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1.  Genetic polymorphism analyses of 30 InDels in Chinese Xibe ethnic group and its population genetic differentiations with other groups 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:8260.
In the present study, we obtained population genetic data and forensic parameters of 30 InDel loci in Chinese Xibe ethnic group from northwestern China and studied the genetic relationships between the studied Xibe group and other reference groups. The observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.1704 at HLD118 locus to 0.5247 at HLD92 locus while the expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.1559 at HLD118 locus to 0.4997 at HLD101 locus. The cumulative power of exclusion and total probability of discrimination power in the studied group were 0.9867 and 0.9999999999902 for the 30 loci, respectively. Analyses of structure, PCA, interpopulation differentiations and phylogenetic tree revealed that the Xibe group had close genetic relationships with South Korean, Beijing Han and Guangdong Han groups. The results indicated that these 30 loci should only be used as a complement for autosomal STRs in paternity cases but could provide an acceptable level of discrimination in forensic identification cases in the studied Xibe group. Further studies should be conducted for better understanding of the Xibe genetic background.
doi:10.1038/srep08260
PMCID: PMC4317707  PMID: 25651970
2.  Monochromatic energy computed tomography image for active intestinal hemorrhage: A model investigation 
AIM: To investigate the value of computed tomography (CT) spectral imaging in the evaluation of intestinal hemorrhage.
METHODS: Seven blood flow rates were simulated in vitro. Energy spectral CT and mixed-energy CT scans were performed for each rate (0.5, 0.4, 0.3, 0.2, 0.1, 0.05 and 0.025 mL/min). The detection rates and the contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) of the contrast agent extravasation regions were compared between the two scanning methods in the arterial phase (AP) and the portal venous phase (PVP). Comparisons of the CNR values between the PVP and the AP were made for each energy level and carried out using a completely random t test. A χ2 test was used to compare the detection rates obtained from the two scanning methods.
RESULTS: The total detection rates for energy spectral CT and mixed-energy CT in the AP were 88.57% (31/35) and 65.71% (23/35), respectively, and the difference was significant (χ2 = 5.185, P = 0.023); the total detection rates in the PVP were 100.00% (35/35) and 91.4% (32/35), respectively, and the difference was not significant (χ2 = 1.393, P = 0.238). In the AP, the CNR of the contrast agent extravasation regions was 3.58 ± 2.09 on the mixed-energy CT images, but the CNRs were 8.78 ± 7.21 and 8.83 ± 6.75 at 50 and 60 keV, respectively, on the single-energy CT images, which were significantly different (3.58 ± 2.09 vs 8.78 ± 7.21, P = 0.031; 3.58 ± 2.09 vs 8.83 ± 6.75, P = 0.029). In the PVP, the differences between the CNRs at 40, 50 and 60 keV different monochromatic energy levels and the polychromatic energy images were significant (19.35 ± 10.89 vs 11.68 ± 6.38, P = 0.010; 20.82 ± 11.26 vs 11.68 ± 6.38, P = 0.001; 20.63 ± 10.07 vs 11.68 ± 6.38, P = 0.001). The CNRs at the different energy levels in the AP and the PVP were significantly different (t = -2.415, -2.380, -2.575, -2.762, -2.945, -3.157, -3.996 and -3.189).
CONCLUSION: Monochromatic energy imaging spectral CT is superior to polychromatic energy images for the detection of intestinal hemorrhage, and the detection was easier in the PVP compared with the AP.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v21.i1.214
PMCID: PMC4284337  PMID: 25574093
Spectral imaging; Computed tomography; Monochromatic energy imaging; Small bowel bleeding
3.  TGF-β1 induces HMGA1 expression in human breast cancer cells: Implications of the involvement of HMGA1 in TGF-β signaling 
Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling and high mobility group A (HMGA1) are known to play essential roles in the progression of breast cancer by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition. However, the correlation between TGF-β1 and HMGA1 in breast cancer cell is not yet well understood. In this study, we determined the effects of TGF-β1 on HMGA1 expression in breast cancer cells and examined the role of HMGA1 in breast cancer progression. Our results demonstrated that TGF-β1 induced the expression of HMGA1 in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, as shown by RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence staining; however, the TGF-β1-induced expression of HMGA was blocked by treatment of the cells with phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) signaling inhibitors. Moreover, the HMGA1 promoter activity was found to be activated by TGF-β1 in the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and we found that specificity protein 1 (Sp1) was involved in the TGF-β1-induced HMGA1 promoter activity, as shown by luciferase activity assay. Furthermore, the enforced expression of HMGA1 by transfection with a HMGA1 promoter enhanced cellular oncogenic properties, including proliferation, migration and invasion, and a tissue microarray revealed that breast tumors expressing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) showed higher expression levels of HMGA1 (P=0.007). In addition, higher HMGA1 expression levels were also observed in the ductal breast cancer cases compared with the lobular breast cancer cases (P=0.000). These findings establish the first link between HMGA1 and TGF-β1 in breast cancer, providing further evidence of the pivotal role of HMGA1 in breast cancer progression.
doi:10.3892/ijmm.2015.2062
PMCID: PMC4314408  PMID: 25572132
high mobility group A1; transforming growth factor-β1; breast cancer; human epidermal growth factor receptor 2
4.  Unloading Reaction during Sudden Ankle Inversion in Healthy Adults 
Gait & posture  2013;39(1):10.1016/j.gaitpost.2013.09.002.
