Background The extent to which adult height, a biomarker of the interplay of genetic endowment and early-life experiences, is related to risk of chronic diseases in adulthood is uncertain.
Methods We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for height, assessed in increments of 6.5 cm, using individual–participant data on 174 374 deaths or major non-fatal vascular outcomes recorded among 1 085 949 people in 121 prospective studies.
Results For people born between 1900 and 1960, mean adult height increased 0.5–1 cm with each successive decade of birth. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking and year of birth, HRs per 6.5 cm greater height were 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.96–0.99) for death from any cause, 0.94 (0.93–0.96) for death from vascular causes, 1.04 (1.03–1.06) for death from cancer and 0.92 (0.90–0.94) for death from other causes. Height was negatively associated with death from coronary disease, stroke subtypes, heart failure, stomach and oral cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mental disorders, liver disease and external causes. In contrast, height was positively associated with death from ruptured aortic aneurysm, pulmonary embolism, melanoma and cancers of the pancreas, endocrine and nervous systems, ovary, breast, prostate, colorectum, blood and lung. HRs per 6.5 cm greater height ranged from 1.26 (1.12–1.42) for risk of melanoma death to 0.84 (0.80–0.89) for risk of death from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. HRs were not appreciably altered after further adjustment for adiposity, blood pressure, lipids, inflammation biomarkers, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption or socio-economic indicators.
Conclusion Adult height has directionally opposing relationships with risk of death from several different major causes of chronic diseases.
Height; cardiovascular disease; cancer; cause-specific mortality; epidemiological study; meta-analysis
Telomere shortening has been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders However, available data on the association between telomere length and Parkinson's disease (PD) are inconclusive.
We used a nested case-control design among men participating in the prospective Physicians Health Study. A large proportion of participants provided blood samples in 1997 and was followed through 2010. Men with self-reported PD were age-matched to controls in a 1:2 ratio. Quantitative PCR was used to determine telomere repeat copy number to single gene copy number ratio (TSR) in genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. We used TSR as a measure for relative telomere length (RTL) in our analyses. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine the risk of PD associated with RTL.
Data on RTL were available from 408 cases and 809 controls. Median TSR was shorter in controls than in cases (47.7 vs. 50.2; p=0.02). The age-adjusted odds ratio for PD was 0.66 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.46-0.95; ptrend over quartiles=0.02) comparing the lowest to the highest quartile. The pattern of association was unchanged when comparing RTL below vs. above the median (age-adjusted OR=0.75; 95% CI 0.59-0.96). Associations were similar after additional adjustment for many covariates.
Contrary to the expected, in this large nested case-control study among men shorter telomeres were associated with reduced PD risk. Future research on the nature of this counterintuitive association is warranted.
telomere length; Parkinson's disease; nested case-control study; epidemiology
Brain glioma is a relatively rare and fatal malignancy in adulthood with few known risk factors. Some observational studies have reported inverse associations between diabetes and subsequent glioma risk, but possible mechanisms are unclear.
We conducted a pooled analysis of original data from five nested case-control studies and two case-control studies from the U.S. and China that included 962 glioma cases and 2,195 controls. We examined self-reported diabetes history in relation to glioma risk, as well as effect modification by seven glioma risk-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We also examined the associations between 13 diabetes risk-associated SNPs, identified from genome-wide association studies, and glioma risk. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models.
We observed a 42% reduced risk of glioma for individuals with a history of diabetes (OR=0.58, 95% CI: 0.40–0.84). The association did not differ by sex, study design, or after restricting to glioblastoma, the most common histological sub-type. We did not observe any significant per-allele trends among the 13 diabetes-related SNPs examined in relation to glioma risk.
These results support an inverse association between diabetes history and glioma risk. The role of genetic susceptibility to diabetes cannot be excluded, and should be pursued in future studies together with other factors that might be responsible for the diabetes-glioma association.
These data suggest the need for studies that can evaluate, separately, the association between type 1 and type 2 diabetes and subsequent risk of adult glioma.
diabetes mellitus; brain cancer; glioma; cancer; epidemiology
Adult height has been hypothesized to be inversely associated with coronary heart disease but studies have produced conflicting results. We sought to examine the relationship between adult height and the prevalence of coronary artery calcium (CAC), a direct measure of subclinical atherosclerosis and surrogate marker of CHD.
