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1.  Comparison of subarachnoid anesthetic effect of emulsified volatile anesthetics in rats 
Spinal cord is an important target of volatile anesthetics in particular for the effect of immobility. Intrathecal injection of volatile anesthetics has been found to produce subarachnoid anesthesia. The present study was designed to compare spinal anesthetic effects of emulsified volatile anesthetics, and to investigate the correlation between their spinal effects and general effect of immobility. In this study, halothane, isoflurane, enflurane and sevoflurane were emulsified by 30% Intralipid. These emulsified volatile anesthetics were intravenously and intrathecally injected, respectively. ED50 of general anesthesia and EC50 of spinal anesthesia were determined. The durations of general and spinal anesthesia were recorded. Correlation analysis was applied to evaluate the anesthetic potency of volatile anesthetics between their spinal and general effects. ED50 of general anesthesia induced by emulsified halothane, isoflurane, enflurane and sevoflurane were 0.41 ± 0.07, 0.54 ± 0.07, 0.74 ± 0.11 and 0.78 ± 0.08 mmol/kg, respectively, with significant correlation to their inhaled MAC (R2 = 0.8620, P = 0.047). For intrathecal injection, EC50 of spinal anesthesia induced by emulsified halothane, isoflurane, enflurane and sevoflurane were 0.35, 0.27, 0.33 and 0.26 mol/L, respectively, which could be predicted by the product of inhaled MAC and olive oil/gas partition coefficients (R2 = 0.9627, P = 0.013). In conclusion, potency and efficacy of the four emulsified volatile anesthetics in spinal anesthesia were similar and could be predicted by the product of inhaled MAC and olive oil/gas partition coefficients (MAC × olive oil/gas partition coefficients).
PMCID: PMC4313979
Emulsified volatile anesthetics; spinal anesthesia; general anesthesia
2.  Single-dose sufentanil or fentanyl reduces agitation after sevoflurane anesthesia in children undergoing ophthalmology surgery 
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences  2014;30(5):1059-1063.
Objectives: The trail investigated the effect of small dose sufentanil or fentanyl administrated before the end of surgery in reducing the incidence of emergence agitation after anesthesia with sevoflurane in preschool children undergoing ophthalmology surgery, and the incidence of emergence agitation of sevoflurane anesthesia.
Methods: From September 2011 to January 2012 January, ninety ASA I-II children, aged from 3-7 years, undergoing ophthalmology surgery in West China Hospital, were randomly assigned to three groups to receive intravenous saline, sufentanil 0.1μg/kg or fentanyl 1μg/kg at 20 minutes before the end of the surgery. Children were scored by scoring system for emergence agitation (SSEA), Children’s and Infants’ Postoperative Pain Scale (CHIPPS) score.
Results: The incidence of agitation was 30% in sufentanil group, 36.67% in fentanyl group, and 63.33% in control group. The incidence of sever agitation (SSEA score≥3) was 6.67% in sufentanil group, 23.37% in fentanyl group, and 36.67% in control group. The agitation and pain scores in sufentanil group and fentanyl group were better than those in control group (P<0.05). There was no difference among three groups about time to extubation.
Conclusions: We conclude that the incidence of emergence agitation after sevoflurane anesthesia in children undergoing ophthalmology surgery is up to 63.33%. The single dose of sufentanil or fentanyl can reduce the emergence agitation in children anesthesized with sevoflurane, with no adverse effects. The effect of sufentanil is better than fentanyl.
