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1.  A Comprehensive Analysis of Gene Expression Changes Provoked by Bacterial and Fungal Infection in C. elegans 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(5):e19055.
While Caenorhabditis elegans specifically responds to infection by the up-regulation of certain genes, distinct pathogens trigger the expression of a common set of genes. We applied new methods to conduct a comprehensive and comparative study of the transcriptional response of C. elegans to bacterial and fungal infection. Using tiling arrays and/or RNA-sequencing, we have characterized the genome-wide transcriptional changes that underlie the host's response to infection by three bacterial (Serratia marcescens, Enterococcus faecalis and otorhabdus luminescens) and two fungal pathogens (Drechmeria coniospora and Harposporium sp.). We developed a flexible tool, the WormBase Converter (available at http://wormbasemanager.sourceforge.net/), to allow cross-study comparisons. The new data sets provided more extensive lists of differentially regulated genes than previous studies. Annotation analysis confirmed that genes commonly up-regulated by bacterial infections are related to stress responses. We found substantial overlaps between the genes regulated upon intestinal infection by the bacterial pathogens and Harposporium, and between those regulated by Harposporium and D. coniospora, which infects the epidermis. Among the fungus-regulated genes, there was a significant bias towards genes that are evolving rapidly and potentially encode small proteins. The results obtained using new methods reveal that the response to infection in C. elegans is determined by the nature of the pathogen, the site of infection and the physiological imbalance provoked by infection. They form the basis for future functional dissection of innate immune signaling. Finally, we also propose alternative methods to identify differentially regulated genes that take into account the greater variability in lowly expressed genes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019055
PMCID: PMC3094335  PMID: 21602919
2.  SimCT: a generic tool to visualize ontology-based relationships for biological objects 
Bioinformatics  2009;25(23):3197-3198.
Summary: We present a web-based service, SimCT, which allows to graphically display the relationships between biological objects (e.g. genes or proteins) based on their annotations to a biomedical ontology. The result is presented as a tree of these objects, which can be viewed and explored through a specific java applet designed to highlight relevant features. Unlike the numerous tools that search for overrepresented terms, SimCT draws a simplified representation of biological terms present in the set of objects, and can be applied to any ontology for which annotation data is available. Being web-based, it does not require prior installation, and provides an intuitive, easy-to-use service.
Availability: http://tagc.univ-mrs.fr/SimCT
Contact: carl.herrmann@univmed.fr
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online
doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btp553
PMCID: PMC2778334  PMID: 19776214

Results 1-2 (2)