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1.  Association of TCF7L2 variation with single islet autoantibody expression in children with type 1 diabetes 
The transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene has the strongest genetic association with type 2 diabetes. TCF7L2 also associates with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults, which often presents with a single islet autoantibody, but not with classical type 1 diabetes.
We aimed to test if TCF7L2 is associated with single islet autoantibody expression in pediatric type 1 diabetes. We studied 71 prospectively recruited children who had newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes and evidence of islet autoimmunity, that is, expressed ≥1 islet autoantibody to insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, islet cell autoantigen 512, or zinc transporter 8. TCF7L2 rs7903146 alleles were identified. Data at diagnosis were cross-sectionally analyzed.
We found that 21.1% of the children with autoimmune type 1 diabetes expressed a single islet autoantibody. The distribution of TCF7L2 rs7903146 genotypes in children with a single autoantibody (n=15) was 40% CC, 26.7% CT and 33.3% TT, compared with children with ≥2 islet autoantibodies (50% CC, 42.9% CT and 7.1% TT, p=0.024). Furthermore, compared with children with ≥2 autoantibodies, single-autoantibody children had characteristics reflecting milder autoimmune destruction of β-cells. Restricting to lean children (body mass index<85th centile; n=36), 45.5% of those expressing a single autoantibody were rs7903146 TT homozygotes, compared with 0% of those with ≥2 autoantibodies (p<0.0001).
These results suggest that, in children with only mild islet autoimmunity, mechanisms associated with TCF7L2 genetic variation contribute to diabetogenesis, and this contribution is larger in the absence of obesity.
PMCID: PMC4212574  PMID: 25452857
Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes; Transcription Factor; LADA (Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults); Autoantibodies
2.  A−β− Subtype of Ketosis-Prone Diabetes Is Not Predominantly a Monogenic Diabetic Syndrome 
Diabetes Care  2009;32(5):873-877.
Ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD) is an emerging syndrome that encompasses several distinct phenotypic subgroups that share a predisposition to diabetic ketoacidosis. We investigated whether the A−β− subgroup of KPD, characterized by complete insulin dependence, absent β-cell functional reserve, lack of islet cell autoantibodies, and strong family history of type 2 diabetes, represents a monogenic form of diabetes.
Over 8 years, 37 patients with an A−β− phenotype were identified in our longitudinally followed cohort of KPD patients. Seven genes, including hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A (HNF4A), glucokinase (GCK), HNF1A, pancreas duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1), HNF1B, neurogenic differentiation 1 (NEUROD1), and PAX4, were directly sequenced in all patients. Selected gene regions were also sequenced in healthy, unrelated ethnically matched control subjects, consisting of 84 African American, 96 Caucasian, and 95 Hispanic subjects.
The majority (70%) of the A−β− KPD patients had no significant causal polymorphisms in either the proximal promoter or coding regions of the seven genes. The combination of six potentially significant low-frequency, heterozygous sequence variants in HNF-1α (A174V or G574S), PDX1 (putative 5′–untranslated region CCAAT box, P33T, or P239Q), or PAX4 (R133W) were found in 27% (10/37) of patients, with one additional patient revealing two variants, PDX1 P33T and PAX4 R133W. The A174V variant has not been previously reported.
Despite its well-circumscribed, robust, and distinctive phenotype of severe, nonautoimmune-mediated β-cell dysfunction, A−β− KPD is most likely not a predominantly monogenic diabetic syndrome. Several A−β− KPD patients have low-frequency variants in HNF1A, PDX1, or PAX4 genes, which may be of functional significance in their pathophysiology.
PMCID: PMC2671096  PMID: 19228875
3.  Rapid incorporation kinetics and improved fidelity of a novel class of 3′-OH unblocked reversible terminators 
Nucleic Acids Research  2012;40(15):7404-7415.
