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1.  Cloud-based uniform ChIP-Seq processing tools for modENCODE and ENCODE 
BMC Genomics  2013;14:494.
Background
Funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the aim of the Model Organism ENCyclopedia of DNA Elements (modENCODE) project is to provide the biological research community with a comprehensive encyclopedia of functional genomic elements for both model organisms C. elegans (worm) and D. melanogaster (fly). With a total size of just under 10 terabytes of data collected and released to the public, one of the challenges faced by researchers is to extract biologically meaningful knowledge from this large data set. While the basic quality control, pre-processing, and analysis of the data has already been performed by members of the modENCODE consortium, many researchers will wish to reinterpret the data set using modifications and enhancements of the original protocols, or combine modENCODE data with other data sets. Unfortunately this can be a time consuming and logistically challenging proposition.
Results
In recognition of this challenge, the modENCODE DCC has released uniform computing resources for analyzing modENCODE data on Galaxy (https://github.com/modENCODE-DCC/Galaxy), on the public Amazon Cloud (http://aws.amazon.com), and on the private Bionimbus Cloud for genomic research (http://www.bionimbus.org). In particular, we have released Galaxy workflows for interpreting ChIP-seq data which use the same quality control (QC) and peak calling standards adopted by the modENCODE and ENCODE communities. For convenience of use, we have created Amazon and Bionimbus Cloud machine images containing Galaxy along with all the modENCODE data, software and other dependencies.
Conclusions
Using these resources provides a framework for running consistent and reproducible analyses on modENCODE data, ultimately allowing researchers to use more of their time using modENCODE data, and less time moving it around.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-14-494
PMCID: PMC3734164  PMID: 23875683
2.  modMine: flexible access to modENCODE data 
Nucleic Acids Research  2011;40(Database issue):D1082-D1088.
In an effort to comprehensively characterize the functional elements within the genomes of the important model organisms Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans, the NHGRI model organism Encyclopaedia of DNA Elements (modENCODE) consortium has generated an enormous library of genomic data along with detailed, structured information on all aspects of the experiments. The modMine database (http://intermine.modencode.org) described here has been built by the modENCODE Data Coordination Center to allow the broader research community to (i) search for and download data sets of interest among the thousands generated by modENCODE; (ii) access the data in an integrated form together with non-modENCODE data sets; and (iii) facilitate fine-grained analysis of the above data. The sophisticated search features are possible because of the collection of extensive experimental metadata by the consortium. Interfaces are provided to allow both biologists and bioinformaticians to exploit these rich modENCODE data sets now available via modMine.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkr921
PMCID: PMC3245176  PMID: 22080565
3.  Identification of Functional Elements and Regulatory Circuits by Drosophila modENCODE 
Roy, Sushmita | Ernst, Jason | Kharchenko, Peter V. | Kheradpour, Pouya | Negre, Nicolas | Eaton, Matthew L. | Landolin, Jane M. | Bristow, Christopher A. | Ma, Lijia | Lin, Michael F. | Washietl, Stefan | Arshinoff, Bradley I. | Ay, Ferhat | Meyer, Patrick E. | Robine, Nicolas | Washington, Nicole L. | Di Stefano, Luisa | Berezikov, Eugene | Brown, Christopher D. | Candeias, Rogerio | Carlson, Joseph W. | Carr, Adrian | Jungreis, Irwin | Marbach, Daniel | Sealfon, Rachel | Tolstorukov, Michael Y. | Will, Sebastian | Alekseyenko, Artyom A. | Artieri, Carlo | Booth, Benjamin W. | Brooks, Angela N. | Dai, Qi | Davis, Carrie A. | Duff, Michael O. | Feng, Xin | Gorchakov, Andrey A. | Gu, Tingting | Henikoff, Jorja G. | Kapranov, Philipp | Li, Renhua | MacAlpine, Heather K. | Malone, John | Minoda, Aki | Nordman, Jared | Okamura, Katsutomo | Perry, Marc | Powell, Sara K. | Riddle, Nicole C. | Sakai, Akiko | Samsonova, Anastasia | Sandler, Jeremy E. | Schwartz, Yuri B. | Sher, Noa | Spokony, Rebecca | Sturgill, David | van Baren, Marijke | Wan, Kenneth H. | Yang, Li | Yu, Charles | Feingold, Elise | Good, Peter | Guyer, Mark | Lowdon, Rebecca | Ahmad, Kami | Andrews, Justen | Berger, Bonnie | Brenner, Steven E. | Brent, Michael R. | Cherbas, Lucy | Elgin, Sarah C. R. | Gingeras, Thomas R. | Grossman, Robert | Hoskins, Roger A. | Kaufman, Thomas C. | Kent, William | Kuroda, Mitzi I. | Orr-Weaver, Terry | Perrimon, Norbert | Pirrotta, Vincenzo | Posakony, James W. | Ren, Bing | Russell, Steven | Cherbas, Peter | Graveley, Brenton R. | Lewis, Suzanna | Micklem, Gos | Oliver, Brian | Park, Peter J. | Celniker, Susan E. | Henikoff, Steven | Karpen, Gary H. | Lai, Eric C. | MacAlpine, David M. | Stein, Lincoln D. | White, Kevin P. | Kellis, Manolis
Science (New York, N.Y.)  2010;330(6012):1787-1797.