The purpose of this research study was to determine the dynamics of early human response from sudden ankle inversion (30° tilt). Changes in vertical ground reaction forces (GRFs) following trapdoor release in a group of healthy subjects were compared to those from the similar experiments using a chair with two U shaped steel legs and matched weights of the human subjects. The experiments with the chair were further repeated with additional foam paddings at their bases to introduce visco-elastic properties to legs of the chair. Following the trapdoor release a decrease in the vertical ground reaction force under the inverting leg and subsequent increase in the supporting leg were observed in both human and chair experiments. The short onset of changes in vertical GRFs in our experiments indicate that the dynamic features of early response following trapdoor release are primarily due to mechanical events and may not be significantly affected by the neuromuscular reaction of human subjects.
doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2013.09.002
PMCID: PMC3855029  PMID: 24119321
Ankle sprain; Sudden Ankle Inversion; Unloading reaction; Neuromuscular reaction; Mechanics
5.  Clinical outcomes following sublaminar-trimming laminoplasty for extensive lumbar canal stenosis 
European Spine Journal  2013;23(1):80-86.
Purpose
Current surgical approaches for treatment of lumbar canal stenosis are often associated with relatively high rates of reoperation and recurrent stenosis. We have developed a new approach for treatment of this condition: sublaminar-trimming laminoplasty. To describe the surgical approach of sublaminar-trimming laminoplasty and to assess associated outcomes.
Methods
Patients with extensive lumbar canal stenosis who received sublaminar-trimming laminoplasty from 2006 to 2008 were considered for inclusion in the study. The surgery comprised aspects of laminotomy and laminectomy. The following were assessed before surgery and 3 years after surgery: leg and back pain by visual analog scale (VAS), extent of disability by Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), severity of back pain by Japanese Orthopedic Association Score for Back Pain (JOA), walking tolerance, and leg numbness. Complications were noted.
Results
A total of 49 patients were included in the study (mean age 65.6 ± 10.6 years). VAS leg and back pain, ODI, and JOA scores significantly changed from before surgery to 3 years after surgery (P < 0.001). Mean changes (95 % confidence interval) were −6.2 (−6.7, −5.7), −4.3 (−4.8, −3.8), −21.4 (−23.4, −19.5), and 13.4 (12.1, 14.7) for leg pain, back pain, ODI, and JOA scores, respectively. Patients experienced significant improvements in walking tolerance and leg numbness (P < 0.001). There were no instances of recurrent stenosis or postoperative spinal instability. Complications included intraoperative dural tear (n = 2), postoperative urinary tract infection (n = 2), and inadequate decompression and junctional stenosis during follow-up (both n = 1).
Conclusion
Sublaminar-trimming laminoplasty shows promise as an effective treatment for extensive lumbar canal stenosis.
doi:10.1007/s00586-013-2888-0
PMCID: PMC3897809  PMID: 23852436
Laminoplasty; Lumbar canal; Stenosis; Sublaminar-trimming; Treatment
6.  Adolescent binge ethanol treatment alters adult brain regional volumes, cortical extracellular matrix protein and behavioral flexibility 
Adolescents binge drink more than any other age group, increasing risk of disrupting the development of the frontal cortex. We hypothesized that adolescent binge drinking would lead to persistent alterations in adulthood. In this study, we modeled adolescent weekend underage binge-drinking, using adolescent mice (post-natal days [P] 28–37). The adolescent intermittent binge ethanol (AIE) treatment includes 6 binge intragastric doses of ethanol in an intermittent pattern across adolescence. Assessments were conducted in adulthood following extended abstinence to determine if there were persistent changes in adults. Reversal learning, open field and other behavioral assessments as well as brain structure using magnetic imaging and immunohistochemistry were determined. We found AIE did not impact adult Barnes Maze learning. However, AIE did cause reversal learning deficits in adults. AIE also caused structural changes in the adult brain. AIE was associated with adulthood volume enlargements in specific brain regions without changes in total brain volume. Enlarged regions included the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, 4%), cerebellum (4.5%), thalamus (2%), internal capsule (10%) and genu of the corpus callosum (7%). The enlarged OFC volume in adults after AIE is consistent with previous imaging studies in human adolescents. AIE treatment was associated with significant increases in the expression of several extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the adult OFC including WFA (55%), Brevican (32%), Neurocan (105%), Tenacin-C (25%), and HABP (5%). These findings are consistent with AIE causing persistent changes in brain structure that could contribute to a lack of behavioral flexibility.
doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2013.11.021
PMCID: PMC3913047  PMID: 24275185
underage drinking; MRI; extracellular matrix; alcohol; neurocan; behavioral flexibility
7.  Deranged NMDAergic cortico-subthalamic transmission underlies parkinsonian motor deficits 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2014;124(10):4629-4641.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most prevalent hypokinetic movement disorder, and symptomatic PD pathogenesis has been ascribed to imbalances between the direct and indirect pathways in the basal ganglia circuitry. Here, we applied glutamate receptor blockers to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of parkinsonian rats and evaluated locomotor behaviors via single-unit and local-field recordings. Using this model, we found that inhibition of NMDAergic cortico-subthalamic transmission ameliorates parkinsonian motor deficits without eliciting any vivid turning behavior and abolishes electrophysiological abnormalities, including excessive subthalamic bursts, cortico-subthalamic synchronization, and in situ beta synchronization in both the motor cortex and STN. Premotor cortex stimulation revealed that cortico-subthalamic transmission is deranged in PD and directly responsible for the excessive stimulation-dependent bursts and time-locked spikes in the STN, explaining the genesis of PD-associated pathological bursts and synchronization, respectively. Moreover, application of a dopaminergic agent via a microinfusion cannula localized the therapeutic effect to the STN, without correcting striatal dopamine deficiency. Finally, optogenetic overactivation and synchronization of cortico-subthalamic transmission alone sufficiently and instantaneously induced parkinsonian-associated locomotor dysfunction in normal mice. In addition to the classic theory emphasizing the direct-indirect pathways, our data suggest that deranged cortico-subthalamic transmission via the NMDA receptor also plays a central role in the pathophysiology of parkinsonian motor deficits.
doi:10.1172/JCI75587
PMCID: PMC4191009  PMID: 25202982
8.  Selectivity of Vibrio cholerae H-NOX for Gaseous Ligands Follows “Sliding Scale Rule” Hypothesis 
Biochemistry  2013;52(52):9432-9446.
Vc H-NOX (or VCA0720) is an H-NOX (heme-nitric oxide and oxygen binding) protein from facultative aerobic bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It shares significant sequence homology with soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), a NO sensor protein commonly found in animals. Similar to sGC, Vc H-NOX binds strongly to NO and CO with affinities of 0.27 nM and 0.77 μM, respectively, but weakly to O2. When positioned in “sliding scale” plot {Tsai, A.-L. et. al. (2012) Biochemistry, 51, pp172-86}, the line connecting logKD(NO) and logKD(CO) of Vc H-NOX is almost superimposable with that of Ns H-NOX. Therefore, the measured affinities and kinetic parameters of gaseous ligands to Vc H-NOX provide more evidence to validate the “sliding scale rule” hypothesis. Like sGC, Vc H-NOX binds NO in multiple steps, forming first a 6-coordinate heme-NO complex with a rate of 1.1 × 109 M−1s−1, and then converts to a 5c heme-NO complex at a rate also dependent on [NO]. Although the formation of oxyferrous Vc H-NOX is not detectable under normal atmospheric oxygen level, ferrous Vc H-NOX is oxidized to ferric form at a rate of 0.06 s−1 when mixed with O2. Ferric Vc H-NOX exists as a mixture of high- and low-spin states and is influenced by binding to different ligands. Characterization of both ferric and ferrous Vc H-NOX and their complexes with various ligands lay the foundation for understanding the possible dual roles in gas and redox sensing of Vc H-NOX.
doi:10.1021/bi401408x
PMCID: PMC3999706  PMID: 24351060
9.  Brd4 and JMJD6-associated Anti-pause Enhancers in Regulation of Transcriptional Pause Release 
Cell  2013;155(7):1581-1595.
SUMMARY
Distal enhancers characterized by H3K4me1 mark play critical roles in developmental and transcriptional programs. However, potential roles of specific distal regulatory elements in regulating RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) promoter-proximal pause release remain poorly investigated. Here we report that a unique cohort of jumonji C domain-containing protein 6 (JMJD6) and bromodomain-containing protein 4 (Brd4) co-bound distal enhancers, termed anti-pause enhancers (A-PEs), regulate promoter-proximal pause release of a large subset of transcription units via long-range interactions. Brd4-dependent JMJD6 recruitment on A-PEs mediates erasure of H4R3me2(s), which is directly read by 7SK snRNA, and decapping/demethylation of 7SK snRNA, ensuring the dismissal of the 7SKsnRNA/HEXIM inhibitory complex. The interactions of both JMJD6 and Brd4 with the P-TEFb complex permit its activation and pause release of regulated coding genes. The functions of JMJD6/ Brd4-associated dual histone and RNA demethylase activity on anti-pause enhancers have intriguing implications for these proteins in development, homeostasis and disease.
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.10.056
PMCID: PMC3886918  PMID: 24360279
10.  Toward Intraoperative Image-Guided Transoral Robotic Surgery 
Journal of robotic surgery  2013;7(3):217-225.