Recent developments of unique nucleotide probes have expanded our understanding of DNA polymerase function, providing many benefits to techniques involving next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. The cyclic reversible termination (CRT) method depends on efficient base-selective incorporation of reversible terminators by DNA polymerases. Most terminators are designed with 3′-O-blocking groups but are incorporated with low efficiency and fidelity. We have developed a novel class of 3′-OH unblocked nucleotides, called Lightning Terminators™, which have a terminating 2-nitrobenzyl moiety attached to hydroxymethylated nucleobases. A key structural feature of this photocleavable group displays a ‘molecular tuning’ effect with respect to single-base termination and improved nucleotide fidelity. Using Therminator™ DNA polymerase, we demonstrate that these 3′-OH unblocked terminators exhibit superior enzymatic performance compared to two other reversible terminators, 3′-O-amino-TTP and 3′-O-azidomethyl-TTP. Lightning Terminators™ show maximum incorporation rates (kpol) that range from 35 to 45 nt/s, comparable to the fastest NGS chemistries, yet with catalytic efficiencies (kpol/KD) comparable to natural nucleotides. Pre-steady-state kinetic studies of thymidine analogs revealed that the major determinant for improved nucleotide selectivity is a significant reduction in kpol by >1000-fold over TTP misincorporation. These studies highlight the importance of structure–function relationships of modified nucleotides in dictating polymerase performance.
PMCID: PMC3424534  PMID: 22570423
4.  Improved nucleotide selectivity and termination of 3′-OH unblocked reversible terminators by molecular tuning of 2-nitrobenzyl alkylated HOMedU triphosphates 
Nucleic Acids Research  2011;39(6):e39.
We describe a novel 3′-OH unblocked reversible terminator with the potential to improve accuracy and read-lengths in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. This terminator is based on 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxyuridine triphosphate (HOMedUTP), a hypermodified nucleotide found naturally in the genomes of numerous bacteriophages and lower eukaryotes. A series of 5-(2-nitrobenzyloxy)methyl-dUTP analogs (dU.I–dU.V) were synthesized based on our previous work with photochemically cleavable terminators. These 2-nitrobenzyl alkylated HOMedUTP analogs were characterized with respect to incorporation, single-base termination, nucleotide selectivity and photochemical cleavage properties. Substitution at the α-methylene carbon of 2-nitrobenzyl with alkyl groups of increasing size was discovered as a key structural feature that provided for the molecular tuning of enzymatic properties such as single-base termination and improved nucleotide selectivity over that of natural nucleotides. 5-[(S)-α-tert-Butyl-2-nitrobenzyloxy]methyl-dUTP (dU.V) was identified as an efficient reversible terminator, whereby, sequencing feasibility was demonstrated in a cyclic reversible termination (CRT) experiment using a homopolymer repeat of ten complementary template bases without detectable UV damage during photochemical cleavage steps. These results validate our overall strategy of creating 3′-OH unblocked reversible terminator reagents that, upon photochemical cleavage, transform back into a natural state. Modified nucleotides based on 5-hydroxymethyl-pyrimidines and 7-deaza-7-hydroxymethyl-purines lay the foundation for development of a complete set of four reversible terminators for application in NGS technologies.
PMCID: PMC3064798  PMID: 21227920
5.  The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome 
Ross, Mark T. | Grafham, Darren V. | Coffey, Alison J. | Scherer, Steven | McLay, Kirsten | Muzny, Donna | Platzer, Matthias | Howell, Gareth R. | Burrows, Christine | Bird, Christine P. | Frankish, Adam | Lovell, Frances L. | Howe, Kevin L. | Ashurst, Jennifer L. | Fulton, Robert S. | Sudbrak, Ralf | Wen, Gaiping | Jones, Matthew C. | Hurles, Matthew E. | Andrews, T. Daniel | Scott, Carol E. | Searle, Stephen | Ramser, Juliane | Whittaker, Adam | Deadman, Rebecca | Carter, Nigel P. | Hunt, Sarah E. | Chen, Rui | Cree, Andrew | Gunaratne, Preethi | Havlak, Paul | Hodgson, Anne | Metzker, Michael L. | Richards, Stephen | Scott, Graham | Steffen, David | Sodergren, Erica | Wheeler, David A. | Worley, Kim C. | Ainscough, Rachael | Ambrose, Kerrie D. | Ansari-Lari, M. Ali | Aradhya, Swaroop | Ashwell, Robert I. S. | Babbage, Anne K. | Bagguley, Claire L. | Ballabio, Andrea | Banerjee, Ruby | Barker, Gary E. | Barlow, Karen F. | Barrett, Ian P. | Bates, Karen N. | Beare, David M. | Beasley, Helen | Beasley, Oliver | Beck, Alfred | Bethel, Graeme | Blechschmidt, Karin | Brady, Nicola | Bray-Allen, Sarah | Bridgeman, Anne M. | Brown, Andrew J. | Brown, Mary J. | Bonnin, David | Bruford, Elspeth A. | Buhay, Christian | Burch, Paula | Burford, Deborah | Burgess, Joanne | Burrill, Wayne | Burton, John | Bye, Jackie M. | Carder, Carol | Carrel, Laura | Chako, Joseph | Chapman, Joanne C. | Chavez, Dean | Chen, Ellson | Chen, Guan | Chen, Yuan | Chen, Zhijian | Chinault, Craig | Ciccodicola, Alfredo | Clark, Sue Y. | Clarke, Graham | Clee, Chris M. | Clegg, Sheila | Clerc-Blankenburg, Kerstin | Clifford, Karen | Cobley, Vicky | Cole, Charlotte G. | Conquer, Jen S. | Corby, Nicole | Connor, Richard E. | David, Robert | Davies, Joy | Davis, Clay | Davis, John | Delgado, Oliver | DeShazo, Denise | Dhami, Pawandeep | Ding, Yan | Dinh, Huyen | Dodsworth, Steve | Draper, Heather | Dugan-Rocha, Shannon | Dunham, Andrew | Dunn, Matthew | Durbin, K. James | Dutta, Ireena | Eades, Tamsin | Ellwood, Matthew | Emery-Cohen, Alexandra | Errington, Helen | Evans, Kathryn L. | Faulkner, Louisa | Francis, Fiona | Frankland, John | Fraser, Audrey E. | Galgoczy, Petra | Gilbert, James | Gill, Rachel | Glöckner, Gernot | Gregory, Simon G. | Gribble, Susan | Griffiths, Coline | Grocock, Russell | Gu, Yanghong | Gwilliam, Rhian | Hamilton, Cerissa | Hart, Elizabeth A. | Hawes, Alicia | Heath, Paul D. | Heitmann, Katja | Hennig, Steffen | Hernandez, Judith | Hinzmann, Bernd | Ho, Sarah | Hoffs, Michael | Howden, Phillip J. | Huckle, Elizabeth J. | Hume, Jennifer | Hunt, Paul J. | Hunt, Adrienne R. | Isherwood, Judith | Jacob, Leni | Johnson, David | Jones, Sally | de Jong, Pieter J. | Joseph, Shirin S. | Keenan, Stephen | Kelly, Susan | Kershaw, Joanne K. | Khan, Ziad | Kioschis, Petra | Klages, Sven | Knights, Andrew J. | Kosiura, Anna | Kovar-Smith, Christie | Laird, Gavin K. | Langford, Cordelia | Lawlor, Stephanie | Leversha, Margaret | Lewis, Lora | Liu, Wen | Lloyd, Christine | Lloyd, David M. | Loulseged, Hermela | Loveland, Jane E. | Lovell, Jamieson D. | Lozado, Ryan | Lu, Jing | Lyne, Rachael | Ma, Jie | Maheshwari, Manjula | Matthews, Lucy H. | McDowall, Jennifer | McLaren, Stuart | McMurray, Amanda | Meidl, Patrick | Meitinger, Thomas | Milne, Sarah | Miner, George | Mistry, Shailesh L. | Morgan, Margaret | Morris, Sidney | Müller, Ines | Mullikin, James C. | Nguyen, Ngoc | Nordsiek, Gabriele | Nyakatura, Gerald | O’Dell, Christopher N. | Okwuonu, Geoffery | Palmer, Sophie | Pandian, Richard | Parker, David | Parrish, Julia | Pasternak, Shiran | Patel, Dina | Pearce, Alex V. | Pearson, Danita M. | Pelan, Sarah E. | Perez, Lesette | Porter, Keith M. | Ramsey, Yvonne | Reichwald, Kathrin | Rhodes, Susan | Ridler, Kerry A. | Schlessinger, David | Schueler, Mary G. | Sehra, Harminder K. | Shaw-Smith, Charles | Shen, Hua | Sheridan, Elizabeth M. | Shownkeen, Ratna | Skuce, Carl D. | Smith, Michelle L. | Sotheran, Elizabeth C. | Steingruber, Helen E. | Steward, Charles A. | Storey, Roy | Swann, R. Mark | Swarbreck, David | Tabor, Paul E. | Taudien, Stefan | Taylor, Tineace | Teague, Brian | Thomas, Karen | Thorpe, Andrea | Timms, Kirsten | Tracey, Alan | Trevanion, Steve | Tromans, Anthony C. | d’Urso, Michele | Verduzco, Daniel | Villasana, Donna | Waldron, Lenee | Wall, Melanie | Wang, Qiaoyan | Warren, James | Warry, Georgina L. | Wei, Xuehong | West, Anthony | Whitehead, Siobhan L. | Whiteley, Mathew N. | Wilkinson, Jane E. | Willey, David L. | Williams, Gabrielle | Williams, Leanne | Williamson, Angela | Williamson, Helen | Wilming, Laurens | Woodmansey, Rebecca L. | Wray, Paul W. | Yen, Jennifer | Zhang, Jingkun | Zhou, Jianling | Zoghbi, Huda | Zorilla, Sara | Buck, David | Reinhardt, Richard | Poustka, Annemarie | Rosenthal, André | Lehrach, Hans | Meindl, Alfons | Minx, Patrick J. | Hillier, LaDeana W. | Willard, Huntington F. | Wilson, Richard K. | Waterston, Robert H. | Rice, Catherine M. | Vaudin, Mark | Coulson, Alan | Nelson, David L. | Weinstock, George | Sulston, John E. | Durbin, Richard | Hubbard, Tim | Gibbs, Richard A. | Beck, Stephan | Rogers, Jane | Bentley, David R.