Method and Results
We evaluated the relationship between adult height and CAC in 2,703 participants from the NHLBI Family Heart Study who underwent cardiac computed tomography. We used generalized estimating equations to calculate the prevalence odds ratios for the presence of CAC (CAC>0) across sex-specific quartiles of height. The mean age of the sample was 54.8 years and 60.2% were female. There was an inverse association between adult height and CAC. After adjusting for age, race, field center, waist circumference, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive medications, diabetes, diabetic medications, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, lipid-lowering medications, and income, individuals in the tallest quartile had 30% lower odds of having prevalent CAC. The odds ratios (95% CI) for the presence of CAC across consecutive sex-specific quartiles of height were 1.0 (reference), 1.15 (0.86–1.53), 0.95(0.73–1.22), and 0.70 (0.53–0.93), p for trend <0.01. There was no evidence of effect modification for the relationship between adult height and CAC by age or socioeconomic status.
The results of our study suggest an inverse, independent association between adult height and CAC.
risk factor; imaging; epidemiology
BACKGROUND & AIMS
Previous studies have suggested that some plasma phospholipid saturated fatty acids (SFA) are associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and hypertension, major risk factors for heart failure (HF). However, little is known about the association between SFA and HF. This study examines associations of individual plasma phospholipid SFA with HF risk in US male physicians.
The current ancillary study used a prospective nested matched case-control design to select 788 cases of incident HF and 788 controls. Plasma phospholipid SFAs were measured using gas chromatography. HF was self-reported on follow-up questionnaires and validated by review of medical records in a subsample. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate relative risks.
Mean age was 58.7±8.0 years. One standard deviation higher plasma phospholipid 16:0 was associated with an odds ratio (95% CI) of 1.20 (1.04, 1.38) controlling for established HF risk factors and other SFAs (p=0.042). However, this association was not significant after Bonferroni correction (p>0.008). We did not observe associations between other SFAs (14:0, 15:0, 18:0, 20:0, or 22:0) and HF risk (all p for trend > 0.05).
Our data suggested no association between plasma phospholipid SFAs and HF in US male physicians.
Saturated fatty acids; palmitic acid; heart failure
Laboratory studies have suggested that vitamin D inadequacy may be implicated in development of hypertension. Evidence from epidemiologic studies remains limited. We aim to examine the prospective associations of circulating vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms, and their interaction with risk of hypertension.
We conducted prospective analyses among 1,211 US men that were free of baseline hypertension and had baseline plasma 25hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) or 1,25dihydroxy-vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) measured and VDR BsmI or FokI polymorphisms genotyped.
During 15.3-year follow-up, 695 men developed incident hypertension. After multivariable adjustment, the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for hypertension across increasing quartiles of circulating vitamin D metabolites were 1.00 (ref), 0.94 (0.69–1.27), 0.69 (0.50–0.96), and 0.82 (0.60–1.13) for 25(OH)D (p, trend: 0.43), and 1.00, 0.92 (0.66–1.27), 1.12 (0.82–1.54), and 1.19 (0.86–1.63) for 1,25(OH)2D (p, trend: 0.16). Compared with carriers of VDR BsmI bb, carriers of bB or BB had a HR of 1.25 (1.04–1.51) for hypertension. For VDR FokI polymorphism, compared with carriers of FF and Ff combined, carriers of ff had a HR of 1.32 (1.03–1.70). The relation between plasma 25(OH)D and risk of hypertension did not differ by VDR BsmI and FokI polymorphisms.
In a prospective cohort of men, we found suggestive evidence for an inverse association between plasma 25(OH)D and risk of hypertension. We also found associations between VDR BsmI and FokI polymorphisms with hypertension risk. More research is needed to further determine the role of vitamin D in hypertension prevention.
vitamin D; polymorphisms; prospective study; hypertension; men
Our prior studies of lung cancer suggested that a novel biomarker (pro-surfactant protein B or pro-SFTPB) might serve as a predictive marker for this disease. We aimed to determine the potential utility of pro-SFTPB for distinguishing lung cancer cases from matched controls as a risk marker.
Study subjects were drawn from the longitudinal Physicians’ Health Study (PHS). Cases (n = 188) included individuals who were cancer-free at study enrollment but developed lung cancer during follow-up. Controls (n = 337) were subjects who did not develop lung cancer. Cases and controls were matched on date of study enrollment, age at enrollment, and smoking status and amount. Baseline plasma samples drawn at enrollment were analyzed for pro-SFTPB using ELISA to detect differences in protein expression levels for cases and controls.
Pro-SFTPB-non-detectable status was significantly associated with lung cancer risk (OR = 5.88, 95% CI 1.24, 27.48). Among subjects with detectable levels of the protein, increasing plasma concentration of pro-SFTPB was associated with higher lung cancer risk (OR = 1.41 per unit increase in log pro-SFTPB, 95% CI 1.08, 1.84).