doi:10.12669/pjms.305.4483
PMCID: PMC4163232  PMID: 25225526
Agitation; Anesthesia; Pediatric; Recovery; Sevoflurane; Volatile anesthetics
3.  Effects of penehyclidine hydrochloride on the propofol dose requirement and Bispectral Index for loss of consciousness 
Penehyclidine hydrochloride (PH), a new anticholinerigic drug associated with few cardiovascular side effects, was used widely as premedication in China. There is no information on the pharmacodynamic interaction between PH and anesthetics for loss of consciousness (LOC). This study was designed to determine the effects of premedicated PH on the propofol dose requirement for LOC and Bispectral Index (BIS) during target-controlled infusion (TCI) of propofol. Forty patients were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 groups to receive PH (Group PH) or normal saline (Group NS). TCI propofol was administered 30 min after PH or normal saline was given. During study period, BIS value, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and the Observer’s Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (OAA/S) rating scale were recorded. Predicted effect-site propofol concentrations (Ce) and the total propofol dose were recorded when end-point was achieved. The time to reach end point was also noted. The time to reach LOC was shorter in Group PH than Group NS (p < 0.05). The predicted propofol Ce and consumption based on body weight of each patient were lower in Group PH than Group NS (p < 0.05). BIS values were not significantly changed before propofol infusion, and decreased gradually as propofol Ce increased and were not significantly different when LOC was reached between two groups (p > 0.05). We conclude that premedicated PH reduces the propofol Ce and dose requirement for LOC, but has no effect on BIS.
PMCID: PMC4161574  PMID: 25232414
Penehyclidine hydrochloride; propofol; Bispectral lndex; target-controlled infusion
4.  The p53-Reactivating Small Molecule RITA Induces Senescence in Head and Neck Cancer Cells 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e104821.
TP53 is the most commonly mutated gene in head and neck cancer (HNSCC), with mutations being associated with resistance to conventional therapy. Restoring normal p53 function has previously been investigated via the use of RITA (reactivation of p53 and induction of tumor cell apoptosis), a small molecule that induces a conformational change in p53, leading to activation of its downstream targets. In the current study we found that RITA indeed exerts significant effects in HNSCC cells. However, in this model, we found that a significant outcome of RITA treatment was accelerated senescence. RITA-induced senescence in a variety of p53 backgrounds, including p53 null cells. Also, inhibition of p53 expression did not appear to significantly inhibit RITA-induced senescence. Thus, this phenomenon appears to be partially p53-independent. Additionally, RITA-induced senescence appears to be partially mediated by activation of the DNA damage response and SIRT1 (Silent information regulator T1) inhibition, with a synergistic effect seen by combining either ionizing radiation or SIRT1 inhibition with RITA treatment. These data point toward a novel mechanism of RITA function as well as hint to its possible therapeutic benefit in HNSCC.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0104821
PMCID: PMC4132078  PMID: 25119136
5.  The Quaternary Lidocaine Derivative QX-314 Produces Long-Lasting Intravenous Regional Anesthesia in Rats 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(6):e99704.
Background
The lidocaine derivative, QX-314, produces long-lasting regional anesthesia in various animal models. We designed this study to examine whether QX-314 could produce long-lasting intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) in a rat model.
Methods
IVRA was performed on tail of rats. EC50 (median effective concentration) of QX-314 in IVRA was determined by up-and-down method. IVRA on tail of rats was evaluated by tail-flick and tail-clamping tests. For comparison between QX-314 and lidocaine, 60 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 10/group), respectively receiving 0.5 ml of 0.5% lidocaine, 0.25% QX-314, 0.5% QX-314, 1.0% QX-314, 2.0% QX-314 and normal saline. To explore the role of TRPV1 channel in IVRA of QX-314, 20 rats were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 10/group), respectively receiving 0.5 ml of 1% QX-314 and 1% QX-314+75 µg/ml capsazepine. Toxicities of QX-314 on central nervous system and cardiac system were measured in rats according to Racine's convulsive scale and by electrocardiogram, respectively.
Results
QX-314 could produce long-lasting IVRA in a concentration-dependent manner. EC50 of QX-314 in rat tail IVRA was 0.15±0.02%. At concentration of 0.5%, IVRA duration of QX-314 (2.5±0.7 hour) was significantly longer than that of 0.5% lidocaine (0.3±0.2 hour, P<0.001). TRPV1 channel antagonist (capsazepine) could significantly reduce the effect of QX-314. For evaluation of toxicities, QX-314 at doses of 5 or 10 mg/kg did not induce any serious complications. However, QX-314 at dose of 20 mg/kg (1% QX-314 0.5 ml for a rat weighing 250 g) induced death in 6/10 rats.
