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1.  Continuing Reassortment Leads to the Genetic Diversity of Influenza Virus H7N9 in Guangdong, China 
Journal of Virology  2014;88(15):8297-8306.
ABSTRACT
On 30 March 2013, a novel avian influenza A H7N9 virus causing severe human respiratory infections was identified in China. Preliminary sequence analyses have shown that the virus is a reassortant of H7N9 and H9N2 avian influenza viruses. In this study, we conducted enhanced surveillance for H7N9 virus in Guangdong, China, from April to August 2013. We isolated two H7N9 viral strains from environmental samples associated with poultry markets and one from a clinical patient. Sequence analyses showed that the Guangdong H7N9 virus isolated from April to May shared high sequence similarity with other strains from eastern China. The A/Guangdong/1/2013 (H7N9) virus isolated from the Guangdong patient on 10 August 2013 was divergent from previously sequenced H7N9 viruses and more closely related to local circulating H9N2 viruses in the NS and NP genes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that four internal genes of the A/Guangdong/1/2013 (H7N9) virus—the NS, NP, PB1, and PB2 genes—were in clusters different from those for H7N9 viruses identified previously in other provinces of China. The discovery presented here suggests that continuing reassortment led to the emergence of the A/Guangdong/1/2013 (H7N9) virus as a novel H7N9 virus in Guangdong, China, and that viral adaptation to avian and human hosts must be assessed.
IMPORTANCE In this study, we isolated and characterized the avian influenza A H7N9 virus in Guangdong, China, from April to August 2013. We show that the viruses isolated from Guangdong environmental samples and chickens from April to May 2013 were highly similar to other H7N9 strains found in eastern China. The H7N9 virus isolated from the clinical patient in Guangdong in August 2013 was divergent from previously identified H7N9 viruses, with the NS and NP genes originating from recent H9N2 viruses circulating in the province. This study provides direct evidence that continuing reassortment occurred and led to the emergence of a novel H7N9 influenza virus in Guangdong, China. These results also shed light on how the H7N9 virus evolved, which is critically important for future monitoring and tracing of viral transmission.
doi:10.1128/JVI.00630-14
PMCID: PMC4135935  PMID: 24829356
2.  Antibiotic-specific differences in the response of Staphylococcus aureus to treatment with antimicrobials combined with manuka honey 
Skin infections caused by antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus are a significant health problem worldwide; often associated with high treatment cost and mortality rate. Complex natural products like New Zealand (NZ) manuka honey have been revisited and studied extensively as an alternative to antibiotics due to their potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, and the inability to isolate honey-resistant S. aureus. Previous studies showing synergistic effects between manuka-type honeys and antibiotics have been demonstrated against the growth of one methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain. We have previously demonstrated strong synergistic activity between NZ manuka-type honey and rifampicin against growth and biofilm formation of multiple S. arueus strains. Here, we have expanded our investigation using multiple S. aureus strains and four different antibiotics commonly used to treat S. aureus-related skin infections: rifampicin, oxacillin, gentamicin, and clindamycin. Using checkerboard microdilution and agar diffusion assays with S. aureus strains including clinical isolates and MRSA we demonstrate that manuka-type honey combined with these four antibiotics frequently produces a synergistic effect. In some cases when synergism was not observed, there was a significant enhancement in antibiotic susceptibility. Some strains that were highly resistant to an antibiotic when present alone become sensitive to clinically achievable concentrations when combined with honey. However, not all of the S. aureus strains tested responded in the same way to these combinational treatments. Our findings support the use of NZ manuka-type honeys in clinical treatment against S. aureus-related infections and extend their potential use as an antibiotic adjuvant in combinational therapy. Our data also suggest that manuka-type honeys may not work as antibiotic adjuvants for all strains of S. aureus, and this may help determine the mechanistic processes behind honey synergy.
doi:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00779
PMCID: PMC4307217
Medihoney; Staphylococcus aureus; manuka; antibiotic; synergy
3.  Endogenous CCL2 neutralization restricts HIV-1 replication in primary human macrophages by inhibiting viral DNA accumulation 
Retrovirology  2015;12:4.
Background
Macrophages are key targets of HIV-1 infection. We have previously described that the expression of CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) increases during monocyte differentiation to macrophages and it is further up-modulated by HIV-1 exposure. Moreover, CCL2 acts as an autocrine factor that promotes viral replication in infected macrophages. In this study, we dissected the molecular mechanisms by which CCL2 neutralization inhibits HIV-1 replication in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), and the potential involvement of the innate restriction factors protein sterile alpha motif (SAM) histidine/aspartic acid (HD) domain containing 1 (SAMHD1) and apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing, enzyme-catalytic, polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) family members.