This paper presents the development and evaluation of video augmentation on the stereoscopic da Vinci S system with intraoperative image guidance for base of tongue tumor resection in transoral robotic surgery (TORS). Proposed workflow for image-guided TORS begins by identifying and segmenting critical oropharyngeal structures (e.g., the tumor and adjacent arteries and nerves) from preoperative computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. These preoperative planned data can be deformably registered to the intraoperative endoscopic view using mobile C-arm cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) [1, 2]. Augmentation of TORS endoscopic video defining surgical targets and critical structures has the potential to improve navigation, spatial orientation, and confidence in tumor resection. Experiments in animal specimens achieved statistically significant improvement in target localization error when comparing the proposed image guidance system to simulated current practice.
doi:10.1007/s11701-013-0420-5
PMCID: PMC4267258  PMID: 25525474
Transoral Robotic Surgery; Stereoscopic Video Augmentation; Intraoperative Image Guidance; Cone Beam Computed Tomography; Minimally Invasive Surgery; Deformable Registration
11.  Enantio-, Diastereo- and Regioselective Iridium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation of Acyclic β-Ketoesters 
Journal of the American Chemical Society  2013;135(46):10.1021/ja4097829.
The first regio-, diastereo- and enantioselective allylic alkylation of acyclic β-ketoesters to form vicinal tertiary and all-carbon quaternary stereocenters is reported. Critical to the successful development of this method was the employment of iridium catalysis in concert with N-aryl-phosphoramidite ligands. Broad functional group tolerance is observed at the keto-, ester-, and α-positions of the nucleophile. Various transformations demonstrating the utility of this method for rapidly accessing complex enantioenriched compounds are reported.
doi:10.1021/ja4097829
PMCID: PMC3881553  PMID: 24160327
12.  Effect of cyclin-dependent kinase 7 silencing on cisplatin sensitivity in endometrial carcinoma cells 
Molecular Medicine Reports  2014;11(3):1745-1751.
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7) silencing on the sensitivity of the HEC-1-A endometrial carcinoma cell line to cisplatin [cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (II), or DDP]. Four CDK7 siRNA fragments were designed and synthesized based on the gene sequence of CDK7 and transfected into HEC-1-A cells. The RNA interference of the fragments was confirmed by semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot analyses. The CDK7-423 siRNA fragment exhibited the most marked silencing of CDK-7 (>70%), and was chosen for the subsequent experiments in HEC-1-A endometrial carcinoma cells. The sensitivity of the cells to a chemotherapeutic agent (cisplatin) was determined before and after transfection of the siRNA, using a MTT cytotoxicity assay, flow cytometry and Hoechst/propidium iodide (PI) double-staining immunofluorescence microscopy. The results of the MTT cytotoxicity assay showed that the half maximal inhibitory concentration of cisplatin was reduced from 45.12 μg/ml to 3.200 μg/ml following the inhibition of CDK7 expression levels, indicating a significantly increased cytotoxicity in the treated cells (P<0.05). The flow cytometry analysis showed that the mean rate of apoptosis in the CDK7 low-expression group was 37.57%, which was significantly higher than the rate in the parental cells (11.66%) (P<0.05). Hoechst/PI co-immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that the number of apoptotic bodies in the CDK7 low-expression HEC-1-A cells was significantly increased as compared with the parental cells. Downregulation of CDK7 expression levels in HEC-1-A endometrial carcinoma cells via the transfection of CDK7 siRNA may significantly enhance cancer cell sensitivity to cisplatin chemotherapy and increasing apoptosis. CDK7 is a novel promising treatment for endometrial carcinoma that requires further in-depth study.
doi:10.3892/mmr.2014.2980
PMCID: PMC4270335  PMID: 25411854
endometrial carcinoma; CDK7; RNA interference; cisplatin; chemotherapy
13.  Adolescent, but Not Adult, Binge Ethanol Exposure Leads to Persistent Global Reductions of Choline Acetyltransferase Expressing Neurons in Brain 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(11):e113421.
During the adolescent transition from childhood to adulthood, notable maturational changes occur in brain neurotransmitter systems. The cholinergic system is composed of several distinct nuclei that exert neuromodulatory control over cognition, arousal, and reward. Binge drinking and alcohol abuse are common during this stage, which might alter the developmental trajectory of this system leading to long-term changes in adult neurobiology. In Experiment 1, adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5.0 g/kg, i.g., 2-day on/2-day off from postnatal day [P] 25 to P55) treatment led to persistent, global reductions of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expression. Administration of the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist lipopolysaccharide to young adult rats (P70) produced a reduction in ChAT+IR that mimicked AIE. To determine if the binge ethanol-induced ChAT decline was unique to the adolescent, Experiment 2 examined ChAT+IR in the basal forebrain following adolescent (P28–P48) and adult (P70–P90) binge ethanol exposure. Twenty-five days later, ChAT expression was reduced in adolescent, but not adult, binge ethanol-exposed animals. In Experiment 3, expression of ChAT and vesicular acetylcholine transporter expression was found to be significantly reduced in the alcoholic basal forebrain relative to moderate drinking controls. Together, these data suggest that adolescent binge ethanol decreases adult ChAT expression, possibly through neuroimmune mechanisms, which might impact adult cognition, arousal, or reward sensitivity.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0113421
PMCID: PMC4236188  PMID: 25405505
14.  Analysis of the CYP2C19 Genetic Polymorphism in Han and Uyghur Patients with Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases in the Kashi Area of Xinjiang 
Background
The aim of this study was to analyze the CYP2C19 genetic polymorphism among Han and Uyghur patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in the Kashi area of Xinjiang.