These results suggest a non-linear, J-shaped association between plasma pro-SFTPB levels and lung cancer risk, with both non-detectable and higher levels of the marker being associated with lung cancer.
These results show promise of a risk marker that could contribute to predicting risk for lung cancer development and to narrowing the high risk population for low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening.
Proteomics; cancer risk; biomarker; lung cancer
The initial report of the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) found no reduction in risk of prostate cancer with either selenium or vitamin E supplements but a non-statistically significant increase in prostate cancer risk with vitamin E. Longer follow-up and more prostate cancer events provide further insight into the relationship of vitamin E and prostate cancer.
To determine the long-term effect of vitamin E and selenium on risk of prostate cancer in relatively healthy men.
Design, Setting and Participants
SELECT randomized 35,533 men from 427 study sites in the United States, Canada and Puerto Rico in a double-blind manner between August 22, 2001 and June 24, 2004. Eligible men were 50 years or older (African Americans) or 55 years or older (all others) with a PSA ≤4.0 ng/mL and a digital rectal examination not suspicious for prostate cancer. Included in the analysis are 34,887 men randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: selenium (n=8752), vitamin E (n=8737), both agents (n=8702), or placebo (n=8696). Data reflect the final data collected by the study sites on their participants through July 5, 2011.
Oral selenium (200 μg/day from L-selenomethionine) with matched vitamin E placebo, vitamin E (400 IU/d of all rac-α-tocopheryl acetate) with matched selenium placebo, both agents, or both matched placebos for a planned follow-up of a minimum of 7 and maximum of 12 years.
Main Outcome Measures
Prostate cancer incidence.
This report includes 54,464 additional person-years of follow-up since the primary report. Hazard ratios (99% confidence intervals [CI]) and numbers of prostate cancers were 1.17(99% CI 1.004-1.36, p=.008, n=620) for vitamin E, 1.09 (99% CI 0.93-1.27, p=.18, n=575) for selenium, 1.05 (99%CI 0.89-1.22, p=.46, n=555) for selenium + vitamin E vs. 1.00 (n=529) for placebo.The absolute increase in risk compared with placebo for vitamin E, selenium and the combination were 1.6, 0.9 and 0.4 cases of prostate cancer per 1,000 person-years.
Dietary supplementation with Vitamin E significantly increases the risk of prostate cancer among healthy men.
clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00006392
Previous studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency may contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF); however, limited data are available on the association of vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) – a major transport protein for vitamin D – with the development of HF. Thus, we investigated whether plasma VDBP is inversely associated with HF risk. Using a prospective nested case-control design, we selected 464 cases and 464 matched controls from the Physicians’ Health Study for current analyses. VDBP was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Self-reported HF was obtained through annual follow-up questionnaires and validated in a subsample via review of medical records. We used conditional logistic regressions to compute adjusted odds ratios. The mean age was 58.6 years and the median VDBP was 307.8 (IQR: 265.2–354.6) μg/mL. Plasma VDBP was not associated with HF in our study: OR (95% CI): 1.0 (ref), 1.05 (0.66–1.65), 1.28 (0.80–2.06), 1.07 (0.65–1.75), and 1.28 (0.76–2.15) across consecutive quintiles of VDBP, p for linear trend 0.41, after adjustment for matching factors, body mass index, diabetes, atrial fibrillation, hypertension, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. In conclusion, our data showed no significant association between plasma levels of VDBP and HF risk in apparently healthy male physicians.
risk factors; epidemiology; heart failure; vitamin D binding protein
The evidence of a relation between folate intake and one-carbon metabolism (OCM) with pancreatic cancer (PanCa) is inconsistent. In this study, the association between genes and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to OCM and PanCa was assessed.
Using biochemical knowledge of the OCM pathway, we identified thirty-seven genes and 834 SNPs to examine in association with PanCa. Our study included 1,408 cases and 1,463 controls nested within twelve cohorts (PanScan). The ten SNPs and five genes with lowest p values (<0.02) were followed up in 2,323 cases and 2,340 controls from eight case-control studies (PanC4) that participated in PanScan2. The correlation of SNPs with metabolite levels was assessed for 649 controls from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.
When both stages were combined, we observed suggestive associations with PanCa for rs10887710 (MAT1A) (OR 1.13, 95%CI 1.04-1.23), rs1552462 (SYT9) (OR 1.27, 95%CI 1.02-1.59), and rs7074891 (CUBN) (OR 1.91, 95%CI 1.12-3.26). After correcting for multiple comparisons, no significant associations were observed in either the first or second stage. The three suggested SNPs showed no correlations with one-carbon biomarkers.
