not identify additional loci associated with breast cancer, our study utilized one of the largest sample sizes reported to date, and provided genetic status that represent the Japanese population. Further local and international collaborative study is essential to identify additional genetic variants that could lead to a better, accurate prediction for breast cancer.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076463
PMCID: PMC3797071  PMID: 24143190
14.  Correction: Genome Wide Association Study of Age at Menarche in the Japanese Population 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):10.1371/annotation/1238450b-9ba4-4afb-aee3-a3c11b4f5ea1.
doi:10.1371/annotation/1238450b-9ba4-4afb-aee3-a3c11b4f5ea1
PMCID: PMC3794065
15.  Lumbar disc degeneration is linked to a carbohydrate sulfotransferase 3 variant 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2013;123(11):4909-4917.
Lumbar disc degeneration (LDD) is associated with both genetic and environmental factors and affects many people worldwide. A hallmark of LDD is loss of proteoglycan and water content in the nucleus pulposus of intervertebral discs. While some genetic determinants have been reported, the etiology of LDD is largely unknown. Here we report the findings from linkage and association studies on a total of 32,642 subjects consisting of 4,043 LDD cases and 28,599 control subjects. We identified carbohydrate sulfotransferase 3 (CHST3), an enzyme that catalyzes proteoglycan sulfation, as a susceptibility gene for LDD. The strongest genome-wide linkage peak encompassed CHST3 from a Southern Chinese family–based data set, while a genome-wide association was observed at rs4148941 in the gene in a meta-analysis using multiethnic population cohorts. rs4148941 lies within a potential microRNA-513a-5p (miR-513a-5p) binding site. Interaction between miR-513a-5p and mRNA transcribed from the susceptibility allele (A allele) of rs4148941 was enhanced in vitro compared with transcripts from other alleles. Additionally, expression of CHST3 mRNA was significantly reduced in the intervertebral disc cells of human subjects carrying the A allele of rs4148941. Together, our data provide new insights into the etiology of LDD, implicating an interplay between genetic risk factors and miRNA.
doi:10.1172/JCI69277
PMCID: PMC3809787  PMID: 24216480
16.  A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Novel Loci for Paclitaxel-Induced Sensory Peripheral Neuropathy in CALGB 40101 
Purpose
Sensory peripheral neuropathy is a common and sometimes debilitating toxicity associated with paclitaxel therapy. This study aims to identify genetic risk factors for development of this toxicity.
Experimental Design
A prospective pharmacogenetic analysis of primary breast cancer patients randomized to the paclitaxel arm of CALGB 40101 was used to identify genetic predictors of the onset and severity of sensory peripheral neuropathy. A genome-wide association study in 855 subjects of European ancestry was performed and findings were replicated in additional European (n = 154) and African American (n = 117) subjects.
Results
A single nucleotide polymorphism in FGD4 was associated with the onset of sensory peripheral neuropathy in the discovery cohort (rs10771973; HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.30–1.91; P = 2.6 × 10−6) and in a European (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.06–2.80; P = 0.013) and African American (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.13-3.28; P = 6.7 × 10−3) replication cohort. There is also evidence that markers in additional genes, including EPHA5 (rs7349683) and FZD3 (rs10771973), were associated with the onset or severity of paclitaxel-induced sensory peripheral neuropathy.
Conclusions
A genome-wide association study has identified novel genetic markers of paclitaxel-induced sensory peripheral neuropathy, including a common polymorphism in FGD4, a congenital peripheral neuropathy gene. These findings suggest that genetic variation may contribute to variation in development of this toxicity. Validation of these findings may allow for the identification of patients at increased risk of peripheral neuropathy and inform the use of an alternative to paclitaxel and/or the clinical management of this toxicity.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-1590
PMCID: PMC3445665  PMID: 22843789
paclitaxel; peripheral neuropathy; breast cancer; pharmacogenetics; genome-wide association study
17.  A genome-wide association study of chemotherapy-induced alopecia in breast cancer patients 
Introduction
Chemotherapy-induced alopecia is one of the most common adverse events caused by conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, yet there has been very little progress in the prevention or treatment of this side effect. Although this is not a life-threatening event, alopecia is very psychologically difficult for many women to manage. In order to improve the quality of life for these women, it is important to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced alopecia and develop ways to effectively prevent and/or treat it. To identify the genetic risk factors associated with chemotherapy-induced alopecia, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using DNA samples from breast cancer patients who were treated with chemotherapy.