Results
CCL2 neutralization potently reduced the number of p24 Gag+ cells during the course of either productive or single cycle infection with HIV-1. In contrast, CCL2 blocking did not modify entry of HIV-1 based Virus Like Particles, thus demonstrating that the restriction involves post-entry steps of the viral life cycle. Notably, the accumulation of viral DNA, both total, integrated and 2-LTR circles, was strongly impaired by neutralization of CCL2. Looking for correlates of HIV-1 DNA accumulation inhibition, we found that the antiviral effect of CCL2 neutralization was independent of the modulation of SAMHD1 expression or function. Conversely, a strong and selective induction of APOBEC3A expression, to levels comparable to those of freshly isolated monocytes, was associated with the inhibition of HIV-1 replication mediated by CCL2 blocking. Interestingly, the CCL2 neutralization mediated increase of APOBEC3A expression was type I IFN independent. Moreover, the transcriptome analysis of the effect of CCL2 blocking on global gene expression revealed that the neutralization of this chemokine resulted in the upmodulation of additional genes involved in the defence response to viruses.
Conclusions
Neutralization of endogenous CCL2 determines a profound restriction of HIV-1 replication in primary MDM affecting post-entry steps of the viral life cycle with a mechanism independent of SAMHD1. In addition, CCL2 blocking is associated with induction of APOBEC3A expression, thus unravelling a novel mechanism which might contribute to regulate the expression of innate intracellular viral antagonists in vivo. Thus, our study may potentially lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies for enhancing innate cellular defences against HIV-1 and protecting macrophages from infection.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12977-014-0132-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12977-014-0132-6
PMCID: PMC4314729  PMID: 25608886
Monocyte-derived macrophage; CCL2; HIV-1; Restriction; SAMHD1; APOBEC3A
4.  Circulation of Reassortant Influenza A(H7N9) Viruses in Poultry and Humans, Guangdong Province, China, 2013 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2014;20(12):2034-2040.
Influenza A(H7N9) virus emerged in eastern China in February 2013 and continues to circulate in this region, but its ecology is poorly understood. In April 2013, the Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) implemented environmental and human syndromic surveillance for the virus. Environmental samples from poultry markets in 21 city CDCs (n = 8,942) and respiratory samples from persons with influenza-like illness or pneumonia (n = 32,342) were tested; viruses isolated from 6 environmental samples and 16 patients were sequenced. Sequence analysis showed co-circulation of 4 influenza A(H7N9) virus strains that evolved by reassortment with avian influenza A(H9N2) viruses circulating in this region. In addition, an increase in human cases starting in late 2013 coincided with an increase in influenza A H7 virus isolates detected by environmental surveillance. Co-circulation of multiple avian influenza viruses that can infect humans highlights the need for increased surveillance of poultry and potential environmental sources.
doi:10.3201/eid2012.140765
PMCID: PMC4257815  PMID: 25418838
influenza; H7N9; H9N2; emergence; reassortment; human; poultry; influenza A; H3N2; viruses; respiratory infections; Guangdong Province; China
5.  A more consistent intraluminal rhesus monkey model of ischemic stroke 
Neural Regeneration Research  2014;9(23):2087-2094.
Endovascular surgery is advantageous in experimentally induced ischemic stroke because it causes fewer cranial traumatic lesions than invasive surgery and can closely mimic the pathophysiology in stroke patients. However, the outcomes are highly variable, which limits the accuracy of evaluations of ischemic stroke studies. In this study, eight healthy adult rhesus monkeys were randomized into two groups with four monkeys in each group: middle cerebral artery occlusion at origin segment (M1) and middle cerebral artery occlusion at M2 segment. The blood flow in the middle cerebral artery was blocked completely for 2 hours using the endovascular microcoil placement technique (1 mm × 10 cm) (undetachable), to establish a model of cerebral ischemia. The microcoil was withdrawn and the middle cerebral artery blood flow was restored. A reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion model was identified by hematoxylin-eosin staining, digital subtraction angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and neurological evaluation. The results showed that the middle cerebral artery occlusion model was successfully established in eight adult healthy rhesus monkeys, and ischemic lesions were apparent in the brain tissue of rhesus monkeys at 24 hours after occlusion. The rhesus monkeys had symptoms of neurological deficits. Compared with the M1 occlusion group, the M2 occlusion group had lower infarction volume and higher neurological scores. These experimental findings indicate that reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion can be produced with the endovascular microcoil technique in rhesus monkeys. The M2 occluded model had less infarction and less neurological impairment, which offers the potential for application in the field of brain injury research.
