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1.  Impact of male partner’s awareness and support for contraceptives on female intent to use contraceptives in southeast Nigeria 
BMC Public Health  2015;15:879.
Despite the growing body of evidence on use of modern contraceptives among women in sub-Saharan African countries, little is known about the broader context in which female decision-making concerning contraceptive use occurs, particularly the role of their male partners’ awareness and support of modern contraceptives.
We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 2468 pregnant women and their male partners enrolled in the Healthy Beginning Initiative (HBI), an intervention to increase HIV testing among pregnant women in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. The aims of this study were to determine: 1) male partners’ awareness of, and support for, female contraceptive methods, and 2) influence of male partners’ contraceptive awareness and support on pregnant women’s expressed desire to use contraception. We used logistic regression models to examine the association between male partners’ awareness and support of modern contraceptives on their spouses’ desire to use contraceptives.
Men’s awareness of, and support for, use of modern contraceptives were significantly associated with their female partners’ desire to use contraception. A majority of the men who were aware of modern contraceptives (66.5 %) and those who supported their spouses’ use of contraception (72.5 %) had partners who expressed a desire to use contraception. Men who were aware of female contraception were 3 times more likely to have spouses who desired to use contraception (AOR = 3.17, 95 % C.I: 2.70–3.75). In addition, men who showed support for their spouses’ use of contraception were over 5 times more likely to have spouses who indicated a desire to use contraception (AOR = 5.76, 95 % C.I: 4.82–6.88). Living in a household of 5 or more people (AOR = 1.45, 95 % C.I: 1.23–1.72) and residing in an urban area (AOR = 0.81, 95 % C.I: 0.67–0.97) were also significantly associated with women’s expressed desire to use modern contraception.
Men’s awareness of, and support for, use of modern contraceptives were markedly associated with their spouses’ desire to use contraception. This underscores the need for men’s involvement in programs that seek to address women’s uptake of contraception in low and middle income countries.
PMCID: PMC4566290  PMID: 26358642
2.  Francis Xavier Dercum: a man for all seasons 
Francis Xavier Dercum (1856–1931) is known primarily for his prominence in the field of neurology and for his identification of “Adiposis Dolorosa”, known as Dercum’s disease. His brilliance, however, extends well beyond neurology. Born and raised in Philadelphia to parents of American and European descent, Dercum’s natural curiosity oriented his interests toward medicine and philosophy. His scholarship flourished, and much recognition came his way. He died in Benjamin Franklin’s Chair, closing what would be his last session as President of the American Philosophical Society. From anatomy, histology, pathology, and neurology to teaching, writing, and philosophy, Dercum’s life was that of a man for all seasons.
PMCID: PMC4184553  PMID: 25356401
3.  Chemotherapy Outcomes for the Treatment of Unresectable Intrahepatic and Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma: A Retrospective Analysis 
Recent clinical trials for “biliary cancers” include a heterogenous group of patients with cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder, and ampullary cancers. Limited data exist regarding the relative effectiveness of known chemotherapeutic regimens specifically in intrahepatic or hilar cholangiocarcinoma.
Records of M D Anderson Cancer Center patients with unresectable intrahepatic and hilar cholangiocarcinoma who received first-line chemotherapy from January 1, 2005, to October 31, 2009, were retrospectively reviewed. The primary objective of this research was to determine overall tumor control rates with chemotherapeutic regimens used for first-line treatment of unresectable intrahepatic and hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Secondary objectives included duration of response, overall survival, and prognostic factors.
Eighty-five patients met inclusion criteria and were eligible for analysis. The most commonly used regimen was gemcitabine/cisplatin (62%), followed by oxaliplatin and capecitabine (16%). There was no significant difference between tumor control rates with gemcitabine/cisplatin (72% PR + SD) and other regimens (69% PR + SD). There was no significant difference between overall survival with the use of gemcitabine/cisplatin (15.2 months) or alternative regimens (13.9 months). A decrease in overall survival was seen with elevated baseline CA 19–9 (p < .0001), an initial diagnosis of unknown primary tumor (p = .0001), and prior treatment with chemoradiation (p = .0018).