Conclusions
QX-314 could produce long-lasting IVRA in a concentration-dependent manner. This long-lasting IVRA was mediated by activation of TRPV1 channels. Evaluation of toxic complications of QX-314 confirmed that low but relevant doses of QX-314 did not result in any measurable toxicity.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0099704
PMCID: PMC4059684  PMID: 24932639
6.  Combined Effects of TGFB1 +869 T/C and +915 G/C Polymorphisms on Acute Rejection Risk in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e93938.
Background
Transforming growth factor-beta 1(TGF-β1) is involved in the development of acute rejection (AR) episodes in solid organ transplant recipients; and a number of studies have been conducted to investigate the combined effects of human TGF-β1 gene (TGFB1) +869 T/C and +915 G/C polymorphisms on AR risk. However, the results obtained are inconclusive.
Methods
Eligible studies that investigated the haplotypic association between TGFB1 +869 T/C and +915 G/C polymorphisms and AR risk were comprehensively searched in the PUBMED, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Database. Statistical analyses were performed by using STATA 12.0 and Review Manager 5.0.
Results
Fourteen eligible studies with 565 AR cases and 1219 non-AR cases were included. Overall, a significantly decreased risk was detected in patients carried with intermediate producer (IP) haplotypes (T/C G/C, T/T G/C, and C/C G/G) and/or low producer (LP) haplotypes (C/C G/C, C/C C/C, T/T C/C, and T/C C/C) compared with high producer (HP) haplotypes (T/T G/G and T/C G/G; IP vs. HP: OR = 0.75, 95% CI, 0.58–0.96, P heterogeneity  = 0.238; IP/LP vs. HP: OR  = 0.77, 95% CI, 0.61–0.98, P heterogeneity  = 0.144). In addition, subgroup analysis by transplant types demonstrated a similar association in patients receiving heart transplant (IP vs. HP: OR  = 0.32, 95% CI, 0.14–0.73, P heterogeneity  = 0.790; IP/LP vs. HP: OR  = 0.41, 95% CI, 0.20–0.85, P heterogeneity  = 0.320).
Conclusions
The current meta-analysis and systematic review indicated that recipient TGFB1 HP haplotypes were significantly associated with an increased risk for AR in solid organ transplant recipients, particularly patients receiving cardiac allograft.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0093938
PMCID: PMC3976347  PMID: 24705444
7.  Trusted Measurement Model Based on Multitenant Behaviors 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:384967.
With a fast growing pervasive computing, especially cloud computing, the behaviour measurement is at the core and plays a vital role. A new behaviour measurement tailored for Multitenants in cloud computing is needed urgently to fundamentally establish trust relationship. Based on our previous research, we propose an improved trust relationship scheme which captures the world of cloud computing where multitenants share the same physical computing platform. Here, we first present the related work on multitenant behaviour; secondly, we give the scheme of behaviour measurement where decoupling of multitenants is taken into account; thirdly, we explicitly explain our decoupling algorithm for multitenants; fourthly, we introduce a new way of similarity calculation for deviation control, which fits the coupled multitenants under study well; lastly, we design the experiments to test our scheme.
