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1.  TAPBPR isoforms exhibit altered association with MHC class I 
Immunology  2014;142(2):289-299.
The tapasin-related protein TAPBPR is a novel component of the antigen processing and presentation pathway, which binds to MHC class I coupled with β2-microglobulin. We describe six alternatively spliced TAPBPR transcripts from the TAPBPL gene and investigate three of these at a protein level. TAPBPR transcripts lacking exon 5 result in loss of the membrane proximal IgC domain and loss of ability to bind to MHC class I. Alternative acceptor and donor splice sites in exon 4 of TAPBPR altered the reading frame in the IgV domain and produced a truncated TAPBPR product. An additional exon in the TAPBPL gene was identified that encodes extra residues in the cytoplasmic tail of TAPBPR. This longer TAPBPR protein interacted with MHC class I but was attenuated in its ability to down-regulate surface expression of MHC class I. The abundance of these alternative transcripts in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and dendritic cells suggests an important role of TAPBPR isoforms in vivo.
doi:10.1111/imm.12253
PMCID: PMC4008236  PMID: 24444341
antigen presentation/processing alternative splicing; tapasin-related; TAPBPR/TAPBPL
2.  TAC3 and TACR3 Mutations in Familial Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism Reveal a Key Role for Neurokinin B in the Central Control of Reproduction 
Nature genetics  2008;41(3):354-358.
The timely secretion of gonadal sex steroids is essential for the initiation of puberty, the post-pubertal maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics and the normal perinatal development of male external genitalia. Normal gonadal steroid production requires the actions of the pituitary-derived gonatrophins, LH and FSH. We report four human pedigrees with severe congenital gonadotrophin deficiency and pubertal failure in which all affected individuals are homozygous for loss-of-function mutations in TAC3 (encoding Neurokinin B) or its receptor TACR3 (encoding NK3R). Neurokinin B, a member of the substance P-related tachykinin family, is known to be highly expressed in hypothalamic neurons that also express kisspeptin1, a recently identified regulator of gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion2. These findings implicate Neurokinin B as a critical central regulator of human gonadal function and suggest novel approaches to the pharmacological control of human reproduction and sex hormone-related diseases.
doi:10.1038/ng.306
PMCID: PMC4312696  PMID: 19079066
3.  TAPBPR isoforms exhibit altered association with MHC class I 
Immunology  2014;142(2):289-299.
The tapasin-related protein TAPBPR is a novel component of the antigen processing and presentation pathway, which binds to MHC class I coupled with β2-microglobulin. We describe six alternatively spliced TAPBPR transcripts from the TAPBPL gene and investigate three of these at a protein level. TAPBPR transcripts lacking exon 5 result in loss of the membrane proximal IgC domain and loss of ability to bind to MHC class I. Alternative acceptor and donor splice sites in exon 4 of TAPBPR altered the reading frame in the IgV domain and produced a truncated TAPBPR product. An additional exon in the TAPBPL gene was identified that encodes extra residues in the cytoplasmic tail of TAPBPR. This longer TAPBPR protein interacted with MHC class I but was attenuated in its ability to down-regulate surface expression of MHC class I. The abundance of these alternative transcripts in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and dendritic cells suggests an important role of TAPBPR isoforms in vivo.
doi:10.1111/imm.12253
PMCID: PMC4008236  PMID: 24444341
antigen presentation/processing alternative splicing; tapasin-related; TAPBPR/TAPBPL
4.  Suspension trauma 
Emergency Medicine Journal : EMJ  2007;24(4):237-238.
Suspension trauma (also known as “harness‐induced pathology” or “orthostatic shock while suspended”) is the development of presyncopal symptoms and loss of consciousness if the human body is held motionless in a vertical position for a period of time. It has been described in experiments of personal fall protection, and has been implicated in causes of death in mountaineering accidents, but it seems neither to be widely known about nor to have been presented to the medical profession. This article highlights the potential existence of suspension trauma and suggests that more robust medical research using modern harnesses and healthy volunteers would be beneficial to assess whether this is purely a theoretical risk.
doi:10.1136/emj.2007.046391
PMCID: PMC2658225  PMID: 17384373
5.  Genetic Defects in Human Pericentrin Are Associated With Severe Insulin Resistance and Diabetes 
Diabetes  2011;60(3):925-935.
OBJECTIVE
Genetic defects in human pericentrin (PCNT), encoding the centrosomal protein pericentrin, cause a form of osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism that is sometimes reported to be associated with diabetes. We thus set out to determine the prevalence of diabetes and insulin resistance among patients with PCNT defects and examined the effects of pericentrin depletion on insulin action using 3T3-L1 adipocytes as a model system.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A cross-sectional metabolic assessment of 21 patients with PCNT mutations was undertaken. Pericentrin expression in human tissues was profiled using quantitative real-time PCR. The effect of pericentrin knockdown on insulin action and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was determined using Oil red O staining, gene-expression analysis, immunoblotting, and glucose uptake assays. Pericentrin expression and localization also was determined in skeletal muscle.