Nature  2005;434(7031):325-337.
The human X chromosome has a unique biology that was shaped by its evolution as the sex chromosome shared by males and females. We have determined 99.3% of the euchromatic sequence of the X chromosome. Our analysis illustrates the autosomal origin of the mammalian sex chromosomes, the stepwise process that led to the progressive loss of recombination between X and Y, and the extent of subsequent degradation of the Y chromosome. LINE1 repeat elements cover one-third of the X chromosome, with a distribution that is consistent with their proposed role as way stations in the process of X-chromosome inactivation. We found 1,098 genes in the sequence, of which 99 encode proteins expressed in testis and in various tumour types. A disproportionately high number of mendelian diseases are documented for the X chromosome. Of this number, 168 have been explained by mutations in 113 X-linked genes, which in many cases were characterized with the aid of the DNA sequence.
PMCID: PMC2665286  PMID: 15772651
6.  Termination of DNA synthesis by N6-alkylated, not 3′-O-alkylated, photocleavable 2′-deoxyadenosine triphosphates 
Nucleic Acids Research  2007;35(19):6339-6349.
The Human Genome Project has facilitated the sequencing of many species, yet the current Sanger method is too expensive, labor intensive and time consuming to accomplish medical resequencing of human genomes en masse. Of the ‘next-generation’ technologies, cyclic reversible termination (CRT) is a promising method with the goal of producing accurate sequence information at a fraction of the cost and effort. The foundation of this approach is the reversible terminator (RT), its chemical and biological properties of which directly impact the performance of the sequencing technology. Here, we have discovered a novel paradigm in RT chemistry, the attachment of a photocleavable, 2-nitrobenzyl group to the N6-position of 2′-deoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP), which, upon incorporation, terminates DNA synthesis. The 3′-OH group of the N6-(2-nitrobenzyl)-dATP remains unblocked, providing favorable incorporation and termination properties for several commercially available DNA polymerases while maintaining good discrimination against mismatch incorporations. Upon removal of the 2-nitrobenzyl group with UV light, the natural nucleotide is restored without molecular scarring. A five-base experiment, illustrating the exquisite, stepwise addition through a homopolymer repeat, demonstrates the applicability of the N6-(2-nitrobenzyl)-dATP as an ideal RT for CRT sequencing.
PMCID: PMC2095803  PMID: 17881370
7.  Glass bead purification of plasmid template DNA for high throughput sequencing of mammalian genomes 
Nucleic Acids Research  2002;30(7):e32.
To meet the new challenge of generating the draft sequences of mammalian genomes, we describe the development of a novel high throughput 96-well method for the purification of plasmid DNA template using size-fractionated, acid-washed glass beads. Unlike most previously described approaches, the current method has been designed and optimized to facilitate the direct binding of alcohol-precipitated plasmid DNA to glass beads from alkaline lysed bacterial cells containing the insoluble cellular aggregate material. Eliminating the tedious step of separating the cleared lysate significantly simplifies the method and improves throughput and reliability. During a 4 month period of 96-capillary DNA sequencing of the Rattus norvegicus genome at the Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center, the average success rate and read length derived from >1 800 000 plasmid DNA templates prepared by the direct lysis/glass bead method were 82.2% and 516 bases, respectively. The cost of this direct lysis/glass bead method in September 2001 was ∼10 cents per clone, which is a significant cost saving in high throughput genomic sequencing efforts.
PMCID: PMC101856  PMID: 11917038

Results 1-8 (8)