doi:10.1155/2014/384967
PMCID: PMC3985305  PMID: 24987731
8.  Effect of flumazenil on sevoflurane requirements for minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration-awake and recovery status 
Objective: It is controversial that whether the GABA receptors contribute to the hypnotic action of volatile anesthetics. This study was to detect the effect of GABA receptors on the hypnotic action of volatile anesthetics by evaluation of the effect of intravenous flumazenil on sevoflurane minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration–awake (MAC-Awake) and emergence mental status. Methods: This study included two steps. Firstly, 49 healthy patients, aged 20-40 years scheduled for elective surgeries, were randomly assigned to two groups, a flumazenil group (n=24) and a saline group (n=25). The flumazenil group received 0.006 mg/Kg IV, and the control group received the same volume of saline 20 min before induction. The flumazenil group and the control group were compared with regard to MAC-Awake (anesthetic concentration achieving 50% probability of eye opening in response to a verbal command). We used the mask inhalation to measure the MAC-Awake by up-and-down method. The second steps, 60 patients undergoing lower abdomen surgeries were randomly divided into two groups, a experimental group (n=30) and a saline group (n=30). All patients were anesthetized with sevoflurane/sulfentanil. The experimental group received flumazenil at 0.006 mg/Kg IV, and the control group received the same volume of saline at the end of surgery. We recorded the time to awake and extubation. After extubation, the patients’ recovery status was scored with the Mini-Mental state examination (MMSE) system in post anesthesia care unit (PACU). Results: The MAC-Awake was 0.65% in the control group and 0.82% in the flumazenil group (p=0.34). After extubation, the recovery time and time to extubation showed no difference between the flumazenil group and the saline group (p>0.05). But the 10 min and 15 min MMSE scores after extubation were better in the flumazenil group than those in the saline group (p<0.05). There was no difference for MMSE scores after 30 min between two groups. Conclusion: We found that an IV flumazenil (0.006 mg/Kg) has no effect on sevoflurane MAC-Awake in humans. A single intravenous injection of flumazenil (0.006 mg/Kg) can partially reverse the hypnotic effect of sevoflurane/sulfentanil but do not contribute to reduction in the time to recovery and extubation.
PMCID: PMC3992407  PMID: 24753762
Flumazenil; sevoflurane; sulfentanil; MAC-awake
9.  Simple strategy of anesthesia for the neonate with tracheoesophageal fistula: a case report 
A 3-day-old neonate, given a diagnosis of esophageal atresia (EA) with tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF), which is large and just above the carina, was scheduled for TEF repair. Routine anesthetic management focuses on adequate ventilation and avoidance of gastric distension during positive pressure ventilation. Using a balloon-tipped embolectomy catheter or a Fogarty catheter to block the fistula under the guidance of fiberoptic scope has been described. In most of the medical centers, however, the pediatric fiberoptic scope may not be available. We present a case of a newborn undergoing type C EA/TEF repair and describe a simple intra-operative technique that could temporarily occlude the gastroesophageal junction, allowing stable vital signs of patient and definitive repair of the tracheoesophageal fistula.
PMCID: PMC3902279  PMID: 24482727
Esophageal atresia (EA); tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF); repair; occlude; ligation
10.  Inosine Enhances Axon Sprouting and Motor Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e81948.
Although corticospinal tract axons cannot regenerate long distances after spinal cord injury, they are able to sprout collateral branches rostral to an injury site that can help form compensatory circuits in cases of incomplete lesions. We show here that inosine enhances the formation of compensatory circuits after a dorsal hemisection of the thoracic spinal cord in mature rats and improves coordinated limb use. Inosine is a naturally occurring metabolite of adenosine that crosses the cell membrane and, in neurons, activates Mst3b, a protein kinase that is part of a signal transduction pathway that regulates axon outgrowth. Compared to saline-treated controls, rats with dorsal hemisections that were treated with inosine showed three times as many synaptic contacts between corticospinal tract collaterals and long propriospinal interneurons that project from the cervical cord to the lumbar level. Inosine-treated rats also showed stronger serotonergic reinnervation of the lumbar cord than saline-treated controls, and performed well above controls in both open-field testing and a horizontal ladder rung-walking test. Inosine was equally effective whether delivered intracranially or intravenously, and has been shown to be safe for other indications in humans. Thus, inosine might be a useful therapeutic for improving outcome after spinal cord injury.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081948
PMCID: PMC3846725  PMID: 24312612
11.  Clinical Implications of Girdin Protein Expression in Glioma 
The Scientific World Journal  2013;2013:986073.