Methods
We performed a case-control association study of 303 individuals who developed grade 2 alopecia, and compared them with 880 breast cancer patients who did not show hair loss after being treated with conventional chemotherapy. In addition, we separately analyzed a subset of patients who received specific combination therapies by GWASs and applied the weighted genetic risk scoring (wGRS) system to investigate the cumulative effects of the associated SNPs.
Results
We identified an SNP significantly associated with drug-induced grade 2 alopecia (rs3820706 in CACNB4 (calcium channel voltage-dependent subunit beta 4) on 2q23, P = 8.13 × 10-9, OR = 3.71) and detected several SNPs that showed some suggestive associations by subgroup analyses. We also classified patients into four groups on the basis of wGRS analysis and found that patients who classified in the highest risk group showed 443 times higher risk of antimicrotubule agents-induced alopecia than the lowest risk group.
Conclusions
Our study suggests several associated genes and should shed some light on the molecular mechanism of alopecia in chemotherapy-treated breast cancer patients and hopefully will contribute to development of interventions that will improve the quality of life (QOL) of cancer patients.
doi:10.1186/bcr3475
PMCID: PMC3978764  PMID: 24025145
18.  Identification of a Susceptibility Locus for Severe Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis on Chromosome 17q24.3 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e72802.
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common spinal deformity, affecting around 2% of adolescents worldwide. Genetic factors play an important role in its etiology. Using a genome-wide association study (GWAS), we recently identified novel AIS susceptibility loci on chromosomes 10q24.31 and 6q24.1. To identify more AIS susceptibility loci relating to its severity and progression, we performed GWAS by limiting the case subjects to those with severe AIS. Through a two-stage association study using a total of ∼12,000 Japanese subjects, we identified a common variant, rs12946942 that showed a significant association with severe AIS in the recessive model (P = 4.00×10−8, odds ratio [OR] = 2.05). Its association was replicated in a Chinese population (combined P = 6.43×10−12, OR = 2.21). rs12946942 is on chromosome 17q24.3 near the genes SOX9 and KCNJ2, which when mutated cause scoliosis phenotypes. Our findings will offer new insight into the etiology and progression of AIS.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072802
PMCID: PMC3762929  PMID: 24023777
19.  Genetic variants associated with warfarin dose in African-American individuals: a genome-wide association study 
Lancet  2013;382(9894):790-796.
Summary
Background
VKORC1 and CYP2C9 are important contributors to warfarin dose variability, but explain less variability for individuals of African descent than for those of European or Asian descent. We aimed to identify additional variants contributing to warfarin dose requirements in African Americans.
Methods
We did a genome-wide association study of discovery and replication cohorts. Samples from African-American adults (aged ≥18 years) who were taking a stable maintenance dose of warfarin were obtained at International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium (IWPC) sites and the University of Alabama at Birmingham (Birmingham, AL, USA). Patients enrolled at IWPC sites but who were not used for discovery made up the independent replication cohort. All participants were genotyped. We did a stepwise conditional analysis, conditioning first for VKORC1 −1639G→A, followed by the composite genotype of CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3. We prespecified a genome-wide significance threshold of p<5×10−8 in the discovery cohort and p<0·0038 in the replication cohort.
Findings
The discovery cohort contained 533 participants and the replication cohort 432 participants. After the prespecified conditioning in the discovery cohort, we identified an association between a novel single nucleotide polymorphism in the CYP2C cluster on chromosome 10 (rs12777823) and warfarin dose requirement that reached genome-wide significance (p=1·51×10−8). This association was confirmed in the replication cohort (p=5·04×10−5); analysis of the two cohorts together produced a p value of 4·5×10−12. Individuals heterozygous for the rs12777823 A allele need a dose reduction of 6·92 mg/week and those homozygous 9·34 mg/week. Regression analysis showed that the inclusion of rs12777823 significantly improves warfarin dose variability explained by the IWPC dosing algorithm (21% relative improvement).