doi:10.4103/1673-5374.147936
PMCID: PMC4316474  PMID: 25657726
nerve regeneration; brain injury; rhesus monkeys; model middle cerebral artery; microcoil; infarction; stroke; interventional therapy; digital subtraction angiography; magnetic resonance image; neuroimaging; neuroregeneration
6.  Structural Insight into the Central Element Assembly of the Synaptonemal Complex 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:7059.
The key step in meiosis is synaptonemal complex formation, which mediates homologous chromosome alignment and synapsis. False pairing between homologous chromosomes produces infertility. Here, we present a crystal structure of the mouse meiosis-specific protein SYCE3, which is a component of the synaptonemal complex central element. Our studies show that functional SYCE3 most likely forms a dimer or higher order oligomer in cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the SYCE3 N-helix interacts with the SYCE1 C-helix, which is another central element component. Our results suggest that helical packing may mediate intra- or inter-association of each central element protein component, thereby playing an essential role in forming the synaptonemal complex central elements.
doi:10.1038/srep07059
PMCID: PMC4231325  PMID: 25394919
7.  Differential Proteomics Analysis of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Its Genome-Shuffled Mutant for Improving Surfactin Production 
Genome shuffling technology was used as a novel whole-genome engineering approach to rapidly improve the antimicrobial lipopeptide yield of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Comparative proteomic analysis of the parental ES-2-4 and genome-shuffled FMB38 strains was conducted to examine the differentially expressed proteins. The proteome was separated by 2-DE (two dimensional electrophoresis) and analyzed by MS (mass spectrum). In the shuffled strain FMB38, 51 differentially expressed protein spots with higher than two-fold spot density were detected by gel image comparison. Forty-six protein spots were detectable by silver staining and further MS analysis. The results demonstrated that among the 46 protein spots expressed particularly induced in the genome-shuffled mutant, 15 were related to metabolism, five to DNA replication, recombination and repair, six to translation and post-translational modifications, one to cell secretion and signal transduction mechanisms, three to surfactin synthesis, two to energy production and conversion, and 14 to others. All these indicated that the metabolic capability of the mutant was improved by the genome shuffling. The study will enable future detailed investigation of gene expression and function linked with surfactin synthesis. The results of proteome analysis may provide information for metabolic engineering of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens for overproduction of surfactin.
doi:10.3390/ijms151119847
PMCID: PMC4264142  PMID: 25365175
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; genome shuffling; surfactin; proteomics; MALDI-TOF/MS
8.  Delivering Sound Energy along an Arbitrary Convex Trajectory 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:6628.
Accelerating beams have attracted considerable research interest due to their peculiar properties and various applications. Although there have been numerous research on the generation and application of accelerating light beams, few results have been published on the generation of accelerating acoustic beams. Here we report on the experimental observation of accelerating acoustic beams along arbitrary convex trajectories. The desired trajectory is projected to the spatial phase profile on the boundary which is discretized and sampled spatially. The sound field distribution is formulated with the Green function and the integral equation method. Both the paraxial and the non-paraxial regimes are examined and observed in the experiments. The effect of obstacle scattering in the sound field is also investigated and the results demonstrate that the approach is robust against obstacle scattering. The realization of accelerating acoustic beams will have an impact on various applications where acoustic information and energy are required to be delivered along an arbitrary convex trajectory.
doi:10.1038/srep06628
PMCID: PMC4197416  PMID: 25316353
9.  The beneficial fungus Piriformospora indica protects Arabidopsis from Verticillium dahliae infection by downregulation plant defense responses 
BMC Plant Biology  2014;14(1):268.
Background
Verticillium dahliae (Vd) is a soil-borne vascular pathogen which causes severe wilt symptoms in a wide range of plants. The microsclerotia produced by the pathogen survive in soil for more than 15 years.