Objective. To investigate the expression status of Girdin in glioma and the relationship between Girdin expression and the biological behavior of glioma. Materials and methods. The expression status of Girdin in glioma from 560 cases was evaluated by RT-PCR, Western Blot and immunohistochemistry. The relationship between Girdin expression and clinic-pathological parameters as well as prognosis was also studied. Results. The expression of Girdin in high grade glioma was significantly higher than low grade glioma. After universal analysis, the expression of Girdin protein is closely related to KPS score, extent of resection, Ki67 and WHO grade, but it was not related to sex and age. Finally, extent of resection, Ki67 and WHO grade were indentified to be related to the Girdin protein expression in logistic regression. Interestingly, we found that the expression of Girdin is significantly related to the distant metastasis of glioma. After COX regression analysis, KPS score, Extent of resection, Ki67, WHO grade as well as Girdin were observed to be independent prognostic factors. Conclusions. Girdin is differential expressed in the glioma patients and closely related to the biological behavior of Glioma. Finally, Girdin was found to be a strong predictor for the post-operative prognosis.
doi:10.1155/2013/986073
PMCID: PMC3826315  PMID: 24288520
12.  Correction of image distortions in endoscopic optical coherence tomography based on two-axis scanning MEMS mirrors 
Biomedical Optics Express  2013;4(10):2066-2077.
A two-axis scanning microelectromechanical (MEMS) mirror enables an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system to perform three-dimensional endoscopic imaging due to its fast scan speed and small size. However, the radial scan from the MEMS mirror causes various distortions in OCT images, namely spherical, fan-shaped and keystone distortions. In this paper, a new method is proposed to correct all of three distortions presented in OCT systems based on two-axis MEMS scanning mirrors. The spherical distortion is corrected first by directly manipulating the original spectral interferograms in the phase domain, followed by Fourier transform and three-dimensional geometrical transformation for correcting the other two types of distortions. OCT imaging experiments on a paper with square ink printed arrays and a glass tube filled with milk have been used to validate the proposed method. Distortions in OCT images of flat or curved surfaces can all be effectively removed.
doi:10.1364/BOE.4.002066
PMCID: PMC3799666  PMID: 24156064
(110.4500) Optical coherence tomography; (230.4685) Optical microelectromechanical devices; (100.6890) Three-dimensional image processing
13.  catena-Poly[[[2-(1,3-thia­zol-4-yl)-1H-benzimidazole]­manganese(II)]-μ-oxalato] 
In the title compound, [Mn(C2O4)(C10H7N3S)]n, the MnII cation is chelated by one 2-(1,3-thia­zol-4-yl)-1H-benzimidazole ligand and two oxalate anions in a distorted N2O4 octa­hedral geometry. Two independent oxalate anions are located on individual inversion centers and bridge the MnII cations into a polymeric chain running along [101]. The thia­zole ring is approximately coplanar with the benzimidazole ring system [dihedral angle = 4.19 (9)°]. In the crystal, classical N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the polymeric chains into a three-dimensional supra­molecular architecture.
doi:10.1107/S1600536813023428
PMCID: PMC3884504  PMID: 24427009
14.  Case scenario about TEE: Patient with dilated cardiomyopathy undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy 
A 42-year-old woman, who presented with DCM (American Society of Anesthesia, ASA class IV), suffered from gallstone for years, and was scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Echocardiography demonstrated a severely dilated left ventricle with global hypokinesia and reduction of left ventricular systolic function, ejection fraction (EF) 34% with mild mitral regurgitation and severe tricuspid regurgitation. After intubation, a transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) probe was inserted. When the IAP was gradually ascended to 14 mmHg during the laparoscopy, EF fell to 19% and the systolic pressure fell to 78 mmHg and TEE showed severely poor wall motion. But the central venous pressure (CVP) still showed about 4 mmHg throughout the whole procedure. After decreasing the IAP to 10 mmHg, we adjusted the rate of pacemaker to 70 times per minute then the systolic pressure was kept at around 100 mmHg, and the diastolic pressure was kept at 60 mmHg. EF was 30% after the reduction of IAP and the adjusting of the heart rate set. TEE is a helpful monitor in anesthesia management of patients with DCM during noncardiac surgery and CVP is useless especially for the procedure with severe hemodynamic effects.