This is the largest genetic study to date to examine the relation between germline variations in OCM-related genes polymorphisms and the risk of PanCa. Suggestive evidence for an association between polymorphisms and PanCa was observed among the cohort-nested studies, but this did not replicate in the case-control studies. Our results do not strongly support the hypothesis that genes related to OCM play a role in pancreatic carcinogenesis.
Pancreatic cancer; One-carbon metabolism; Polymorphisms; Biomarkers; Epidemiology
Inflammatory processes have been associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), potentially allowing for preventive therapy by anti‐inflammatory agents such as aspirin. However, the effect of chronic aspirin on the incidence of AF has not been evaluated in a prospective cohort followed for an extended period.
Methods and Results
This study was comprised of a prospective cohort of 23 480 male participants of the Physicians' Health Study. Aspirin intake and covariates were estimated using self‐reported questionnaires. Incident AF was ascertained through yearly follow‐up questionnaires. Cox's regression, with adjustment for multiple covariates, was used to estimate relative risk of AF. Average age at baseline was 65.1±8.9 years. During a mean follow‐up of 10.0 years, 2820 cases of AF were reported. Age‐standardized incidence rates were 12.6, 11.1, 12.7, 11.3, 15.8, and 13.8/1000 person‐years for people reporting baseline aspirin intake of 0, <14 days per year, 14 to 30 days per year, 30 to 120 days per year, 121 to 180 days per year, and >180 days per year, respectively. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for incident AF were 1.00 (reference), 0.88 (0.76 to 1.02), 0.93 (0.76 to 1.14), 0.96 (0.80 to 1.14), 1.07 (0.80 to 1.14), and 1.04 (0.94 to 1.15) across consecutive categories of aspirin intake. Analysis of the data using time‐varying Cox's regression model to update aspirin intake over time showed similar results.
In a large cohort of males followed for a long period, we did not find any association between aspirin use and incident AF.
aspirin; atrial fibrillation; epidemiology; risk factors
Multivitamin preparations are the most common dietary supplement, taken by at
least one-third of all US adults. Limited observational studies have not provided
evidence regarding associations of multivitamin use with total and site-specific cancer
incidence or mortality.
To determine whether long-term multivitamin supplementation decreases the risk
of total and site-specific cancer events among men.
The Physicians’ Health Study II is a randomized, double-blind,
placebo-controlled trial of a common multivitamin that began in 1997 with treatment and
follow-up through June 1, 2011.
Setting and Participants
A total of 14,641 male U.S. physicians initially aged ≥50 years (mean
[± SD] age; 64.3 [± 9.2] years), including 1,312 men with a history of
cancer at randomization, were enrolled.
Daily multivitamin, as Centrum Silver.
Main Outcome Measures
A primary outcome was total cancer (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer), with
prostate, colorectal, and other site-specific cancers among secondary endpoints included
in this report.
During a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 11.2 (10.7 to 13.3) years,
there were 2,669 men with confirmed cancer, including 1,373 cases of prostate cancer and
210 cases of colorectal cancer. Compared with placebo, men taking a daily multivitamin
had a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of total cancer (active and
placebo multivitamin groups, 17.0 and 18.3 events, respectively, per 1,000 person-years;
hazard ratio [HR], 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86–0.998;
P=0.044). There was no significant effect of a daily multivitamin on
prostate cancer (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.88–1.09; P=0.76),
colorectal cancer (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.68–1.17;
P=0.39), or other site-specific cancers There was a lower risk of
cancer mortality that did not reach statistical significance (HR, 0.88; 95% CI,
0.77–1.01; P=0.07). Daily multivitamin use was associated with
a reduction in total cancer among 1,312 men with a baseline history of cancer (HR, 0.73;
95% CI, 0.56–0.96; P=0.022), but this did not differ
significantly from that among 13,329 men initially free of cancer (HR, 0.94; 95%
CI, 0.87–1.02; P=0.15) (P, interaction =
In this large prevention trial of male physicians, daily multivitamin
supplementation modestly but significantly reduced the risk of total cancer.
multivitamin; total cancer; prostate cancer; randomized clinical trial; men
Intake of marine- based omega-3 fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA)] is recommended to prevent coronary heart disease (CHD). Stearidonic acid (SDA), a plant- based omega-3 fatty acid (FA), is a precursor of EPA and may be more readily converted to EPA than alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). While transgenic soybean might supply SDA at low costs, it is unclear whether SDA is associated with CHD risk. Furthermore, associations of other omega-3 FAs with CHD risk remain inconsistent. This ancillary study examined the association of red blood cell SDA as well as other omega-3 FAs with the risk of CHD. In a prospective nested case-control study of the Physicians’ Health Study, we randomly selected 1,000 pairs of incident CHD with matching controls. Red blood cell FAs were measured using gas chromatography. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate relative risks.