Results
Here we demonstrate that an exudate preparation induces cytoplasmic calcium elevation in Arabidopsis roots, and the disease development requires the ethylene-activated transcription factor EIN3. Furthermore, the beneficial endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica (Pi) significantly reduced Vd-mediated disease development in Arabidopsis. Pi inhibited the growth of Vd in a dual culture on PDA agar plates and pretreatment of Arabidopsis roots with Pi protected plants from Vd infection. The Pi-pretreated plants grew better after Vd infection and the production of Vd microsclerotia was dramatically reduced, all without activating stress hormones and defense genes in the host.
Conclusions
We conclude that Pi is an efficient biocontrol agent that protects Arabidopsis from Vd infection. Our data demonstrate that Vd growth is restricted in the presence of Pi and the additional signals from Pi must participate in the regulation of the immune response against Vd.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12870-014-0268-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12870-014-0268-5
PMCID: PMC4198706  PMID: 25297988
Calcium; Defense; Ethylene; Jasmonic acid; Piriformospora indica; Salicylic acid; Verticillium dahliae
10.  Evidence of Type-II Band Alignment in III-nitride Semiconductors: Experimental and theoretical investigation for In0.17Al0.83N/GaN heterostructures 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:6521.
Type-II band alignment structure is coveted in the design of photovoltaic devices and detectors, since it is beneficial for the transport of photogenerated carriers. Regrettably, for group-III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductors, all existing devices are limited to type-I heterostructures, owing to the unavailable of type-II ones. This seriously restricts the designing flexibility for optoelectronic devices and consequently the relevant performance of this material system. Here we show a brandnew type-II band alignment of the lattice-matched In0.17Al0.83N/GaN heterostructure from the perspective of both experimental observations and first-principle theoretical calculations. The band discontinuity is dominated by the conduction band offset ΔEC, with a small contribution from the valence band offset ΔEV which equals 0.1 eV (with being above). Our work may open up new prospects to realize high-performance III-Nitrides optoelectronic devices based on type-II energy band engineering.
doi:10.1038/srep06521
PMCID: PMC4185379  PMID: 25283334
11.  Evaluation of immuno-efficacy of a novel DNA vaccine encoding Toxoplasma gondii rhoptry protein 38 (TgROP38) against chronic toxoplasmosis in a murine model 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2014;14(1):525.
Background
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite which can infect almost all mammalian animals, leading to toxoplasmosis. T. gondii rhoptry protein 38 (TgROP38) is an active rhoptry protein kinase which is involved in the inhibitory effect on host cell transcription by down-regulating the MAPK signaling track.
Methods
TgROP38 gene was amplified and inserted into eukaryotic vector pVAX I and formed the DNA vaccine pVAX-ROP38. Mice in the experimental group were intramuscularly immunized with pVAX-ROP38 and those injected with pVAX I, PBS or nothing were treated as controls. After three injections at two week intervals, all mouse groups were challenged intraperitoneally with 1000 tachyzoites of the virulent T. gondii RH strain (Type I, ToxoDB #10) and 10 cysts of the PRU strain (Type II, ToxoDB #1), respectively.
Results
Mice inoculated with pVAX-ROP38 vaccine had a higher level of IgG antibodies (P < 0.01) and T lymphoproliferative response. The high ratio of IgG2a/IgG1 and the increasing levels of IFN-γ and IL-2 (P < 0.05) indicated an activated Th1 cell-mediated immune responses. Furthermore, the CD4+ and CD8+ proportions in vaccinated mice were also increased significantly compared with that in mice of the three control groups (P < 0.01). In the model of acute infection, the average survival time of mice in the pVAX-ROP38 group (8.1 days ± 0.75) was no statistically different compared to that in the PBS, pVAX I and blank control groups which died within 7 days. However, in the model of chronic infection, the brain cyst reduction in the pVAX-ROP38 group reached 76.6%, compared to controls (P < 0.01).