In this retrospective review, both gemcitabine/cisplatin and alternative doublets (including capecitabine/oxaliplatin, gemcitabine/capecitabine, and gemcitabine/oxaliplatin) were effective regimens in maintaining disease control in intrahepatic and hilar cholangiocarcinoma.
PMCID: PMC3269144  PMID: 22295126
4.  Conversion to Resectability Using Hepatic Artery Infusion Plus Systemic Chemotherapy for the Treatment of Unresectable Liver Metastases From Colorectal Carcinoma 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2009;27(21):3465-3471.
To determine the conversion to resectability in patients with unresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer treated with hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) plus systemic oxaliplatin and irinotecan (CPT-11).
Patients and Methods
Forty-nine patients with unresectable liver metastases (53% previously treated with chemotherapy) were enrolled onto a phase I protocol with HAI floxuridine and dexamethasone plus systemic chemotherapy with oxaliplatin and irinotecan.
Ninety-two percent of the 49 patients had complete (8%) or partial (84%) response, and 23 (47%) of the 49 patients were able to undergo resection in a group of patients with extensive disease (73% with > five liver lesions, 98% with bilobar disease, 86% with ≥ six segments involved). For chemotherapy-naïve and previously treated patients, the median survival from the start of HAI therapy was 50.8 and 35 months, respectively. The only baseline variable significantly associated with a higher resection rate was female sex. Variables reflecting extensive anatomic disease, such as number of lesions or number of vessels involved, were not significantly associated with the probability of resection.
The combination of regional HAI floxuridine/dexamethasone and systemic oxaliplatin and irinotecan is an effective regimen for the treatment of patients with unresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer, demonstrating a 47% conversion to resection (57% in chemotherapy-naïve patients). Future randomized trials should compare HAI plus systemic chemotherapy with systemic therapy alone to assess the additional value of HAI therapy in converting patients with hepatic metastases to resectability.
PMCID: PMC3646304  PMID: 19470932
5.  The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome 
Ross, Mark T. | Grafham, Darren V. | Coffey, Alison J. | Scherer, Steven | McLay, Kirsten | Muzny, Donna | Platzer, Matthias | Howell, Gareth R. | Burrows, Christine | Bird, Christine P. | Frankish, Adam | Lovell, Frances L. | Howe, Kevin L. | Ashurst, Jennifer L. | Fulton, Robert S. | Sudbrak, Ralf | Wen, Gaiping | Jones, Matthew C. | Hurles, Matthew E. | Andrews, T. Daniel | Scott, Carol E. | Searle, Stephen | Ramser, Juliane | Whittaker, Adam | Deadman, Rebecca | Carter, Nigel P. | Hunt, Sarah E. | Chen, Rui | Cree, Andrew | Gunaratne, Preethi | Havlak, Paul | Hodgson, Anne | Metzker, Michael L. | Richards, Stephen | Scott, Graham | Steffen, David | Sodergren, Erica | Wheeler, David A. | Worley, Kim C. | Ainscough, Rachael | Ambrose, Kerrie D. | Ansari-Lari, M. Ali | Aradhya, Swaroop | Ashwell, Robert I. S. | Babbage, Anne K. | Bagguley, Claire L. | Ballabio, Andrea | Banerjee, Ruby | Barker, Gary E. | Barlow, Karen F. | Barrett, Ian P. | Bates, Karen N. | Beare, David M. | Beasley, Helen | Beasley, Oliver | Beck, Alfred | Bethel, Graeme | Blechschmidt, Karin | Brady, Nicola | Bray-Allen, Sarah | Bridgeman, Anne