To gain insight into how genomic information is translated into cellular and developmental programs, the Drosophila model organism Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (modENCODE) project is comprehensively mapping transcripts, histone modifications, chromosomal proteins, transcription factors, replication proteins and intermediates, and nucleosome properties across a developmental time course and in multiple cell lines. We have generated more than 700 data sets and discovered protein-coding, noncoding, RNA regulatory, replication, and chromatin elements, more than tripling the annotated portion of the Drosophila genome. Correlated activity patterns of these elements reveal a functional regulatory network, which predicts putative new functions for genes, reveals stage- and tissue-specific regulators, and enables gene-expression prediction. Our results provide a foundation for directed experimental and computational studies in Drosophila and related species and also a model for systematic data integration toward comprehensive genomic and functional annotation.
doi:10.1126/science.1198374
PMCID: PMC3192495  PMID: 21177974
4.  The modENCODE Data Coordination Center: lessons in harvesting comprehensive experimental details 
The model organism Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (modENCODE) project is a National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) initiative designed to characterize the genomes of Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. A Data Coordination Center (DCC) was created to collect, store and catalog modENCODE data. An effective DCC must gather, organize and provide all primary, interpreted and analyzed data, and ensure the community is supplied with the knowledge of the experimental conditions, protocols and verification checks used to generate each primary data set. We present here the design principles of the modENCODE DCC, and describe the ramifications of collecting thorough and deep metadata for describing experiments, including the use of a wiki for capturing protocol and reagent information, and the BIR-TAB specification for linking biological samples to experimental results. modENCODE data can be found at http://www.modencode.org.
Database URL: http://www.modencode.org.
doi:10.1093/database/bar023
PMCID: PMC3170170  PMID: 21856757
5.  Integrative Analysis of the Caenorhabditis elegans Genome by the modENCODE Project 
Gerstein, Mark B. | Lu, Zhi John | Van Nostrand, Eric L. | Cheng, Chao | Arshinoff, Bradley I. | Liu, Tao | Yip, Kevin Y. | Robilotto, Rebecca | Rechtsteiner, Andreas | Ikegami, Kohta | Alves, Pedro | Chateigner, Aurelien | Perry, Marc | Morris, Mitzi | Auerbach, Raymond K. | Feng, Xin | Leng, Jing | Vielle, Anne | Niu, Wei | Rhrissorrakrai, Kahn | Agarwal, Ashish | Alexander, Roger P. | Barber, Galt | Brdlik, Cathleen M. | Brennan, Jennifer | Brouillet, Jeremy Jean | Carr, Adrian | Cheung, Ming-Sin | Clawson, Hiram | Contrino, Sergio | Dannenberg, Luke O. | Dernburg, Abby F. | Desai, Arshad | Dick, Lindsay | Dosé, Andréa C. | Du, Jiang | Egelhofer, Thea | Ercan, Sevinc | Euskirchen, Ghia | Ewing, Brent | Feingold, Elise A. | Gassmann, Reto | Good, Peter J. | Green, Phil | Gullier, Francois | Gutwein, Michelle | Guyer, Mark S. | Habegger, Lukas | Han, Ting | Henikoff, Jorja G. | Henz, Stefan R. | Hinrichs, Angie | Holster, Heather | Hyman, Tony | Iniguez, A. Leo | Janette, Judith | Jensen, Morten | Kato, Masaomi | Kent, W. James | Kephart, Ellen | Khivansara, Vishal | Khurana, Ekta | Kim, John K. | Kolasinska-Zwierz, Paulina | Lai, Eric C. | Latorre, Isabel | Leahey, Amber | Lewis, Suzanna | Lloyd, Paul | Lochovsky, Lucas | Lowdon, Rebecca F. | Lubling, Yaniv | Lyne, Rachel | MacCoss, Michael | Mackowiak, Sebastian D. | Mangone, Marco | McKay, Sheldon | Mecenas, Desirea | Merrihew, Gennifer | Miller, David