Material/Methods
We enrolled 1020 patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, including 220 Han subjects and 800 Uyghur subjects. We used the gene chip method to detect polymorphisms in CYP2C19. The allele frequencies of CYP2C19 and the metabolic phenotype frequencies were then compared between the 2 ethnic groups.
Results
The frequency of CYP2C19 *1 was 0.6454 in Han subjects and 0.7869 in Uyghur subjects, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The frequency of CYP2C19 *2 was 0.3273 in Han subjects and 0.1837 in Uyghur subjects (P<0.05). The frequency of the homozygous extensive metabolizer phenotype was 42.72% and 62.13% in Han and Uyghur subjects, respectively (P<0.01). The frequency of the heterozygous extensive metabolizer phenotype was 43.64% and 33.13% in Han and Uyghur subjects, respectively (P<0.01). The frequency of poor metabolizers in Han and Uyghur subjects was 13.64% and 4.76%, respectively (P<0.01).
Conclusions
Among patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases located in the Kashgar Prefecture of Xinjiang, there is a differential distribution of CYP2C19 genotypes between the Han and Uyghur populations. Uyghur patients showed higher frequencies of extensive metabolizer genotypes than Han patients, while Han patients showed higher frequencies of poor metabolizer genotypes than Uyghur patients.
doi:10.12659/MSM.892475
PMCID: PMC4237078  PMID: 25381554
Cytochrome-c Oxidase Deficiency; Genes, vif; Genotyping Techniques
15.  UbcH10 overexpression increases carcinogenesis and blocks ALLN susceptibility in colorectal cancer 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:6910.
Cyclins are essential for cell proliferation, the cell cycle and tumorigenesis in all eukaryotes. UbcH10 regulates the degradation of cyclins in a ubiquitin-dependent manner. Here, we report that UbcH10 is likely involved in tumorigenesis. We found that cancer cells exposed to n-acetyl-leu-leu-norleucinal (ALLN) treatment and UbcH10 depletion exhibit a synergistic therapeutic effect. Abundant expression of UbcH10 drives resistance to ALLN-induced cell death, while cells deficient in UbcH10 were susceptible to ALLN-induced cell death. The depletion of UbcH10 hindered tumorigenesis both in vitro and in vivo, as assessed by colony formation, growth curve, soft agar and xenograft assays. These phenotypes were efficiently rescued through the introduction of recombinant UbcH10. In the UbcH10-deficient cells, alterations in the expression of cyclins led to cell cycle changes and subsequently decreases in tumorigenesis. The tumorigenesis of xenograft tumors from UbcH10-deficient cells treated with ALLN was decreased relative to wild-type cells treated with ALLN in nude mice. On the molecular level, we observed that UbcH10 deficiency enhances the activation of caspase 8 and caspase 3 but not caspase 9 to impair cell viability upon ALLN treatment. Collectively, our results suggest that, as an oncogene, UbcH10 is a potential drug target for the treatment of colorectal cancer.
doi:10.1038/srep06910
PMCID: PMC4223683  PMID: 25376843
16.  Draft Genome Sequence of a Novel SAR11 Clade Species Abundant in a Tibetan Lake 
Genome Announcements  2014;2(6):e01137-14.
SAR11 clade bacteria are abundant and play a key role in the nutrient cycles of marine and, presumably, inland aquatic environments. We report here the draft genome sequence of a novel species in the SAR11 cluster, reconstructed from a metagenomic data set obtained from a Tibetan lake.
doi:10.1128/genomeA.01137-14
PMCID: PMC4223464  PMID: 25377713
17.  Incidence of recent HCV infection among persons seeking voluntary counselling and testing for HIV and sexually transmitted infections in Taiwan 
Journal of the International AIDS Society  2014;17(4Suppl 3):19640.
Introduction
The incidence of recent hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) infection has been noted to be increasing among men who have sex with men (MSM), especially those with HIV infection, in several resource-rich settings. In Taiwan, the incidence of recent HCV infection increased from 0 in 1994–2000, 2.29 in 2001–2005 to 10.13 per 1000 person-years of follow-up (PYFU) in 2006–2010. In this study, we aimed to estimate the incidence rate of recent HCV infection among those individuals who sought voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) service at a University Hospital.
Methods
Between May 2006 and December 2013, 18,246 tests for HIV antibody were performed among 12,143 individuals at the VCT services. A total of 2157 clients without HIV or HCV infection at baseline were included for estimation of incidence rate of recent HCV infection. Antibodies to HCV were determined with a third-generation enzyme immunoassay. A nested case-control study with four matched controls without HCV seroconversion for one HCV seroconverter was conducted to investigate the factors associated with recent HCV infection. Phylogenetic analysis was performed among the HCV strains obtained from VCT clients and patients coinfected with HIV and HCV between 2006 and 2013.