Conclusions
The present study revealed that the pVAX-ROP38 vaccine could elicit strong humoral and cell immunity response against chronic T. gondii infection in mice, resulting in the reduction of the brain cyst formation effectively, which suggests that TgROP38 is a desirable vaccine candidate against chronic T. gondii infection.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-525
PMCID: PMC4261603  PMID: 25267356
Toxoplasma gondii; Toxoplasmosis; TgROP38; DNA vaccine; Protective immunity; Mouse
12.  Finding Candidate Drugs for Hepatitis C Based on Chemical-Chemical and Chemical-Protein Interactions 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(9):e107767.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an infectious virus that can cause serious illnesses. Only a few drugs have been reported to effectively treat hepatitis C. To have greater diversity in drug choice and better treatment options, it is necessary to develop more drugs to treat the infection. However, it is time-consuming and expensive to discover candidate drugs using experimental methods, and computational methods may complement experimental approaches as a preliminary filtering process. This type of approach was proposed by using known chemical-chemical interactions to extract interactive compounds with three known drug compounds of HCV, and the probabilities of these drug compounds being able to treat hepatitis C were calculated using chemical-protein interactions between the interactive compounds and HCV target genes. Moreover, the randomization test and expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm were both employed to exclude false discoveries. Analysis of the selected compounds, including acyclovir and ganciclovir, indicated that some of these compounds had potential to treat the HCV. Hopefully, this proposed method could provide new insights into the discovery of candidate drugs for the treatment of HCV and other diseases.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0107767
PMCID: PMC4166673  PMID: 25225900
13.  Identification of three novel natural product compounds that activate PXR and CAR and inhibit inflammation 
Pharmaceutical research  2013;30(9):2199-2208.
The pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) have been known to play a role in xenobiotic metabolism by regulating the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. In addition, PXR agonists were found to exert therapeutic effects through multiple mechanisms, such as detoxification of bile acids and inhibition of inflammation. In this study, we first investigated the effects of three natural product compounds, carapin, santonin and isokobusone, on the activity of PXR and CAR. These compounds activated both PXR and CAR in transient transfection and luciferase reporter gene assays. Mutagenesis studies showed that two amino acid residues, Phe305 of the rodent PXR and Leu308 of the human PXR, are critical for the recognition of these compounds by PXR. Importantly, the activation of PXR and CAR by these compounds induced the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes in primary human and mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, activation of PXR by these compounds inhibited the expression of inflammatory mediators in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The effects of these natural compounds on drug metabolism and inflammation were abolished in PXR−/− hepatocytes. These natural compounds can be explored for their potential in the treatment of diseases where the PXR activation has been shown to be beneficial, such as inflammatory bowel disease, cholestasis, and hyperbilirubinemia.
doi:10.1007/s11095-013-1101-9
PMCID: PMC3771640  PMID: 23896737
nuclear receptor; gene regulation; natural products; drug metabolism
14.  Genetic Changes of Reemerged Influenza A(H7N9) Viruses, China 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2014;20(9):1582-1583.
doi:10.3201/eid2009.140250
PMCID: PMC4178397  PMID: 25153821
Avian influenza; H7N9; H9N2; reassortment; Guangdong; China; viruses; influenza
15.  A MD Simulation and Analysis for Aggregation Behaviors of Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron Particles in Water via MS 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:768780.
With the development of nanotechnology, more nanomaterials will enter into water environment system. Studying the existing form of nanomaterials in water environment will help people benefit from the correct use of them and to reduce the harm to human caused by them for some nanomaterials can bring polluting effect. Aggregation is a main behavior for nanoparticle in water environment. NZVI are used widely in many fields resulting in more NZVI in water environment. Molecular dynamics simulations and Materials Studio software are used to investigate the microaggregation behaviors of NZVI particles. Two scenes are involved: (1) particle size of NZVI in each simulation system is the same, but initial distance of two NZVI particles is different; (2) initial distance of two NZVI particles in each simulation system is the same, but particle size of NZVI is different. Atomistic trajectory, NP activity, total energy, and adsorption of H2O are analyzed with MS. The method provides new quantitative insight into the structure, energy, and dynamics of the aggregation behaviors of NZVI particles in water. It is necessary to understand microchange of NPs in water because it can provide theoretical research that is used to reduce polluting effect of NPs on water environment.
doi:10.1155/2014/768780
PMCID: PMC4163324  PMID: 25250388
16.  Small-molecule survivin inhibitor YM155 enhances radiosensitization in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by the abrogation of G2 checkpoint and suppression of homologous recombination repair 
Background
Survivin is overexpressed in cancer cells and plays a crucial role in apoptosis evasion. YM155, a small-molecule inhibitor of survivin, could enhance the cytotoxicity of various DNA-damaging agents. Here, we evaluated the radiosensitizaion potential of YM155 in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
Methods
Cell viability was determined by CCK8 assay. The radiosensitization effect of YM155 was evaluated by clonogenic survival and progression of tumor xenograft. Cell cycle progression was determined by flow cytometric analysis. Radiation-induced DNA double strand break (DSB) and homologous recombination repair (HRR) were detected by the staining of γ-H2AX and RAD51, respectively. Expression of survivin and cell cycle regulators was detected by Western blot analysis.