RESULTS
Of 21 patients with genetic defects in PCNT, 18 had insulin resistance, which was severe in the majority of subjects. Ten subjects had confirmed diabetes (mean age of onset 15 years [range 5–28]), and 13 had metabolic dyslipidemia. All patients without insulin resistance were younger than 4 years old. Knockdown of pericentrin in adipocytes had no effect on proximal insulin signaling but produced a twofold impairment in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, approximately commensurate with an associated defect in cell proliferation and adipogenesis. Pericentrin was highly expressed in human skeletal muscle, where it showed a perinuclear distribution.
CONCLUSIONS
Severe insulin resistance and premature diabetes are common features of PCNT deficiency but are not congenital. Partial failure of adipocyte differentiation may contribute to this, but pericentrin deficiency does not impair proximal insulin action in adipocytes.
doi:10.2337/db10-1334
PMCID: PMC3046854  PMID: 21270239
6.  Ultra-high resolution array painting facilitates breakpoint sequencing 
Journal of medical genetics  2006;44(1):51-58.
The application of comparative genomic hybridization to DNA microarrays (array-CGH) has greatly improved the speed and resolution at which chromosome rearrangements involving genomic imbalance can be studied. For diagnosis of patients whose disease is suspected to be due to a balanced reciprocal translocation, we have developed a modification of array-CGH, termed array painting, which utilizes flow sorting of the derivative chromosomes before hybridization to an array to map the rearrangement breakpoints (Fiegler et al. 2003). However, current mapping resolution by array painting is rarely adequate to definitively identify disrupted genes which may be responsible for the disease phenotype and further time consuming and often technically challenging studies are required to clone and sequence the breakpoints. In this study, we describe the use of ultra-high resolution arrays to provide such an increased improvement in the resolution of breakpoint mapping by array painting that translocation breakpoints can be directly amplified and sequenced. This method of ultra-high resolution array painting enables rapid and definitive identification of gene disruption in balanced reciprocal translocations and will greatly improve the diagnosis for this group of patients.
doi:10.1136/jmg.2006.044909
PMCID: PMC2597908  PMID: 16971479
7.  The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome 
Ross, Mark T. | Grafham, Darren V. | Coffey, Alison J. | Scherer, Steven | McLay, Kirsten | Muzny, Donna | Platzer, Matthias | Howell, Gareth R. | Burrows, Christine | Bird, Christine P. | Frankish, Adam | Lovell, Frances L. | Howe, Kevin L. | Ashurst, Jennifer L. | Fulton, Robert S. | Sudbrak, Ralf | Wen, Gaiping | Jones, Matthew C. | Hurles, Matthew E. | Andrews, T. Daniel | Scott, Carol E. | Searle, Stephen | Ramser, Juliane | Whittaker, Adam | Deadman, Rebecca | Carter, Nigel P. | Hunt, Sarah E. | Chen, Rui | Cree, Andrew | Gunaratne, Preethi | Havlak, Paul | Hodgson, Anne | Metzker, Michael L. | Richards, Stephen | Scott, Graham | Steffen, David | Sodergren, Erica | Wheeler, David A. | Worley, Kim C. | Ainscough, Rachael | Ambrose, Kerrie D. | Ansari-Lari, M. Ali | Aradhya, Swaroop | Ashwell, Robert I. S. | Babbage, Anne K. | Bagguley, Claire L. | Ballabio, Andrea | Banerjee, Ruby | Barker, Gary E. | Barlow, Karen F. | Barrett, Ian P. | Bates, Karen N. | Beare, David M. | Beasley, Helen | Beasley, Oliver | Beck, Alfred | Bethel, Graeme | Blechschmidt, Karin | Brady, Nicola | Bray-Allen, Sarah | Bridgeman, Anne M. | Brown, Andrew J. | Brown, Mary J. | Bonnin, David | Bruford, Elspeth A. | Buhay, Christian | Burch, Paula | Burford, Deborah | Burgess, Joanne | Burrill, Wayne | Burton, John | Bye, Jackie M. | Carder, Carol | Carrel, Laura | Chako, Joseph | Chapman, Joanne C. | Chavez, Dean | Chen, Ellson | Chen, Guan | Chen, Yuan | Chen, Zhijian | Chinault, Craig | Ciccodicola, Alfredo | Clark, Sue Y. | Clarke, Graham | Clee, Chris M. | Clegg, Sheila | Clerc-Blankenburg, Kerstin | Clifford, Karen | Cobley, Vicky | Cole, Charlotte G. | Conquer, Jen S. | Corby, Nicole | Connor, Richard E. | David, Robert | Davies, Joy | Davis, Clay | Davis, John | Delgado, Oliver | DeShazo, Denise | Dhami, Pawandeep | Ding, Yan | Dinh, Huyen | Dodsworth, Steve | Draper, Heather | Dugan-Rocha, Shannon | Dunham, Andrew | Dunn, Matthew | Durbin, K. James | Dutta, Ireena | Eades, Tamsin | Ellwood, Matthew | Emery-Cohen, Alexandra | Errington, Helen | Evans, Kathryn L. | Faulkner, Louisa | Francis, Fiona | Frankland, John | Fraser, Audrey E. | Galgoczy, Petra | Gilbert, James | Gill, Rachel | Glöckner, Gernot | Gregory, Simon G. | Gribble, Susan | Griffiths, Coline | Grocock, Russell | Gu, Yanghong | Gwilliam, Rhian | Hamilton, Cerissa | Hart, Elizabeth A. | Hawes, Alicia | Heath, Paul D. | Heitmann, Katja | Hennig, Steffen | Hernandez, Judith | Hinzmann, Bernd | Ho, Sarah | Hoffs, Michael | Howden, Phillip J. | Huckle, Elizabeth J. | Hume, Jennifer | Hunt, Paul J. | Hunt, Adrienne R. | Isherwood, Judith | Jacob, Leni | Johnson, David | Jones, Sally | de Jong, Pieter J. | Joseph, Shirin S. | Keenan, Stephen | Kelly, Susan | Kershaw, Joanne K. | Khan, Ziad | Kioschis, Petra | Klages, Sven | Knights, Andrew J. | Kosiura, Anna | Kovar-Smith, Christie | Laird, Gavin K. | Langford, Cordelia | Lawlor, Stephanie | Leversha, Margaret | Lewis, Lora | Liu, Wen | Lloyd, Christine | Lloyd, David M. | Loulseged, Hermela | Loveland, Jane E. | Lovell, Jamieson D. | Lozado, Ryan | Lu, Jing | Lyne, Rachael | Ma, Jie | Maheshwari, Manjula | Matthews, Lucy H. | McDowall, Jennifer | McLaren, Stuart | McMurray, Amanda | Meidl, Patrick | Meitinger, Thomas | Milne, Sarah | Miner, George | Mistry, Shailesh L. | Morgan, Margaret | Morris, Sidney | Müller, Ines | Mullikin, James C. | Nguyen, Ngoc | Nordsiek, Gabriele | Nyakatura, Gerald | O’Dell, Christopher N. | Okwuonu, Geoffery | Palmer, Sophie | Pandian, Richard | Parker, David | Parrish, Julia | Pasternak, Shiran | Patel, Dina | Pearce, Alex V. | Pearson, Danita M. | Pelan, Sarah E. | Perez, Lesette | Porter, Keith M. | Ramsey, Yvonne | Reichwald, Kathrin | Rhodes, Susan | Ridler, Kerry A. | Schlessinger, David | Schueler, Mary G. | Sehra, Harminder K. | Shaw-Smith, Charles | Shen, Hua | Sheridan, Elizabeth M. | Shownkeen, Ratna | Skuce, Carl D. | Smith, Michelle L. | Sotheran, Elizabeth C. | Steingruber, Helen E. | Steward, Charles A. | Storey, Roy | Swann, R. Mark | Swarbreck, David | Tabor, Paul E. | Taudien, Stefan | Taylor, Tineace | Teague, Brian | Thomas, Karen | Thorpe, Andrea | Timms, Kirsten | Tracey, Alan | Trevanion, Steve | Tromans, Anthony C. | d’Urso, Michele | Verduzco, Daniel | Villasana, Donna | Waldron, Lenee | Wall, Melanie | Wang, Qiaoyan | Warren, James | Warry, Georgina L. | Wei, Xuehong | West, Anthony | Whitehead, Siobhan L. | Whiteley, Mathew N. | Wilkinson, Jane E. | Willey, David L. | Williams, Gabrielle | Williams, Leanne | Williamson, Angela | Williamson, Helen | Wilming, Laurens | Woodmansey, Rebecca L. | Wray, Paul W. | Yen, Jennifer | Zhang, Jingkun | Zhou, Jianling | Zoghbi, Huda | Zorilla, Sara | Buck, David | Reinhardt, Richard | Poustka, Annemarie | Rosenthal, André | Lehrach, Hans | Meindl, Alfons | Minx, Patrick J. | Hillier, LaDeana W. | Willard, Huntington F. | Wilson, Richard K. | Waterston, Robert H. | Rice, Catherine M. | Vaudin, Mark | Coulson, Alan | Nelson, David L. | Weinstock, George | Sulston, John E. | Durbin, Richard | Hubbard, Tim | Gibbs, Richard A. | Beck, Stephan | Rogers, Jane | Bentley, David R.
Nature  2005;434(7031):325-337.
The human X chromosome has a unique biology that was shaped by its evolution as the sex chromosome shared by males and females. We have determined 99.3% of the euchromatic sequence of the X chromosome. Our analysis illustrates the autosomal origin of the mammalian sex chromosomes, the stepwise process that led to the progressive loss of recombination between X and Y, and the extent of subsequent degradation of the Y chromosome. LINE1 repeat elements cover one-third of the X chromosome, with a distribution that is consistent with their proposed role as way stations in the process of X-chromosome inactivation. We found 1,098 genes in the sequence, of which 99 encode proteins expressed in testis and in various tumour types. A disproportionately high number of mendelian diseases are documented for the X chromosome. Of this number, 168 have been explained by mutations in 113 X-linked genes, which in many cases were characterized with the aid of the DNA sequence.
doi:10.1038/nature03440
PMCID: PMC2665286  PMID: 15772651

Results 1-7 (7)