Results
During the study period, 2157 clients received a total of 8260 tests. The HCV seroprevalence at baseline was 0.3%. Of the 2150 HCV-negative clients who contributed 5074.99 PYFU, 17 developed HCV seroconversion (incidence rate, 3.35 per 1000 PYFU; 95% CI, 1.76–4.94); the rate increased from 2.28 per 1000 PYFU (95% CI, 0.05–4.51) in 2006–2009, to 3.33 per 1000 PYFU (95% CI, 0.86–5.80) in 2010–2011, to 4.94 per 1000 PYFU (95% CI, 0.99–8.99) in 2012–2013. In case-control study, HCV seroconverters were more likely to have HIV-infected partners, recent syphilis and a Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) titre of 4 or greater. In multivariate analysis, having HIV-infected partners remained as the only independent associated factors with HCV seroconversion (AOR, 6.931; 95% CI, 1.064–45.163). Phylogenetic analysis revealed transmission pairs and clusters, with most clustered sequences derived from MSM.
Conclusions
Similar to the observation among HIV-infected patients who are not IDUs, increasing trends of recent HCV infection also occur among the individuals who sought VCT services in Taiwan. Having HIV-infected partners is independently associated with recent HCV seroconversion.
doi:10.7448/IAS.17.4.19640
PMCID: PMC4224870  PMID: 25394144
18.  Effectiveness of a reduced dose of efavirenz plus 2 NRTIs as maintenance antiretroviral therapy with the guidance of therapeutic drug monitoring 
Journal of the International AIDS Society  2014;17(4Suppl 3):19524.
Introduction
Wide inter-patient variation of plasma efavirenz (EFV) concentrations has been observed, and a substantial proportion of HIV-positive patients may have unnecessarily higher plasma EFV concentrations than recommended while receiving EFV-containing combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) at the currently recommended daily dose of 600 mg. A lower daily dose (400 mg) of EFV has recently been demonstrated to be as efficacious as the recommended 600 mg when combined with tenofovir/mtricitabine in a multinational clinical trial, with a lower incidence of adverse effects. We aimed to use a therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM)-guided strategy to optimize the EFV dose in HIV-positive Taiwanese patients.
Materials and Methods
The plasma EFV concentrations at 12 hours (C12) after taking the previous dose were determined among HIV-positive adults who had received EFV-containing cART with viral suppression (plasma HIV RNA load (PVL) <200 copies/mL). For those with EFV C12 >2.0 mg/L, EFV (Stocrit, MSD) was reduced to half a tablet daily. Determinations of EFV C12 were repeated 4–12 weeks after switch using high-performance liquid chromatography. CYP2B6 G516T polymorphisms were determined using polymerase-chain-reaction restriction fragment-length polymorphism.
Results
Between April 2013 and June 2014, 111 patients (95.5% male; mean age, 39 years; 96.4% with PVL <40 copies/ml; 26.4% HBsAg-positive and 7.5% anti-HCV-positive) with plasma C12 efavirenz >2.0 mg/L were switched to a reduced dose (1/2# hs) of EFV; 45.5% of them had CYP2B6 G516T or TT genotypes; and 32.4% weighed 60 kg or less. The mean baseline EFV C12 before switch was 3.65 mg/L (interquartile range (IQR), 2.62–4.17) for 111 patients, which decreased to 1.96 mg/L (IQR, 1.53–2.33) for 64 patients who had completed follow-up of C12 EFV 4 weeks after switch, with a reduction of 49.4% (IQR, 38.9–57.0%). As of 10 July, 2014, all of the 38 patients (100%) who had completed at least one follow-up of PVL achieved undetectable PVL (<40 copies/ml) following switch to a reduced dose of EFV after a mean observation of 13 weeks (IQR, 7–15 weeks).
Conclusions
Switch to cART containing a half tablet of EFV (1/2#) in HIV-positive Taiwanese patients with higher plasma EFV concentrations who had achieved viral suppression could maintain successful viral suppression with the guidance of TDM.
doi:10.7448/IAS.17.4.19524
PMCID: PMC4224938  PMID: 25394033
19.  Seroincidence of HIV and prevalence of transmitted drug resistance of HIV-1 strains among persons seeking voluntary counselling and testing in Taiwan 
Journal of the International AIDS Society  2014;17(4Suppl 3):19758.
Introduction
The total case number of persons who are newly diagnosed with HIV continues to increase in Taiwan and men who have sex with men (MSM) have re-emerged as the leading risk group for HIV transmission. In this study, we aimed to estimate the incidence rate of HIV infection among those individuals who sought voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) service at a university hospital.
Methods
Between 1 April, 2006 and 31 December, 2013, 18,246 tests for HIV antibody were performed among 12143 individuals at the VCT service. A total of 2157 individuals who tested negative for anti-HIV antibody had subsequent follow-up tests at the same VCT service, which composed the study population for estimation of incidence rate of recent HIV infection. The BED assays were used to identify recent HIV infections that occurred within the previous six months before seeking VCT service.