Mean age was 68.7±8.7 y. In a multivariable model controlling for matching factors and established CHD risk factors, odds ratio for CHD for each standard deviation increase of log-SDA was 1.03 (95% CI: 0.90, 1.18). Corresponding values for log ALA and log-marine omega-3 FAs were 1.04 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.16) and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.88, 1.07), respectively.
In conclusion, our data did not show an association between red blood cell SDA, ALA, or marine omega-3 FAs and the risk of CHD in male physicians.
Stearidonic acid (SDA); omega-3 fatty acids; alpha-linolenic acid (ALA); coronary heart disease
Previous studies have shown an inverse association between allergies and glioma risk; however, results for associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of allergy-related genes and glioma risk have been inconsistent and restricted to a small number of SNPs. The objective of this study was to examine the association between 166 SNPs of 21 allergy-related genes and glioma risk in a nested case-control study of participants from three large US prospective cohort studies. Blood collection took place between 1982 and 1994 among the 562 included Caucasian participants (143 cases and 419 matched controls) prior to case diagnosis. Custom Illumina assay chips were used for genotyping. Logistic regression analyses, controlling for age and study cohort, were used to determine associations between each SNP and glioma risk. Statistically significant associations were found between rs2494262 and rs2427824 of the FCER1A gene, which encodes the alpha chain of the high affinity immunoglobulin E receptor, and glioma risk (nominal trend p-values 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). Significant associations were also found between SNPs in IL10, ADAM33, NOS1 and IL4R and glioma risk; however, these were not corrected for multiple comparisons and need to be interpreted with caution. Our findings with FCER1A SNPs provide further support for the link between allergies and risk of glioma.
Brain tumors; glioma; allergies; single-nucleotide polymorphisms; cohort studies
Chronic inflammation may play a role in the development of pancreatic cancer. However, few prospective studies have examined the association between plasma inflammatory markers and pancreatic cancer risk. Therefore, we investigated the association of prediagnostic circulating C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α-receptor II (TNF-αR2) with subsequent pancreatic cancer risk in a prospective, nested case-control study of 470 cases and 1094 controls from Health Professionals Follow-up Study, Nurses’ Health Study, Physicians’ Health Study, Women’s Health Initiative, and Women’s Health Study. The median follow-up time of cases was 7.2 years (range 1-26 years). No association was observed between plasma CRP, IL6, and TNF-αR2 and risk of pancreatic cancer. Comparing extreme quintiles, the multivariate ORs were 1.10 (95% CI, 0.74-1.63; Ptrend= 0.81) for CRP, 1.19 (95% CI, 0.81-1.76; Ptrend = 0.08) for IL6, and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.58-1.33; Ptrend = 0.57) for TNF-αR2. In conclusion, pre-diagnostic levels of circulating CRP, IL6, and TNF-αR2 were not associated with risk of pancreatic cancer, suggesting that systemic inflammation as measured by circulating inflammatory factors is unlikely to play a major role in the development of pancreatic cancer.
Secondary analyses of two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and supportive epidemiologic and preclinical indicated the potential of selenium and vitamin E for preventing prostate cancer.
To determine whether selenium or vitamin E or both could prevent prostate cancer with little or no toxicity in relatively healthy men.
Design, Setting, and Participants
Randomization of a planned 32,400 men to selenium, vitamin E, selenium plus vitamin E, and placebo in a double-blinded fashion. Participants were recruited and followed in community practices, local hospitals and HMOs, and tertiary cancer centers in the United States, Canada and Puerto Rico. Baseline eligibility included 50 years or older (African American) or 55 years or older (all others), a serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≤ 4 ng/mL, and a digital rectal examination (DRE) not suspicious for prostate cancer. Between 2001 and 2004, 35,533 men (10% more than planned because of a faster-than-expected accrual rate) were randomly assigned to the four study arms, which were well balanced with respect to all potentially important risk factors.
Oral selenium (200 µg/day from L-selenomethionine) and matched vitamin E placebo, vitamin E (400 IU/day of all rac-α-tocopheryl acetate) and matched selenium placebo, or the two combined or placebo plus placebo for a planned minimum of 7 and maximum of 12 years.
Main Outcome Measures
Prostate cancer (as determined by routine community diagnostic standards) and prespecified secondary outcomes including lung, colorectal and overall cancer.
