We studied the status of chromosomes 1 and 19 in 363 astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors. Whereas the predominant pattern of copy number abnormality was a concurrent loss of the entire 1p and 19q regions (total 1p/19q loss) among oligodendroglial tumors and partial deletions of 1p and/or 19q in astrocytic tumors, a subset of apparently astrocytic tumors also had total 1p/19q loss. The presence of total 1p/19q loss was associated with longer survival of patients with all types of adult gliomas independent of age and diagnosis (P = .041). The most commonly deleted region on 19q in astrocytic tumors spans 885 kb in 19q13.33–q13.41, which is telomeric to the previously proposed region. Novel regions of homozygous deletion, including a part of DPYD (1p21.3) or the KLK cluster (19q13.33), were observed in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas. Amplifications encompassing AKT2 (19q13.2) or CCNE1 (19q12) were identified in some glioblastomas. Deletion mapping of the centromeric regions of 1p and 19q in the tumors that had total 1p/19q loss, indicating that the breakpoints lie centromeric to NOTCH2 within the pericentromeric regions of 1p and 19q. Thus, we show that the copy number abnormalities of 1p and 19q in human gliomas are complex and have distinct patterns that are prognostically predictive independent of age and pathological diagnosis. An accurate identification of total 1p/19q loss and discriminating this from other 1p/19q changes is, however, critical when the 1p/19q copy number status is used to stratify patients in clinical trials.
array-CGH; astrocytoma; centromere; deletion; microarray; oligodendroglioma; translocation
We screened exon 4 of the gene isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (NADP+), soluble (IDH1) for mutations in 596 primary intracranial tumors of all major types. Codon 132 mutation was seen in 54% of astrocytomas and 65% of oligodendroglial tumors but in only 6% of glioblastomas (3% of primary and 50% of secondary glioblastomas). There were no mutations in any other type of tumor studied. While mutations in the tumor protein p53 gene (TP53) and total 1p/19q deletions were mutually exclusive, IDH1 mutations were strongly correlated with these genetic abnormalities. All four types of mutant IDH1 proteins showed decreased enzymatic activity. The data indicate that IDH1 mutation combined with either TP53 mutation or total 1p/19q loss is a frequent and early change in the majority of oligodendroglial tumors, diffuse astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, and secondary glioblastomas but not in primary glioblastomas.
astrocytoma; oligodendroglioma; 1p/19q loss; oxidative stress; p53
We screened exon 4 of the gene isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (NADP+), soluble (IDH1) for mutations in 596 primary intracranial tumors of all major types. Codon 132 mutation was seen in 54% of astrocytomas and 65% of oligodendroglial tumors but in only 6% of glioblastomas (3% of primary and 50% of secondary glioblastomas). There were no mutations in any other type of tumor studied. While mutations in the tumor protein p53 gene (TP53) and total 1p/19q deletions were mutually exclusive, IDH1 mutations were strongly correlated with these genetic abnormalities. All four types of mutant IDH1 proteins showed decreased enzymatic activity. The data indicate that IDH1 mutation combined with either TP53 mutation or total 1p/19q loss is a frequent and early change in the majority of oligodendroglial tumors, diffuse astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas and secondary glioblastomas but not in primary glioblastomas.
astrocytoma; oligodendroglioma; p53; 1p/19q loss; oxidative stress
Medulloblastomas and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours are aggressive childhood tumours. We report our findings using array comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) on a whole-genome BAC/PAC/cosmid array with a median clone separation of 0.97Mb to study 34 medulloblastomas and 7 supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours. Array CGH allowed identification and mapping of numerous novel small regions of copy number change to genomic sequence, in addition to the large regions already known from previous studies. Novel amplifications were identified, some encompassing oncogenes, MYCL1, PDGFRA, KIT and MYB, not previously reported to show amplification in these tumours. In addition, one supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumour had lost both copies of the tumour suppressor genes CDKN2A & CDKN2B. Ten medulloblastomas had findings suggestive of isochromosome 17q. In contrast to previous reports using conventional CGH, array CGH identified three distinct breakpoints in these cases: Ch 17: 17940393-19251679 (17p11.2, n=6), Ch 17: 20111990-23308272 (17p11.2-17q11.2, n=4) and Ch 17: 38425359-39091575 (17q21.31, n=1). Significant differences were found in the patterns of copy number change between medulloblastomas and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours, providing further evidence that these tumours are genetically distinct despite their morphological and behavioural similarities.
