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Seminars in cell & developmental biology (1)
Muroyama, Andrew (2)
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Polarity and Stratification of the Epidermis
Seminars in cell & developmental biology
Polarity is a fundamental property of epithelial cells. In this review, we discuss our current knowledge of the polarity of a stratified epithelium, the epidermis, focusing on similarities and differences with simple epithelial models. We highlight how the differences in tissue architecture and physiology result in alterations in some aspects of cell polarity. In addition, we discuss one of the most prominent uses for cell polarity in the epidermis – orienting the mitotic spindle to drive the stratification and differentiation of this tissue during development.
An inverse relationship to germline transcription defines centromeric chromatin in C. elegans
Yuen, Karen W.
Lieb, Jason D.
Centromeres are chromosomal loci that direct segregation of the genome during cell division. The histone H3 variant CENP-A (also known as CenH3) defines centromeres in monocentric organisms, which confine centromere activity to a discrete chromosomal region, and holocentric organisms, which distribute centromere activity along the chromosome length1–3. Because the highly repetitive DNA found at most centromeres is neither necessary nor sufficient for centromere function, stable inheritance of CENP-A nucleosomal chromatin is postulated to epigenetically propagate centromere identity4. Here, we show that in the holocentric nematode Caenorhabditis elegans pre-existing CENP-A nucleosomes are not necessary to guide recruitment of new CENP-A nucleosomes. This is indicated by lack of CENP-A transmission by sperm during fertilization and by removal and subsequent reloading of CENP-A during oogenic meiotic prophase. Genome-wide mapping of CENP-A location in embryos and quantification of CENP-A molecules in nuclei revealed that CENP-A is incorporated at low density in domains that cumulatively encompass half the genome. Embryonic CENP-A domains are established in a pattern inverse to regions that are transcribed in the germline and early embryo, and ectopic transcription of genes in a mutant germline altered the pattern of CENP-A incorporation in embryos. Furthermore, regions transcribed in the germline but not embryos fail to incorporate CENP-A throughout embryogenesis. We propose that germline transcription defines genomic regions that exclude CENP-A incorporation in progeny, and that zygotic transcription during early embryogenesis remodels and reinforces this basal pattern. These findings link centromere identity to transcription and shed light on the evolutionary plasticity of centromeres.
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