Study supplements were discontinued at the recommendation of the Data and Safety Monitoring Committee at a planned 7-year interim analysis because the evidence convincingly demonstrated no benefit from either study agent (p < 0.0001) and no possibility of a benefit to the planned degree with additional follow-up. As of October 23, 2008, median overall follow-up was 5.46 years (range, 4.17 and 7.33). Hazard ratios (number of prostate cancers, 99% confidence intervals [CIs]) for prostate cancer were 1.13 for vitamin E (n=473; CI, 0.91–1.41), 1.04 for selenium (n=432; CI, 0.83–1.30), and 1.05 for the combination (n=437; CI, 0.83–1.31) compared with placebo (n=416). There were no significant differences (all p-values > 0.15) in any prespecified cancer endpoints. There were nonsignificant increased risks of prostate cancer in the vitamin E arm (p=0.06; relative risk [RR]=1.13; 99% CI, 0l95–1.35) and of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in the selenium arm (p=0.16; RR=1.07; 99% CI, 0.94–1.22), but they were not observed in the combination arm.
Selenium or vitamin E, alone or in combination, did not prevent prostate cancer in this population at the doses and formulations used.
Background & Aims
There is observational and clinical evidence that indicate that sex hormones affect development of colorectal cancer (CRC) in men and women. However, the relationship between endogenous sex hormone levels and CRC is unclear.
We collected data on lifestyle, medical history, and diet etc. (through 2008), along with blood samples, from the Nurses’ Health Study, the Women’s Health Study, the Health Professional Follow-Up Study, and the Physicians’ Health Study II. We measured plasma levels of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and c-peptide among 730 women (293 cases of CRC and 437 healthy individuals, as controls) and 1158 men (439 CRC cases and 719 controls), and used unconditional logistic regression to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All statistical tests were 2-sided.
Total testosterone, SHBG, and the ratio of estradiol to testosterone were associated with CRC in men after adjustments for matching and risk factors for CRC, including BMI and plasma levels of C-peptide. The RRs in the highest relative to the lowest quartile were 0.62 for testosterone (95% CI, 0.40–0.96), 0.65 for SHBG (95% CI, 0.42−0.99), and 2.63 for the ratio (95% CI, 1.58–4.36) (P-values for trend ≤0.02). However, in women, only the ratio of estradiol to testosterone was (inversely) associated with CRC after adjustments for all factors (RR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.22−0.84; P-value for trend, .03).
Based on combined data from 4 population studies, there appears to be an association between levels of sex hormones and CRC risk in men. There also appears to be an inverse association between the ratio of estradiol to testosterone and CRC in postmenopausal women.
estrogen; incidence; colorectal cancer; testosterone
Studies suggest that vitamin D status may be associated with prostate cancer risk, although the direction and strength of this association differs between experimental and observational studies. Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status. We examined prostate cancer risk in relation to SNPs in four genes shown to predict circulating levels of 25(OH)D.
SNP markers localized to each of four genes (GC, CYP24A1, CYP2R1, and DHCR7) previously associated with 25(OH)D were genotyped in 10,018 cases and 11,052 controls from the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium. Logistic regression was used to estimate the individual and cumulative association between genetic variants and risk of overall and aggressive prostate cancer.
We observed a decreased risk of aggressive prostate cancer among men with the allele in rs6013897 near CYP24A1 associated with lower serum 25(OH)D (per A allele, OR=0.86, 95%CI=0.80–0.93, p-trend=0.0002), but an increased risk for non-aggressive disease (per a allele: OR=1.10, 95%CI=1.04–1.17, p-trend=0.002). Examination of a polygenic score of the four SNPs revealed statistically significantly lower risk of aggressive prostate cancer among men with a greater number of low vitamin D alleles (OR for 6–8 vs. 0–1 alleles = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.44 – 0.98; p-trend=0.003).
In this large, pooled analysis, genetic variants related to lower 25(OH)D were associated with a decreased risk of aggressive prostate cancer.
Our genetic findings do not support a protective association between loci known to influence vitamin D levels and prostate cancer risk.
Vitamin D; prostatic neoplasms; data pooling; genes; SNPs
Prevalences of vascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease and restless legs syndrome increase with age. Prior studies analyzing the associations between vascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease, and restless legs syndrome found controversial results. We therefore aim to evaluate the association between prevalent vascular risk factors, prevalent cardiovascular disease and restless legs syndrome.
We conducted a cross-sectional study among 22,786 participants of the US Physicians’ Health Studies I and II. Restless legs syndrome was classified according to the four minimal diagnostic criteria. Vascular risk factors and restless legs syndrome symptoms were self-reported. Prevalent cardiovascular disease events including major cardiovascular disease, stroke and myocardial infarction were confirmed by medical record review. Age- and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between vascular risk factors, prevalent cardiovascular disease events and restless legs syndrome.