PMCID: PMC3809262  PMID: 24353604
Dilated Cardiomyopathy; Pneumoperitoneum; Transesophageal Echocardiography; Central Venous Pressure
15.  Poly[μ-aqua-aqua-μ4-naphthalene-1,8-dicarboxyl­ato-barium]: a layer structure 
The title compound, [Ba(C12H6O4)(H2O)2]n, is represented by a layer-like structure built of BaO8 polyhedra. The asymmetric unit contains a Ba2+ ion, half a coordinating water mol­ecule and half a μ4-bridging naphthalene-1,8-dicarboxyl­ate (1,8-nap) ligand, the whole structure being generated by twofold rotational symmetry. The carboxyl­ate groups of the 1,8-nap ligands act as bridges linking four Ba2+ ions, while each Ba2+ ion is eight-coordinated by O atoms from four 1,8-nap ligands and two coordinating water mol­ecules. In the crystal, there are O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the water mol­ecules and carboxyl­ate O atoms in the BaO8 polyhedra. Each BaO8 polyhedron is connected via corner-sharing water O atoms or edge-sharing ligand O atoms, forming a sheet parallel to the bc plane. These sheets stack along the a-axis direction and are connected via van der Waals forces only. The naphthalene groups protrude above and below the layers of the BaO8 polyhedra and there are voids of ca 208 Å3 bounded by these groups. No residual electron density was found in this region. The crystal studied was twinned by pseudo-merohedry, with a refined twin component ratio of 0.5261 (1):0.4739 (1).
doi:10.1107/S1600536813006259
PMCID: PMC3629495  PMID: 23634013
16.  Chloridobis[2-(1,3-thia­zol-4-yl-κN)-1H-benzimidazole-κN 3]cobalt(II) chloride dihydrate 
In the title compound, [CoCl(C10H7N3S)2]Cl·2H2O, the CoII atom is five-coordinated by four N atoms from two chelating 2-(1,3-thia­zol-4-yl)-1H-benzimidazole ligands and one Cl atom in a distorted trigonal–bipyramidal geometry. In the crystal, N—H⋯O and O—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and π–π inter­actions between the thia­zole, imidazole and benzene rings [centroid-to-centroid distances 3.546 (2), 3.683 (2) and 3.714 (2) Å] link the complex cations, chloride anions and uncoordinating water mol­ecules into a three-dimensional network.
doi:10.1107/S1600536812030371
PMCID: PMC3414112  PMID: 22904719
17.  Aquachloridobis[2-(1,3-thia­zol-4-yl-κN)-1H-benzimidazole-κN 3]nickel(II) nitrate 
In the title compound, [NiCl(C10H7N3S)2(H2O)]NO3, the NiII ion is coordinated by four N atoms from two chelating 2-(1,3-thia­zol-4-yl)-1H-benzimidazole ligands, one Cl atom and one water mol­ecule in a distorted octa­hedral geometry. In the crystal, O—H⋯O, N—H⋯O and N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds link the complex cations and nitrate anions into a three-dimensional network. π–π inter­actions between the thia­zole and imidazole rings and between the thia­zole and benzene rings are observed [centroid–centroid distances = 3.592 (3) and 3.735 (3) Å].