Results
During the 6.5-year study period, 647 individuals were diagnosed as being HIV-positive, with an overall HIV seroprevalence of 3.55% (95% CI 3.27–3.82). The overall incidence rate of HIV infection was estimated 4.13 per 100 person-years of follow-up (95% CI 3.67–4.69 per 100 person-years of follow-up). MSM had an estimated 10-fold higher seroprevalence and seroincidence of HIV than heterosexuals. Of 647 clients testing positive for HIV, 603 clients were MSM (93.2%) and 477 patients (70.8%) subsequently sought HIV care at the hospital; 226 (47.4%) were diagnosed as having recent HIV infections by the BED assay, while 244 (51.2%) long-term infection and 7 without data by the BED assay. Of those patients, 173 (75.6%) and 178 patients (73.0%) with recent HIV infection and long-term infection had data of transmitted drug resistance mutations, respectively. The prevalence of transmitted drug resistance mutations to any class of antiretroviral therapy was 9.0% and 10.6% (p=0.68), respectively, of the HIV-1 strains from the patients with recent HIV infection and long-term infection, respectively.
Conclusions
The seroincidence rate of HIV among persons seeking VCT was estimated 4.13 per 100 person-years of follow-up. The prevalence of transmitted drug resistance to any class of antiretroviral agents was similar between those who were recently infected with HIV and those who had long-term infection in Taiwan.
doi:10.7448/IAS.17.4.19758
PMCID: PMC4225397  PMID: 25397503
20.  Antiretroviral therapy (ART) management of Low-Level Viremia in Taiwan (ALLEVIATE) 
Journal of the International AIDS Society  2014;17(4Suppl 3):19785.
Introduction
This retrospective study aimed to investigate that if switch of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) would result in viral suppression (<40 copies/mL) at 48 weeks for patients with persistent low-level viremia after having received cART for six months or more at two hospitals designated for HIV care in Taiwan.
Materials and Methods
Between January 2001 and January 2013, patients were enrolled if plasma HIV RNA load (PVL) were >20 to <1000 copies/mL detected for six months or more [1, 2]. Using a standardized data collection form, we recorded data of PVL and CD4 count before cART and at the detection of low-level viremia, serologies for hepatitis B and C virus, risk factors, duration of cART exposure, years of HIV diagnosed and ever experiencing treatment failure. The strategy of switch is based on the clinical guidelines of BHIVA, which suggest change of cART from non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (nNRTIs) or unboosted protease inhibitor (PI) to boosted PI, newer boosted PI or ARV of different mechanism [3].
Results
In this study, 165 patients were enrolled, 119 patients (72.1%) did not switch (Group 1), and 46 patients (27.9%) switched previous regimens to ARV of different mechanism (Group 2). The two groups differed significantly in the proportion of injecting drug users (IDU) (Group 1 vs Group 2, 10.9 vs 26.1%) and median PVL (67 vs 159 copies/mL), and the proportion of PVL<200 copies/mL (84.0% vs 58.7%) when low-level viremia was first detected. In Group 1, 39 (32.8%) continued two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) plus nNRTI; 29 (24.4%) 2 NRTIs plus PI, 47 (39.5%) 2 NRTIs plus boosted PI, and 4 (3.3%) 2 NRTIs plus integrase inhibitor (II). In Group 2, two (4.3%) switched to 2 NRTIs plus PI, 38 (82.6%) 2 NRTIs plus boosted PI, three (6.5%) 2 NRTIs plus II and three (6.5%) boosted PI plus II. In multivariate analysis, IDUs (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 6.757; 95% CI 2.427–18.868) and PVL of 200–999 copies/mL at enrollment (AOR, 4.902; 95% CI 1.992–12.048) were more likely to be switched. At 48 weeks, patients in Group 2 were more likely to achieve PVL<40 copies/mL than Group 1 (82.6% vs 63.0%, p=0.016), while no difference was observed in achieving PVL <200 copies/mL between the two groups (95.7% vs 92.4%, p=0.729).
Conclusions
According to the clinical guidelines of BHIVA, patients with low-level viremia who switched to cART consisting of 2 NRTIs plus boosted PI or newer mechanisms were more likely to re-establish viral suppression to <40 copies/mL at week 48.
doi:10.7448/IAS.17.4.19785
PMCID: PMC4225405  PMID: 25397529
21.  Astaxanthin inhibits apoptosis in alveolar epithelial cells type II in vivo and in vitro through the ROS-dependent mitochondrial signalling pathway 
Oxidative stress is an important molecular mechanism underlying lung fibrosis. The mitochondrion is a major organelle for oxidative stress in cells. Therefore, blocking the mitochondrial signalling pathway may be the best therapeutic manoeuver to ameliorate lung fibrosis. Astaxanthin (AST) is an excellent antioxidant, but no study has addressed the pathway of AST against pulmonary oxidative stress and free radicals by the mitochondrion-mediated signalling pathway. In this study, we investigated the antioxidative effects of AST against H2O2- or bleomycin (BLM)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in alveolar epithelial cells type II (AECs-II) in vivo and in vitro. Our data show that AST blocks H2O2- or BLM-induced ROS generation and dose-dependent apoptosis in AECs-II, as characterized by changes in cell and mitochondria morphology, translocation of apoptotic proteins, inhibition of cytochrome c (Cyt c) release, and the activation of caspase-9, caspase-3, Nrf-2 and other cytoprotective genes. These data suggest that AST inhibits apoptosis in AECs-II cells through the ROS-dependent mitochondrial signalling pathway and may be of potential therapeutic value in lung fibrosis treatment.
doi:10.1111/jcmm.12347
PMCID: PMC4224554  PMID: 25215580
lung fibrosis; oxidative stress; astaxanthin; ROS; mitochondrial signalling pathway
22.  Factors Predict Prolonged Wait Time and Longer Duration of Radiotherapy in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Multilevel Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e109930.