Results
YM155 induced radiosensitization in ESCC cell lines Eca109 and TE13, associated with the abrogation of radiation induced G2/M checkpoint, impaired Rad51 focus formation, and the prolongation of γ-H2AX signaling. G2/M transition markers, including the activation of cyclinB1/Cdc2 kinase and the suppression of Cdc2 Thr14/Tyr15 phosphorylation were induced by YM155 in irradiated cells. The combination of YM155 plus irradiation delayed the growth of ESCC tumor xenografts to a greater extent compared with either treatment modality alone.
Conclusions
Our findings suggest that the abrogation of G2 checkpoint and the inhibition of HRR contribute to radiosensitization by YM155 in ESCC cells.
doi:10.1186/s13045-014-0062-8
PMCID: PMC4237864  PMID: 25139395
Survivin; YM155; Radiosensitization; ESCC; G2 checkpoint; Homologous recombination repair
17.  Ileal Immunoglobulin Binding by the Neonatal Fc Receptor: A Previously Unrecognized Mechanism of Protection in the Neonatal Rat Model of Necrotizing Enterocolitis? 
The e-journal of neonatology research  2011;1(1):eJNR21606072v1i1p2y2011.
Background
Mucosal apoptosis is the initiating event in models of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) within rodents. It is possible there are species-specific differences that make apoptosis a more prominent feature of NEC in rodents than in humans.
Hypothesis
A lower threshold for mucosal apoptosis in the rodent distal intestine might have evolutionary advantages (via enhanced opsonization with the neonatal Fc receptor [FcRn]), since many short-gestation mammals are comparatively premature (histomorphologically) but are protected from NEC by breast milk.
Methods
We utilized a rat intestinal epithelial cell (IEC-18) model to determine if cell death alters FcRn – IgG binding, and rodent models of NEC to determine if cell death results in increased opsonization of IgG. Cultured IEC-18 cells were treated with H2O2 and analyzed. Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were cold and hypoxia stressed and intestinal sections were frozen for analysis.
Results
IgG binding was increased in H2O2-treated cells. Co-incubation of treated cells with either insulin-like growth factor or tunicamycin decreased IgG binding. Sprague-Dawley rats formula fed with exogenous bacteria showed a significant decrease in intestinal FcRn mRNA but increased ileal IgG binding.
Conclusions
We speculate that FcRn plays a role in passive opsonization and subsequent bacterial pathogen clearance, making rodents resistant to NEC.
PMCID: PMC4122316  PMID: 25105063
necrotizing enterocolitis; neonatal Fc receptor; intestinal epithelial cell; glycosylation; immunoglobulin
18.  3-Hydroxybutyrate Oligomer Hydrolase and 3-Hydroxybutyrate Dehydrogenase Participate in Intracellular Polyhydroxybutyrate and Polyhydroxyvalerate Degradation in Paracoccus denitrificans 
Genes encoding 3-hydroxybutyrate oligomer hydrolase (PhaZc) and 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (Hbd) were isolated from Paracoccus denitrificans. PhaZc and Hbd were overproduced as His-tagged proteins in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity and gel filtration chromatography. Purified His-tagged proteins had molecular masses of 31 kDa and 120 kDa (a tetramer of 29-kDa subunits). The His-tagged PhaZc hydrolyzed not only 3-hydroxybutyrate oligomers but also 3-hydroxyvalerate oligomers. The His-tagged Hbd catalyzed the dehydrogenation of 3-hydroxyvalerate as well as 3-hydroxybutyrate. When both enzymes were included in the same enzymatic reaction system with 3-hydroxyvalerate dimer, sequential reactions occurred, suggesting that PhaZc and Hbd play an important role in the intracellular degradation of poly(3-hydroxyvalerate). When the phaZc gene was disrupted in P. denitrificans by insertional inactivation, the mutant strain lost PhaZc activity. When the phaZc-disrupted P. denitrificans was complemented with phaZc, PhaZc activity was restored. These results suggest that P. denitrificans carries a single phaZc gene. Disruption of the phaZc gene in P. denitrificans affected the degradation rate of PHA.