M. | Brown, Andrew J. | Brown, Mary J. | Bonnin, David | Bruford, Elspeth A. | Buhay, Christian | Burch, Paula | Burford, Deborah | Burgess, Joanne | Burrill, Wayne | Burton, John | Bye, Jackie M. | Carder, Carol | Carrel, Laura | Chako, Joseph | Chapman, Joanne C. | Chavez, Dean | Chen, Ellson | Chen, Guan | Chen, Yuan | Chen, Zhijian | Chinault, Craig | Ciccodicola, Alfredo | Clark, Sue Y. | Clarke, Graham | Clee, Chris M. | Clegg, Sheila | Clerc-Blankenburg, Kerstin | Clifford, Karen | Cobley, Vicky | Cole, Charlotte G. | Conquer, Jen S. | Corby, Nicole | Connor, Richard E. | David, Robert | Davies, Joy | Davis, Clay | Davis, John | Delgado, Oliver | DeShazo, Denise | Dhami, Pawandeep | Ding, Yan | Dinh, Huyen | Dodsworth, Steve | Draper, Heather | Dugan-Rocha, Shannon | Dunham, Andrew | Dunn, Matthew | Durbin, K. James | Dutta, Ireena | Eades, Tamsin | Ellwood, Matthew | Emery-Cohen, Alexandra | Errington, Helen | Evans, Kathryn L. | Faulkner, Louisa | Francis, Fiona | Frankland, John | Fraser, Audrey E. | Galgoczy, Petra | Gilbert, James | Gill, Rachel | Glöckner, Gernot | Gregory, Simon G. | Gribble, Susan | Griffiths, Coline | Grocock, Russell | Gu, Yanghong | Gwilliam, Rhian | Hamilton, Cerissa | Hart, Elizabeth A. | Hawes, Alicia | Heath, Paul D. | Heitmann, Katja | Hennig, Steffen | Hernandez, Judith | Hinzmann, Bernd | Ho, Sarah | Hoffs, Michael | Howden, Phillip J. | Huckle, Elizabeth J. | Hume, Jennifer | Hunt, Paul J. | Hunt, Adrienne R. | Isherwood, Judith | Jacob, Leni | Johnson, David | Jones, Sally | de Jong, Pieter J. | Joseph, Shirin S. | Keenan, Stephen | Kelly, Susan | Kershaw, Joanne K. | Khan, Ziad | Kioschis, Petra | Klages, Sven | Knights, Andrew J. | Kosiura, Anna | Kovar-Smith, Christie | Laird, Gavin K. | Langford, Cordelia | Lawlor, Stephanie | Leversha, Margaret | Lewis, Lora | Liu, Wen | Lloyd, Christine | Lloyd, David M. | Loulseged, Hermela | Loveland, Jane E. | Lovell, Jamieson D. | Lozado, Ryan | Lu, Jing | Lyne, Rachael | Ma, Jie | Maheshwari, Manjula | Matthews, Lucy H. | McDowall, Jennifer | McLaren, Stuart | McMurray, Amanda | Meidl, Patrick | Meitinger, Thomas | Milne, Sarah | Miner, George | Mistry, Shailesh L. | Morgan, Margaret | Morris, Sidney | Müller, Ines | Mullikin, James C. | Nguyen, Ngoc | Nordsiek, Gabriele | Nyakatura, Gerald | O’Dell, Christopher N. | Okwuonu, Geoffery | Palmer, Sophie | Pandian, Richard | Parker, David | Parrish, Julia | Pasternak, Shiran | Patel, Dina | Pearce, Alex V. | Pearson, Danita M. | Pelan, Sarah E. | Perez, Lesette | Porter, Keith M. | Ramsey, Yvonne | Reichwald, Kathrin | Rhodes, Susan | Ridler, Kerry A. | Schlessinger, David | Schueler, Mary G. | Sehra, Harminder K. | Shaw-Smith, Charles | Shen, Hua | Sheridan, Elizabeth M. | Shownkeen, Ratna | Skuce, Carl D. | Smith, Michelle L. | Sotheran, Elizabeth C. | Steingruber, Helen E. | Steward, Charles A. | Storey, Roy | Swann, R. Mark | Swarbreck, David | Tabor, Paul E. | Taudien, Stefan | Taylor, Tineace | Teague, Brian | Thomas, Karen | Thorpe, Andrea | Timms, Kirsten | Tracey, Alan | Trevanion, Steve | Tromans, Anthony C. | d’Urso, Michele | Verduzco, Daniel | Villasana, Donna | Waldron, Lenee | Wall, Melanie | Wang, Qiaoyan | Warren, James | Warry, Georgina L. | Wei, Xuehong | West, Anthony | Whitehead, Siobhan L. | Whiteley, Mathew N. | Wilkinson, Jane E. | Willey, David L. | Williams, Gabrielle | Williams, Leanne | Williamson, Angela | Williamson, Helen | Wilming, Laurens | Woodmansey, Rebecca L. | Wray, Paul W. | Yen, Jennifer | Zhang, Jingkun | Zhou, Jianling | Zoghbi, Huda | Zorilla, Sara | Buck, David | Reinhardt, Richard | Poustka, Annemarie | Rosenthal, André | Lehrach, Hans | Meindl, Alfons | Minx, Patrick J. | Hillier, LaDeana W. | Willard, Huntington F. | Wilson, Richard K. | Waterston, Robert H. | Rice, Catherine M. | Vaudin, Mark | Coulson, Alan | Nelson, David L. | Weinstock, George | Sulston, John E. | Durbin, Richard | Hubbard, Tim | Gibbs, Richard A. | Beck, Stephan | Rogers, Jane | Bentley, David R.
Nature  2005;434(7031):325-337.
The human X chromosome has a unique biology that was shaped by its evolution as the sex chromosome shared by males and females. We have determined 99.3% of the euchromatic sequence of the X chromosome. Our analysis illustrates the autosomal origin of the mammalian sex chromosomes, the stepwise process that led to the progressive loss of recombination between X and Y, and the extent of subsequent degradation of the Y chromosome. LINE1 repeat elements cover one-third of the X chromosome, with a distribution that is consistent with their proposed role as way stations in the process of X-chromosome inactivation. We found 1,098 genes in the sequence, of which 99 encode proteins expressed in testis and in various tumour types. A disproportionately high number of mendelian diseases are documented for the X chromosome. Of this number, 168 have been explained by mutations in 113 X-linked genes, which in many cases were characterized with the aid of the DNA sequence.
PMCID: PMC2665286  PMID: 15772651
6.  Adjunctive daily supplementation with encapsulated fruit, vegetable and berry juice powder concentrates and clinical periodontal outcomes: a double-blind RCT 
A double-blind randomized controlled trial to determine whether dietary supplementation with fruit/vegetable/berry juice powder concentrates, simultaneously with non-surgical periodontal therapy, improved 2-month treatment outcomes.
Volunteers with chronic periodontitis were randomly assigned to one of three groups: fruit/vegetable (FV), fruit/vegetable/berry (FVB) or placebo. Supplements were taken daily during non-surgical debridement and maintenance and outcomes assessed at 2, 5 and 8 months after completion. Primary outcomes were mean probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment gain, % sites bleeding on probing (% BOP) at 2 months. Adherence and plasma β-carotene were determined.
Sixty-one nutritionally replete (by serum biochemistry) volunteers enrolled and 60 (n = 20 per arm) completed the 2-month review. Clinical outcomes improved in all groups at 2 months, with additional improvement in PPD versus placebo for FV (p < 0.03). Gingival crevicular fluid volumes diminished more in supplement groups than placebo (FVB; p < 0.05) at 2 months, but not at later times. The % BOP (5 months) and cumulative plaque scores (8 months) were lowered more in the FV group (p < 0.05).
Adjunctive juice powder concentrates appear to improve initial pocket depth reductions in nutritionally replete patients, where plasma micronutrient bioavailability is attainable. Definitive multicentre studies in untreated and treated patients are required to ascertain the clinical significance of such changes.
PMCID: PMC3267052  PMID: 22093005
berry; dietary intervention; fruit; Juice Plus+; micronutrient; periodontitis; randomized controlled trials; therapy; vegetable

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