Interpretation
A novel CYP2C single nucleotide polymorphism exerts a clinically relevant effect on warfarin dose in African Americans, independent of CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3. Incorporation of this variant into pharmacogenetic dosing algorithms could improve warfarin dose prediction in this population.
Funding
National Institutes of Health, American Heart Association, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Wisconsin Network for Health Research, and the Wellcome Trust.
doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60681-9
PMCID: PMC3759580  PMID: 23755828
20.  A practical method to detect SNVs and indels from whole genome and exome sequencing data 
Scientific Reports  2013;3:2161.
The recent development of massively parallel sequencing technology has allowed the creation of comprehensive catalogs of genetic variation. However, due to the relatively high sequencing error rate for short read sequence data, sophisticated analysis methods are required to obtain high-quality variant calls. Here, we developed a probabilistic multinomial method for the detection of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) as well as short insertions and deletions (indels) in whole genome sequencing (WGS) and whole exome sequencing (WES) data for single sample calling. Evaluation with DNA genotyping arrays revealed a concordance rate of 99.98% for WGS calls and 99.99% for WES calls. Sanger sequencing of the discordant calls determined the false positive and false negative rates for the WGS (0.0068% and 0.17%) and WES (0.0036% and 0.0084%) datasets. Furthermore, short indels were identified with high accuracy (WGS: 94.7%, WES: 97.3%). We believe our method can contribute to the greater understanding of human diseases.
doi:10.1038/srep02161
PMCID: PMC3703611  PMID: 23831772
21.  Polymorphisms in genes encoding antioxidant enzymes (SOD2, CAT, GPx, TXNRD, SEPP1, SEP15 and SELS) and risk of chronic kidney disease in Japanese - cross-sectional data from the J-MICC study 
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is well known as a strong risk factor for both of end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular disease. To clarify the association of polymorphisms in the genes encoding antioxidant enzymes (SOD2, CAT, GPx, TXNRD, SEPP1, SEP15 and SELS) with the risk of CKD in Japanese, we examined this association using the cross-sectional data of Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study. The subjects were 3,285 men and women, aged 35–69 years, selected from J-MICC Study participants for whom genotyping were conducted by multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based Invader assay. The prevalence of CKD was determined for CKD stages 3–5 (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2). When those with CAT C-262T C/C were defined as reference, those with CAT C-262T C/T demonstrated the OR for CKD of 0.67 (95% CI 0.43–1.06) with the marginally significant trend for decreased odds ratio with increasing numbers of T allele (p = 0.070). There were no significant associations between the other polymorphisms with CKD risk. The present study found a marginally significant trend of the decreased risk of CKD with increasing numbers of T allele of CAT, which may suggest the possibility of personalized risk estimation of this life-limiting disease in the near future.
doi:10.3164/jcbn.13-17
PMCID: PMC3705159  PMID: 23874065
antioxidant enzymes; genetic predisposition to disease; single nucleotide polymorphisms; chronic kidney disease
22.  Pathway analysis of genome-wide data improves warfarin dose prediction 
BMC Genomics  2013;14(Suppl 3):S11.
Background
Many genome-wide association studies focus on associating single loci with target phenotypes. However, in the setting of rare variation, accumulating sufficient samples to assess these associations can be difficult. Moreover, multiple variations in a gene or a set of genes within a pathway may all contribute to the phenotype, suggesting that the aggregation of variations found over the gene or pathway may be useful for improving the power to detect associations.
Results
Here, we present a method for aggregating single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) along biologically relevant pathways in order to seek genetic associations with phenotypes. Our method uses all available genetic variants and does not remove those in linkage disequilibrium (LD). Instead, it uses a novel SNP weighting scheme to down-weight the contributions of correlated SNPs. We apply our method to three cohorts of patients taking warfarin: two European descent cohorts and an African American cohort. Although the clinical covariates and key pharmacogenetic loci for warfarin have been characterized, our association metric identifies a significant association with mutations distributed throughout the pathway of warfarin metabolism. We improve dose prediction after using all known clinical covariates and pharmacogenetic variants in VKORC1 and CYP2C9. In particular, we find that at least 1% of the missing heritability in warfarin dose may be due to the aggregated effects of variations in the warfarin metabolic pathway, even though the SNPs do not individually show a significant association.