Medulloblastoma; supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumour; array-CGH; genomic copy number
Brain tumors are the most common solid tumors of childhood, accounting for over 20% of cancers in children under 15 years of age. Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs), World Health Organization grade I, are one of the most frequently occurring childhood brain tumors, yet little is known about genetic changes characterizing this entity. We have used microarray comparative genomic hybridization at 0.97 Mb resolution to study a series of PAs (n = 44). No copy number abnormality was seen in 64% of cases at this resolution. However, whole chromosomal gain (median 5 chromosomes affected) occurred in 32% of tumors. The most frequently affected chromosomes were 5 and 7 (11 of 44 cases each) followed by 6, 11, 15, and 20 (greater than 10% of cases each). Findings were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and microsatellite analysis in a subset of tumors. Chromosomal gain was significantly more frequent in PAs from patients over 15 years old (p = 0.03, Fisher exact test). The number of chromosomes involved was also significantly greater in the older group (p = 0.02, Mann-Whitney U test). One case (2%) showed a region of gain on chromosome 3 and one (2%) a deletion on 6q as their sole abnormalities. This is the first genomewide study to show this nonrandom pattern of genetic alteration in pilocytic astrocytomas.
aCGH; Aneuploidy; Pilocytic astrocytoma
Deletions of chromosome 6 are a common abnormality in diverse human malignancies including astrocytic tumours, suggesting the presence of tumour suppressor genes (TSG). In order to help identify candidate TSGs, we have constructed a chromosome 6 tile path microarray. The array contains 1780 clones (778 PACs and 1002 BACs) that cover 98.3% of the published chromosome 6 sequences. A total of 104 adult astrocytic tumours (10 diffuse astrocytomas, 30 anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), 64 glioblastomas (GB)) were analysed using this array. Single copy number change was successfully detected and the result was in general concordant with a microsatellite analysis. The pattern of copy number change was complex with multiple interstitial deletions/gains. However, a predominance of telomeric 6q deletions was seen. Two small common and overlapping regions of deletion at 6q26 were identified. One was 1002 kb in size and contained PACRG and QKI, while the second was 199 kb and harbours a single gene, ARID1B. The data show that the chromosome 6 tile path array is useful in mapping copy number changes with high resolution and accuracy. We confirmed the high frequency of chromosome 6 deletions in AA and GB, and identified two novel commonly deleted regions that may harbour TSGs.
Brain tumour; Molecular cytogenetics; Array-CGH; Glioblastoma; Astrocytoma
Brain tumours are the commonest solid tumours of childhood, and pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are the most common central nervous system tumour in 5-19 year-olds. Little is known about the genetic alterations underlying their development. Here we describe a tandem duplication of ∼2Mb at 7q34 occurring in 66% of pilocytic astrocytomas. This rearrangement, which was not observed in a series of 244 higher-grade astrocytomas, results in an in-frame fusion gene incorporating the kinase domain of the BRAF oncogene. We further show that the resulting fusion protein has constitutive BRAF kinase activity, and is able to transform NIH3T3 cells. This is the first report of BRAF activation through rearrangement as a frequent feature in a sporadic tumor. The frequency and specificity of this change underline its potential both as a therapeutic target and a diagnostic tool.
Pilocytic astrocytoma; BRAF; fusion; tandem duplication
The human X chromosome has a unique biology that was shaped by its evolution as the sex chromosome shared by males and females. We have determined 99.3% of the euchromatic sequence of the X chromosome. Our analysis illustrates the autosomal origin of the mammalian sex chromosomes, the stepwise process that led to the progressive loss of recombination between X and Y, and the extent of subsequent degradation of the Y chromosome. LINE1 repeat elements cover one-third of the X chromosome, with a distribution that is consistent with their proposed role as way stations in the process of X-chromosome inactivation. We found 1,098 genes in the sequence, of which 99 encode proteins expressed in testis and in various tumour types. A disproportionately high number of mendelian diseases are documented for the X chromosome. Of this number, 168 have been explained by mutations in 113 X-linked genes, which in many cases were characterized with the aid of the DNA sequence.
Subependymomas (SE) are slow-growing brain tumors that tend to occur within the ventricles of middle-aged and elderly adults. The World Health Organization classifies these tumors within the ependymoma group. Previous limited analysis of this tumor type had not revealed significant underlying cytogenetic abnormalities.
We have used microarray comparative genomic hybridization to study a series of SE (n = 12). A whole-genome array at 0.97-Mb resolution showed copy number abnormalities in five of 12 cases (42%). Two cases (17%) showed regions of loss on chromosome 6. More detailed analysis of all cases using a chromosome 6 tile-path array confirmed the presence of overlapping regions of loss in only these two cases. One of these cases also showed trisomy chromosome 7. Monosomy of chromosome 8 was seen in a further two cases (17%), and a partial loss on chromosome 14 was observed in one additional case.
This is the first array-based, genome-wide study of SE. The observation that five of 12 cases examined (42%) at 0.97-Mb resolution showed chromosomal copy number abnormalities is a novel finding in this tumor type.
aCGH; array comparative genomic hybridization; ependymoma; microarray; subependymoma; whole genome