doi:10.1107/S1600536812029728
PMCID: PMC3414103  PMID: 22904710
18.  Poly[[hexa-μ-aqua-diaqua­bis­(μ4-dihydrogen benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra­carboxyl­ato)magnesiumdisodium] dihydrate] 
The asymmetric unit of the title compound, {[MgNa2(C10H4O8)2(H2O)8]·2H2O}n, contains one octa­hedrally coordin­ated MgII atom (site symmetry 2/m), one octahedrally coordinated NaI atom (site symmetry 2) and one half of the dihydrogen benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra­carboxyl­ate (btec) ligand, the second half of the ligand being generated by a twofold rotation axis. The basic framework of the title compound features infinite (–Na–Na–Mg–)n chains along [10-1] with the metal cations bridged by the coordinating water molecules. The chains are isolated from each other by μ4-bridging btec ligands, which form inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to uncoordinated water mol­ecules and the coordinated water mol­ecules of a neighbouring chain. In each btec ligand, there are also intramolecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds.
doi:10.1107/S1600536812024634
PMCID: PMC3393174  PMID: 22807742
19.  Microbial community analysis in biocathode microbial fuel cells packed with different materials 
AMB Express  2012;2:21.
Biocathode MFCs using microorganisms as catalysts have important advantages in lowering cost and improving sustainability. Electrode materials and microbial synergy determines biocathode MFCs performance. In this study, four materials, granular activated carbon (GAC), granular semicoke (GS), granular graphite (GG) and carbon felt cube (CFC) were used as packed cathodic materials. The microbial composition on each material and its correlation with the electricity generation performance of MFCs were investigated. Results showed that different biocathode materials had an important effect on the type of microbial species in biocathode MFCs. The microbes belonging to Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla in the four materials packed biocathode MFCs. Comamonas of Betaproteobacteria might play significant roles in electron transfer process of GAC, GS and CFC packed biocathode MFCs, while in GG packed MFC Acidovorax may be correlated with power generation. The biocathode materials also had influence on the microbial diversity and evenness, but the differences in them were not positively related to the power production.
doi:10.1186/2191-0855-2-21
PMCID: PMC3349616  PMID: 22458430
Biocathode microbial fuel cell; Cathodic materials; Electricity generation; Microbial community
20.  Lithium europium(III) molybdate(VI), Li3.5Eu1.5(MoO4)4  
The title compound, Li3.5Eu1.5(MoO4)4, was prepared by solid-state reactions. The fundamental building units of the structure are LiO4 polyhedra (site symmetry ), distorted LiO6 polyhedra and MoO4 tetra­hedra, which are further inter­connected via corner-sharing O atoms. One site is occupied by both Li and Eu atoms in a substituent disordered manner (0.25:0.75), and the Li/Eu atoms are coordinated by eight O atoms in a distorted square-antiprismatic manner.
doi:10.1107/S1600536812000268
PMCID: PMC3274837  PMID: 22346790
21.  Outbreak of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea in Suckling Piglets, China 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2012;18(1):161-163.
doi:10.3201/eid1801.111259
PMCID: PMC3381683  PMID: 22261231
porcine epidemic diarrhea; sow milk; transmission route; suckling piglets; China
22.  Al0.5Nb1.5(PO4)3  
Single crystals of the title compound, aluminium niobium triphosphate, Al0.5Nb1.5(PO4)3, have been synthesized by a high-temperature reaction in a platinium crucible. The AlIII and NbV atoms occupy the same site on the axis, with disorder in the ratio of 1:3. The fundamental building units of the title structure are isolated Al/NbO6 octa­hedra and PO4 tetra­hedra (. 2 symmetry), which are further inter­locked by corner-sharing O atoms, leading to a three-dimensional framework structure with infinite channels along the a axis.
doi:10.1107/S1600536811003886
PMCID: PMC3051931  PMID: 21522231
23.  Genetic analysis of Brugada syndrome and congenital long-QT syndrome type 3 in the Chinese 
Background:
Brugada syndrome and congenital long-QT syndrome (LQTS) type 3 (LQT3) are 2 inherited conditions of abnormal cardiac excitability characterized clinically by an increased risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. SCN5A gene that encodes the cardiac sodium channel α subunit is responsible for the 2 diseases, and more work is needed to improve correlations between SCN5A genotypes and associated clinical syndromes.