Conclusions
Our method allows researchers to study aggregative SNP effects in an unbiased manner by not preselecting SNPs. It retains all the available information by accounting for LD-structure through weighting, which eliminates the need for LD pruning.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-14-S3-S11
PMCID: PMC3829086  PMID: 23819817
23.  Impact of PSCA Variation on Gastric Ulcer Susceptibility 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e63698.
Peptic ulcer is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders with complex etiology. Recently we conducted the genome wide association study for duodenal ulcer and identified disease susceptibility variations at two genetic loci corresponding to the Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) gene and the ABO blood group (ABO) gene. Here we investigated the association of these variations with gastric ulcer in two Japanese case-control sample sets, a total of 4,291 gastric ulcer cases and 22,665 controls. As a result, a C-allele of rs2294008 at PSCA increased the risk of gastric ulcer with odds ratio (OR) of 1.13 (P value of 5.85×10−7) in an additive model. On the other hand, SNP rs505922 on ABO exhibited inconsistent result between two cohorts. Our finding implies presence of the common genetic variant in the pathogenesis of gastric and duodenal ulcers.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063698
PMCID: PMC3660579  PMID: 23704932
24.  Genome Wide Association Study of Age at Menarche in the Japanese Population 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e63821.
Age at menarche (AAM) is a complex trait involving both genetic and environmental factors. To identify the genetic factors associated with AAM, we conducted a large-scale meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies using more than 15,000 Japanese female samples. Here, we identified an association between SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) rs364663 at the LIN28B locus and AAM, with a P-value of 5.49×10−7 and an effect size of 0.089 (year). We also evaluated 33 SNPs that were previously reported to be associated with AAM in women of European ancestry. Among them, two SNPs rs4452860 and rs7028916 in TMEM38B indicated significant association with AAM in the same directions as reported in previous studies (P = 0.0013 with an effect size of 0.051) even after Bonferroni correction for the 33 SNPs. In addition, six loci in or near CCDC85A, LOC100421670, CA10, ZNF483, ARNTL, and RXRG exhibited suggestive association with AAM (P<0.05). Our findings elucidated the impact of genetic variations on AAM in the Japanese population.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063821
PMCID: PMC3646805  PMID: 23667675
25.  Evaluating genetic risk for prostate cancer among Japanese and Latinos 
Background
There have been few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of prostate cancer among diverse populations. To search for novel prostate cancer risk variants, we conducted GWAS of prostate cancer in Japanese and Latinos. In addition, we tested prostate cancer risk variants and developed genetic risk models of prostate cancer for Japanese and Latinos.
Methods
Our first stage GWAS of prostate cancer included Japanese (cases/controls=1,033/1,042) and Latino (cases/controls=1,043/1,057) from the Multiethnic Cohort. Significant associations from stage 1 (P < 1.0×10−4) were examined in silico in GWAS of prostate cancer (stage 2) in Japanese (cases/controls=1,583/3,386) and Europeans (cases/controls=1,854/1,894).
Results
No novel stage 1 SNPs outside of known risk regions reached genome-wide significance. For Japanese, in stage 1, the most notable putative novel association was seen with 10 SNPs (P<8.0. x10−6) at chromosome 2q33; however, this was not replicated in stage 2. For Latinos, the most significant association was observed with rs17023900 at the known 3p12 risk locus (stage 1: OR=1.45; P=7.01×10−5 and stage 2: OR=1.58; P =3.05×10−7). The majority of the established risk variants for prostate cancer, 79% and 88%, were positively associated with prostate cancer in Japanese and Latinos (stage I), respectively. The cumulative effects of these variants significantly influence prostate cancer risk (OR per allele=1.10; P = 2.71×10−25 and OR=1.07; P = 1.02×10−16 for Japanese and Latinos, respectively).
Conclusion and Impact
Our GWAS of prostate cancer did not identify novel genome-wide significant variants. However, our findings demonstrate that established risk variants for prostate cancer significantly contribute to risk among Japanese and Latinos.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-0598
PMCID: PMC3494732  PMID: 22923026

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