Purpose
Radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy is the primary treatment for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). It wastes time from diagnosis to treatment. Treatment time of radiotherapy generally takes at least seven weeks. The current study aimed to evaluate factors associated with prolonged wait time and longer duration of radiotherapy in NPC patients.
Methods and Materials
From Taiwan's National Health Insurance research database, we identified 3,605 NPC patients treated with radiotherapy between 2008 and 2011. Wait time was calculated from the date of diagnosis to the start of radiotherapy. The impact of each variable on wait time and duration of radiotherapy was examined by multilevel analysis using a random-intercept model.
Results
The mean wait time and duration of radiotherapy were 1.78±3.33 and 9.72±7.27 weeks, respectively. Multilevel analysis revealed prolonged wait time in patients aged 45–65 years, those receiving radiotherapy alone, those with more comorbidities, those with low SES, and those living in eastern Taiwan. A prolonged duration of radiotherapy was associated with receipt of concurrent chemoradiotherapy, more comorbidities, and moderate SES.
Conclusions
Understanding the factors associated with longer wait times and duration of radiotherapy in patients with NPC may help healthcare providers better assist both these patients and potentially those with other head-and-neck cancers.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0109930
PMCID: PMC4196956  PMID: 25314009
23.  Aggregation of Whey Protein Hydrolysate Using Alcalase 2.4 L 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e109439.
Here, we describe peptide aggregation, which is also known as enzymatic protein resynthesis. Whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) is the starting material for assembling peptides. Analyses of the involved amino acids, intrinsic fluorescence, fluorescence phase diagram, secondary structure, turbidity, and surface hydrophobicity were performed to investigate the reaction process. The aggregation mechanism consists of two parts: 1) formation and 2) aggregation of the building blocks that form the ordered secondary β-sheet structure. Constructing the building blocks requires at least one intermediate state, which is formed after 0.5 hours. Non-synergistic changes in the secondary and tertiary structures then allow the intermediate state to emerge.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0109439
PMCID: PMC4188594  PMID: 25290460
24.  miR-98 suppresses melanoma metastasis through a negative feedback loop with its target gene IL-6 
Dysregulated microRNA (miRNA) expression has a critical role in tumor development and metastasis. However, the mechanism by which miRNAs control melanoma metastasis is unknown. Here, we report reduced miR-98 expression in melanoma tissues with increasing tumor stage as well as metastasis; its expression is also negatively associated with melanoma patient survival. Furthermore, we demonstrate that miR-98 inhibits melanoma cell migration in vitro as well as metastatic tumor size in vivo. We also found that IL-6 is a target gene of miR-98, and IL-6 represses miR-98 levels via the Stat3-NF-κB-lin28B pathway. In an in vivo melanoma model, we demonstrate that miR-98 reduces melanoma metastasis and increases survival in part by reducing IL-6 levels; it also decreases Stat3 and p65 phosphorylation as well as lin28B mRNA levels. These results suggest that miR-98 inhibits melanoma metastasis in part through a novel miR-98-IL-6-negative feedback loop.
doi:10.1038/emm.2014.63
PMCID: PMC4221693  PMID: 25277211
25.  EUS assisted transmural cholecystogastrostomy fistula creation as a bridge for endoscopic internal gallbladder therapy using a novel fully covered metal stent 
BMC Gastroenterology  2014;14(1):164.
Background
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has become the “gold standard” for treating symptomatic gallstones. Innovative methods, such as a scarless therapeutic procedure through a natural orifice are being introduced, and include transgastric or transcolonic endoscopic cholecystectomy. However, before clinical implementation, instruments still need modification, and a more convenient treatment is still needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of endoscopic internal gallbladder therapy such as cholecystolithotomy in an animal survival model.
Methods
Four pigs underwent endoscopic-ultrasound (EUS)-guided cholecystogastrostomy and the placement of a novel covered mental stent. Four weeks later the stents were removed and an endoscope was advanced into the gallbladder via the fistula, and cholecystolithotomy was performed. Two weeks later the pigs were sacrificed, and the healing of the fistulas was assessed.
Results
EUS-guided cholecystogastrostomy with mental stent deployment was successfully performed in all the animals. Four weeks after the procedure, the fistulas had formed and all the stents were removed. Endoscopic cholecystolithotomy was performed through each fistula. All the animals survived until they were sacrificed 2 weeks later. The fistulas were found to be completely healed.
Conclusions
This study reports the first endoscopic transmural cholecystolithotomy after placement of a novel mental stent in an animal survival model.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-14-164
PMCID: PMC4189557  PMID: 25249425
Endoscopic-ultrasound; Cholecystectomy; Mental stent

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