The mean age of the cohort 67.8 years. Restless legs syndrome prevalence was 7.5% and increased significantly with age. Diabetes significantly increased the odds (OR: 1.41, 95%CI: 1.21–1.65), while frequent exercise (OR: 0.78, 95%CI: 0.67–0.91) and alcohol consumption of one or more drinks per day (OR: 0.80, 95%CI: 0.69–0.92) significantly reduced the odds of restless legs syndrome in multivariable-adjusted models. Prevalent stroke showed an increased multivariable-adjusted OR of 1.40 (1.05–1.86) while men with prevalent myocardial infarction had a decreased OR of 0.73 (0.55–0.97) for restless legs syndrome.
The restless legs syndrome prevalence among US male physicians is similar to men of the same age group in other western countries. A history of diabetes is the most consistent risk factor associated with restless legs syndrome. Prevalent stroke and myocardial infarction are related to restless legs syndrome prevalence.
Vascular risk factors; cardiovascular disease; Restless legs syndrome; cohort study
Previous studies evaluating the association between cardiovascular disease and vascular risk factors with restless legs syndrome showed inconsistent results, especially for the potential relation between various vascular risk factors and restless legs syndrome. We therefore aimed to analyze the relationship between vascular risk factors, prevalent cardiovascular disease and restless legs syndrome.
This is a cross-sectional study of 30,262 female health professionals participating in the Women's Health Study (WHS). Restless legs syndrome was defined according to diagnostic criteria of the International Restless Legs Study Group. Information on vascular risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, body mass index, alcohol, smoking, exercise, family history of myocardial infarction) was self-reported. Cardiovascular disease events (coronary revascularization, myocardial infarction, stroke) were confirmed by medical record review. Prevalent major cardiovascular disease was defined as non-fatal stroke or non-fatal myocardial infarction. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between vascular risk factors, prevalent cardiovascular disease and restless legs syndrome.
Of the 30,262 participants (mean age: 63.6 years), 3,624 (12.0%) reported restless legs syndrome. In multivariable-adjusted models, body mass index (OR for BMI ≥35kg/m2: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.17–1.56), diabetes (OR: 1.19, 95%CI: 1.04–1.35), hypercholesterolemia (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.09–1.26), smoking status (OR for ≥15 cigarettes/day: 1.41, 95%CI: 1.19–1.66) and exercise (OR for exercise ≥ 4 times/week: 0.84, 95%CI: 0.74–0.95) were associated with restless legs syndrome prevalence. We found no association between prevalent cardiovascular disease (major cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, stroke) and restless legs syndrome prevalence. Women who underwent coronary revascularization had a multivariable-adjusted OR of 1.39 (1.10–1.77) for restless legs syndrome.
In this large cohort of female health professionals, various vascular risk factors are associated with restless legs syndrome prevalence. We could not confirm results of previous reports indicating an association between prevalent cardiovascular disease and restless legs syndrome.
Vascular risk factors; cardiovascular disease; Restless legs syndrome; cohort study
Previous studies suggest an association between migraine and restless legs syndrome (RLS). Population-based data, however, have been limited to women. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between migraine and RLS in a male cohort.
Cross-sectional study among 22,926 participants in the Physicians’ Health Study. Migraine and RLS information was self-reported. RLS was classified according to four minimal diagnostic criteria. Age-and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were calculated.
Of the 22,926 participants (mean age 67.8), 2,816 (12.3%) reported migraine and 1,717 (7.5%) RLS. Migraine was associated with an increased multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.20 (1.04–1.38) for having RLS. The association remained stable after excluding men with potential mimics of RLS and was not modified by age.
Results of our study indicate an association between migraine and RLS in men. The magnitude of effect is similar to what has been reported in women.
migraine; restless legs syndrome; cross-sectional study; epidemiology
Diabetes is a suspected risk factor for pancreatic cancer, but questions remain about whether it is a risk factor or a result of the disease. This study prospectively examined the association between diabetes and the risk of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in pooled data from the NCI pancreatic cancer cohort consortium (PanScan).
The pooled data included 1,621 pancreatic adenocarcinoma cases and 1,719 matched controls from twelve cohorts using a nested case–control study design. Subjects who were diagnosed with diabetes near the time (<2 years) of pancreatic cancer diagnosis were excluded from all analyses. All analyses were adjusted for age, race, gender, study, alcohol use, smoking, BMI, and family history of pancreatic cancer.