doi:10.1128/AEM.03396-13
PMCID: PMC3911200  PMID: 24271169
19.  Effects of Simulated Heat Waves on Cardiovascular Functions in Senile Mice 
The mechanism of the effects of simulated heat waves on cardiovascular disease in senile mice was investigated. Heat waves were simulated in a TEM1880 meteorological environment simulation chamber, according to a heat wave that occurred in July 2001 in Nanjing, China. Eighteen senile mice were divided into control, heat wave, and heat wave BH4 groups, respectively. Mice in the heat wave and heat wave BH4 groups were exposed to simulated heat waves in the simulation chamber. The levels of ET-1, NO, HSP60, SOD, TNF, sICAM-1, and HIF-1α in each group of mice were measured after heat wave simulation. Results show that heat waves decreased SOD activity in the myocardial tissue of senile mice, increased NO, HSP60, TNF, sICAM-1, and HIF-1α levels, and slightly decreased ET-1 levels, BH4 can relieve the effects of heat waves on various biological indicators. After a comprehensive analysis of the experiments above, we draw the followings conclusions regarding the influence of heat waves on senile mice: excess HSP60 activated immune cells, and induced endothelial cells and macrophages to secrete large amounts of ICAM-1, TNF-α, and other inflammatory cytokines, it also activated the inflammation response in the body and damaged the coronary endothelial cell structure, which increased the permeability of blood vessel intima and decreased SOD activity in cardiac tissues. The oxidation of lipoproteins in the blood increased, and large amounts of cholesterol were generated. Cholesterol penetrated the intima and deposited on the blood vessel wall, forming atherosclerosis and leading to the occurrence of cardiovascular disease in senile mice. These results maybe are useful for studying the effects of heat waves on elderly humans, which we discussed in the discussion chapter.
doi:10.3390/ijerph110807841
PMCID: PMC4143836  PMID: 25101768
heat wave weather; senile mice; HSP60; SOD; TNF; sICAM-1; atherosclerosis
20.  Novel Bayesian classification models for predicting compounds blocking hERG potassium channels 
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica  2014;35(8):1093-1102.
Aim:
A large number of drug-induced long QT syndromes are ascribed to blockage of hERG potassium channels. The aim of this study was to construct novel computational models to predict compounds blocking hERG channels.
Methods:
Doddareddy's hERG blockage data containing 2644 compounds were used, which divided into training (2389) and test (255) sets. Laplacian-corrected Bayesian classification models were constructed using Discovery Studio. The models were internally validated with the training set of compounds, and then applied to the test set for validation. Doddareddy's experimentally validated dataset with 60 compounds was used for external test set validation.
Results:
A Bayesian classification model considering the effects of four molecular properties (Mw, PPSA, ALogP and pKa_basic) as well as extended-connectivity fingerprints (ECFP_14) exhibited a global accuracy (91%), parameter sensitivity (90%) and specificity (92%) in the test set validation, and a global accuracy (58%), parameter sensitivity (61%) and specificity (57%) in the external test set validation.
Conclusion:
The novel model is better than those in the literatures for predicting compounds blocking hERG channels, and can be used for large-scale prediction.
doi:10.1038/aps.2014.35
PMCID: PMC4125710  PMID: 24976154
hERG; potassium channels; long QT syndrome; pharmacophore; modeling; Laplacian-modified Bayesian; extended-connectivity fingerprints; QSAR
21.  Novel Compound Heterozygous Mutations in MYO7A Associated with Usher Syndrome 1 in a Chinese Family 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(7):e103415.
Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, age-dependent retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and occasionally vestibular dysfunction. The most severe form is Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1). Mutations in the MYO7A gene are responsible for USH1 and account for 29–55% of USH1 cases. Here, we characterized a Chinese family (no. 7162) with USH1. Combining the targeted capture of 131 known deafness genes, next-generation sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis, we identified two deleterious compound heterozygous mutations in the MYO7A gene: a reported missense mutation c.73G>A (p.G25R) and a novel nonsense mutation c.462C>A (p.C154X). The two compound variants are absent in 219 ethnicity-matched controls, co-segregates with the USH clinical phenotypes, including hearing loss, vestibular dysfunction, and age-dependent penetrance of progressive RP, in family 7162. Therefore, we concluded that the USH1 in this family was caused by compound heterozygous mutations in MYO7A.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0103415
PMCID: PMC4117490  PMID: 25080338
22.  High Association between Human Circulating MicroRNA-497 and Acute Myocardial Infarction 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:931845.