Methods and Results:
Four patients diagnosed as having Brugada syndrome, 9 patients suspected to have Brugada syndrome, and 3 LQTS patients suspected to be LQT3 without mutations in KCNQ1 and HERG participated in the study. DNA samples from these patients were analyzed using direct sequencing. One patient with Brugada syndrome had 2 novel mutations, V95I and A1649V. The former was identified in the N-terminus of SCN5A and the latter was in the DIVS4/S5 linker of SCN5A. One patient suspected to have Brugada syndrome had a mutation, delF1617, in the DIIIS3/S4 linker of SCN5A. A novel mutation in the C-terminus of SCN5A, delD1790, was found in a patient with LQT3. No other mutations of SCN5A were found in the remaining patients. These 4 mutations were not detected in 50 unrelated control subjects.
Conclusions:
Two novel and a reported SCN5A mutations were found in Chinese patients with Brugada syndrome, and a novel SCN5A mutation was found in a Chinese patient with LQT3.
doi:10.4103/0975-3583.64437
PMCID: PMC2945207  PMID: 20877689
Brugada syndrome; cardiac sodium channel; long-QT syndrome; SCN5A gene mutation
24.  MGSA/GRO-mediated melanocyte transformation involves induction of Ras expression 
Oncogene  2000;19(40):4647-4659.
The MGSA/GRO protein is endogenously expressed in almost 70% of the melanoma cell lines and tumors, but not in normal melanocytes. We have previously demonstrated that over-expression of human MGSA/GROα, β or γ in immortalized murine melanocytes (melan-a cells) enables these cells to form tumors in SCID and nude mice. To examine the possibility that the MGSA/GRO effect on melanocyte transformation requires expression of other genes, differential display was performed. One of the mRNA’s identified in the screen as overexpressed in MGSA/GRO transformed melan-a clones was the newly described M-Ras or R-Ras3 gene, a member of the Ras gene superfamily. Over-expression of MGSA/GRO upregulates M-Ras expression at both the mRNA and protein levels, and this induction requires an intact glutamine-leucine-arginine (ELR)-motif in the MGSA/GRO protein. Western blot examination of Ras expression revealed that K- and N-Ras proteins are also elevated in MGSA/GRO-expressing melan-a clones, leading to an overall increase in the amount of activated Ras. MGSA/GRO-expressing melan-a clones exhibited enhanced AP-1 activity. The effects of MGSA/GRO on AP-1 activation could be mimicked by over-expression of wild-type M-Ras or a constitutively activated M-Ras mutant in control melan-a cells as monitored by an AP-1-luciferase reporter, while expression of a dominant negative M-Ras blocked AP-1-luciferase activity in MGSA/GRO-transformed melan-a clones. In the in vitro transformation assay, over-expression of M-Ras mimicked the effects of MGSA/GRO by inducing cellular transformation in control melan-a cells, while over-expression of dominant negative M-Ras in MGSA/GROα-expressing melan-a-6 cells blocked transformation. These data suggest that MGSA/GRO-mediated transformation requires Ras activation in melanocytes.
doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1203820
PMCID: PMC2667445  PMID: 11030154
chemokine; MGSA/GRO; Ras; AP-1; melanocytes; transformation
25.  A cocrystal of pyridine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid and serine 
The title compound, pyridine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid–S-serine (1/1), C7H5NO4·C3H7NO3, has serine in its zwitterionic form. The crystal structure is stabilized by an extensive series of inter­molecular O—H⋯O, N—H⋯N and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.
doi:10.1107/S160053680706240X
PMCID: PMC2915001  PMID: 21200918

Results 1-25 (28)