M. | Muroyama, Andrew | Murray, John I. | Ooi, Siew-Loon | Pham, Hoang | Phippen, Taryn | Preston, Elicia A. | Rajewsky, Nikolaus | Rätsch, Gunnar | Rosenbaum, Heidi | Rozowsky, Joel | Rutherford, Kim | Ruzanov, Peter | Sarov, Mihail | Sasidharan, Rajkumar | Sboner, Andrea | Scheid, Paul | Segal, Eran | Shin, Hyunjin | Shou, Chong | Slack, Frank J. | Slightam, Cindie | Smith, Richard | Spencer, William C. | Stinson, E. O. | Taing, Scott | Takasaki, Teruaki | Vafeados, Dionne | Voronina, Ksenia | Wang, Guilin | Washington, Nicole L. | Whittle, Christina M. | Wu, Beijing | Yan, Koon-Kiu | Zeller, Georg | Zha, Zheng | Zhong, Mei | Zhou, Xingliang | Ahringer, Julie | Strome, Susan | Gunsalus, Kristin C. | Micklem, Gos | Liu, X. Shirley | Reinke, Valerie | Kim, Stuart K. | Hillier, LaDeana W. | Henikoff, Steven | Piano, Fabio | Snyder, Michael | Stein, Lincoln | Lieb, Jason D. | Waterston, Robert H.
Science (New York, N.Y.)  2010;330(6012):1775-1787.
We systematically generated large-scale data sets to improve genome annotation for the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a key model organism. These data sets include transcriptome profiling across a developmental time course, genome-wide identification of transcription factor–binding sites, and maps of chromatin organization. From this, we created more complete and accurate gene models, including alternative splice forms and candidate noncoding RNAs. We constructed hierarchical networks of transcription factor–binding and microRNA interactions and discovered chromosomal locations bound by an unusually large number of transcription factors. Different patterns of chromatin composition and histone modification were revealed between chromosome arms and centers, with similarly prominent differences between autosomes and the X chromosome. Integrating data types, we built statistical models relating chromatin, transcription factor binding, and gene expression. Overall, our analyses ascribed putative functions to most of the conserved genome.
doi:10.1126/science.1196914
PMCID: PMC3142569  PMID: 21177976
6.  An assessment of histone-modification antibody quality 
We report testing of the specificity and utility of over 200 antibodies raised against 57 different histone modifications, in Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans and human cells. While most antibodies performed well, over 25% failed specificity tests by dot blot or western blot. Among specific antibodies, over 20% failed in chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments. We advise rigorous testing of histone-modification antibodies before use and provide a website for posting new test results.
doi:10.1038/nsmb.1972
PMCID: PMC3017233  PMID: 21131980
7.  Asymmetrically distributed oligonucleotide repeats in the Caenorhabditis elegans genome sequence that map to regions important for meiotic chromosome segregation 
Nucleic Acids Research  2001;29(14):2920-2926.
The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans has a haploid karyotype containing six linear chromosomes. The termini of worm chromosomes have been proposed to play an important role in meiotic prophase, either when homologs are participating in a genome-wide search for their proper partners or in the initiation of synapsis. For each chromosome one end appears to stimulate crossing-over with the correct homolog; the other end lacks this property. We have used a bioinformatics approach to identify six repetitive sequence elements in the sequenced C.elegans genome whose distribution closely parallels these putative meiotic pairing centers (MPC) or homolog recognition regions (HRR). We propose that these six DNA sequence elements, which are largely chromosome specific, may correspond to the genetically defined HRR/MPC elements.
PMCID: PMC55808  PMID: 11452017

Results 1-7 (7)