Recent papers have reported the fundamental roles of miR-497 in infarction which acute myocardial infarction (AMI) belongs to. However, the expression levels of miR-497 in AMI patients were unclear, especially the circulating miR-497 that was detectable in the human plasma. In this study, we focused on the expression levels of circulating miR-497 in AMI and the roles of plasma miR-497 as a promising biomarker for AMI. The plasma miR-497 levels were detected from 27 AMI patients and 31 healthy volunteers by qRT-PCR. The cTnI concentrations of these samples were also analyzed by ELISA. Results showed circulating miR-497 levels were upregulated in AMI patients at 4 h, 8 h, 12 h, and 24 h, by contrast to those in control. Interestingly, time courses of circulating miR-497 levels displayed similar trends to that of cTnI concentrations in AMI patients; further study revealed the high correlation between circulating miR-497 and cTnI concentrations (r = 0.573, P < 0.001). At last, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was performed and declared that there was a faithworthy sensitivity and specificity to identify the AMI patients by using circulating miR-497. In conclusion, circulating miR-497 might be a promising biomarker for AMI identification and there was high association between human miR-497 and acute myocardial infarction.
doi:10.1155/2014/931845
PMCID: PMC4119682  PMID: 25110754
23.  Elevated Serum and Synovial Fluid Levels of Interleukin-34 in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Association with Disease Progression via Interleukin-17 Production 
To measure the levels of interleukin-34 (IL-34) in serum and synovial fluid (SF) of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to evaluate the effect of recombination human (rh) IL-34 on IL-17 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in RA patients, the serum and SF levels of IL-34, and the production of IL-17 by rhIL-34-treated PBMC of RA patients were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also tested the change of IL-34 level after tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α blockade therapy in 30 RA patients. In contrast to almost no detectable IL-34 in osteoarthritis (OA) and healthy serum, IL-34 could be detected in 93 out of the 125 RA cases (74.4%). Sera IL-34 levels were significantly higher in RA patients compared with the controls and correlated with disease activity. IL-34 levels were higher in SF samples than in sera in 11 RA patients. The level of serum IL-34 decreased after anti-TNF treatment. In the presence of rhIL-34, stimulation of PBMC from RA patients resulted in increased production of IL-17. These findings suggest that IL-34 may play a role in the pathogenesis of RA.
doi:10.1089/jir.2012.0122
PMCID: PMC3708624  PMID: 23421370
24.  Does the Dirac Cone Exist in Silicene on Metal Substrates? 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:5476.
Absence of the Dirac cone due to a strong band hybridization is revealed to be a common feature for epitaxial silicene on metal substrates according to our first-principles calculations for silicene on Ir, Cu, Mg, Au, Pt, Al, and Ag substrates. The destroyed Dirac cone of silicene, however, can be effectively restored with linear or parabolic dispersion by intercalating alkali metal atoms between silicene and the metal substrates, offering an opportunity to study the intriguing properties of silicene without further transfer of silicene from the metal substrates.
doi:10.1038/srep05476
PMCID: PMC4073124  PMID: 24969493
25.  Prevalence of Nonpolio Enteroviruses in the Sewage of Guangzhou City, China, from 2009 to 2012 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2013;79(24):7679-7683.
The human-pathogenic viruses in urban sewage have been extensively monitored to obtain information on circulating viruses in human communities. Enteroviruses (EVs) excreted by patients who present with diverse clinical syndromes can remain infectious in the environment for several weeks, and limited data on circulating environmental EVs are available. A 4-year (2009 to 2012) surveillance study was conducted to detect nonpolio enteroviruses (NPEVs) in the urban sewage of Guangzhou city, China. After the viruses in the sewage samples were concentrated and isolated, molecular identification was used to detect and type the NPEVs. During the 4-year study, 17 different NPEV serotypes were identified in the sewage of Guangzhou city. The most common serotypes were echovirus 11 (ECHO11), ECHO6, ECHO7, and ECHO12 and coxsackie group B viruses 5 (CVB5) and CVB3. The predominant serotypes were influenced by spatial and temporal factors and differed each year. CVB5 was commonly detected in 2009 and 2010 but was rarely isolated in 2011 and 2012. In contrast, CVB3 was not observed in 2009 and 2010 but was increasingly detected in 2011 and 2012. Our study provides an overview of the serotype distribution and circulation patterns of NPEVs in the sewage of Guangzhou, China. In the absence of a systematic EV disease surveillance system, the detection and characterization of sewage-borne NPEVs will help us better understand the changes in EV disease trends and the epidemic background of circulating EVs, which could help interpret the EV trends and warn of future outbreaks in this area.
doi:10.1128/AEM.02058-13
PMCID: PMC3837794  PMID: 24096418

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