Self-reported diabetes was associated with a forty percent increased risk of pancreatic cancer (OR = 1.40, 95 % CI: 1.07, 1.84). The association differed by duration of diabetes; risk was highest for those with a duration of 2–8 years (OR = 1.79, 95 % CI: 1.25, 2.55); there was no association for those with 9+ years of diabetes (OR = 1.02, 95 % CI: 0.68, 1.52).
These findings provide support for a relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer risk. The absence of association in those with the longest duration of diabetes may reflect hypoinsulinemia and warrants further investigation.
Diabetes; Risk factor; Cohort consortium; Pancreatic cancer
Survival of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma is limited and few prognostic factors are known. We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify germline variants associated with survival in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
We analyzed overall survival in relation to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among 1,005 patients from two large GWAS datasets, PanScan I and ChinaPC. Cox proportional hazards regression was used in an additive genetic model with adjustment for age, sex, clinical stage and the top four principal components of population stratification. The first stage included 642 cases of European ancestry (PanScan), from which the top SNPs (P≤10−5) were advanced to a joint analysis with 363 additional patients from China (ChinaPC).
In the first stage of cases of European descent, the top-ranked loci were at chromosomes 11p15.4, 18p11.21, and 1p36.13, tagged by rs12362504 (P=1.63×10−7), rs981621 (P=1.65×10−7), and rs16861827 (P=3.75×10−7), respectively. One-hundred thirty-one SNPs with P ≤ 10−5 were advanced to a joint analysis with cases from the ChinaPC study. In the joint analysis, the top-ranked SNP was rs10500715 (minor allele frequency, 0.37; P=1.72×10−7) on chromosome 11p15.4, which is intronic to the SET binding factor 2 (SBF2) gene. The hazard ratio (95% CI) for death was 0.74 (0.66–0.84) in PanScan I, 0.79 (0.65–0.97) in ChinaPC, and 0.76 (0.68–0.84) in the joint analysis.
Germline genetic variation in the SBF2 locus was associated with overall survival in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma of European and Asian ancestry. This association should be investigated in additional large patient cohorts.
Pancreatic cancer; GWAS; single nucleotide polymorphism; SET binding factor 2
Observational studies have found an inverse association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and prostate cancer (PCa), and genome-wide association studies have found common variants near 3 loci associated with both diseases. The authors examined whether a genetic background that favors T2D is associated with risk of advanced PCa. Data from the National Cancer Institute's Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium, a genome-wide association study of 2,782 advanced PCa cases and 4,458 controls, were used to evaluate whether individual single nucleotide polymorphisms or aggregations of these 36 T2D susceptibility loci are associated with PCa. Ten T2D markers near 9 loci (NOTCH2, ADCY5, JAZF1, CDKN2A/B, TCF7L2, KCNQ1, MTNR1B, FTO, and HNF1B) were nominally associated with PCa (P < 0.05); the association for single nucleotide polymorphism rs757210 at the HNF1B locus was significant when multiple comparisons were accounted for (adjusted P = 0.001). Genetic risk scores weighted by the T2D log odds ratio and multilocus kernel tests also indicated a significant relation between T2D variants and PCa risk. A mediation analysis of 9,065 PCa cases and 9,526 controls failed to produce evidence that diabetes mediates the association of the HNF1B locus with PCa risk. These data suggest a shared genetic component between T2D and PCa and add to the evidence for an interrelation between these diseases.
carcinoma; diabetes mellitus, type 2; genetic predisposition to disease; genetics; genome-wide association study; humans; polymorphism, single nucleotide; prostatic neoplasms
Background and Aims
While marine omega-3 fatty acids have been associated with a lower mortality in heart failure patients, data on omega-3 and incident heart failure are inconsistent. We systematically reviewed the evidence on the association of omega-3 fatty acids and fish intake with the incidence of heart failure in this meta-analysis.
We identified relevant studies by searching MEDLINE and EMBASE databases up to August 31, 2011 without restrictions and by reviewing reference lists from retrieved articles.
A total of 176,441 subjects and 5,480 incident cases of heart failure from 7 prospective studies were included in this analysis. Using random effect model, the pooled relative risk for heart failure comparing the highest to lowest category of fish intake was 0.85 (95% CI; 0.73–0.99), p=0.04; corresponding value for marine omega-3 fatty acids was 0.86 (0.74–1.00), p=0.05. There was no evidence for heterogeneity across studies of fish consumption (I2=8%). In contrast, there was modest heterogeneity for omega-3 fatty acid analysis (I2= 44%). Lastly, there was no evidence for publication bias.
This meta-analysis is consistent with a lower risk of heart failure with intake of marine omega-3 fatty acids. These observational findings should be confirmed in a large randomized trial.
Heart failure; epidemiology; diet; nutrition; omega-3 fatty acids; risk factors