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1.  Exemestane Versus Anastrozole in Postmenopausal Women With Early Breast Cancer: NCIC CTG MA.27—A Randomized Controlled Phase III Trial 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2013;31(11):1398-1404.
Purpose
In patients with hormone-dependent postmenopausal breast cancer, standard adjuvant therapy involves 5 years of the nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors anastrozole and letrozole. The steroidal inhibitor exemestane is partially non–cross-resistant with nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors and is a mild androgen and could prove superior to anastrozole regarding efficacy and toxicity, specifically with less bone loss.
Patients and Methods
We designed an open-label, randomized, phase III trial of 5 years of exemestane versus anastrozole with a two-sided test of superiority to detect a 2.4% improvement with exemestane in 5-year event-free survival (EFS). Secondary objectives included assessment of overall survival, distant disease–free survival, incidence of contralateral new primary breast cancer, and safety.
Results
In the study, 7,576 women (median age, 64.1 years) were enrolled. At median follow-up of 4.1 years, 4-year EFS was 91% for exemestane and 91.2% for anastrozole (stratified hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.18; P = .85). Overall, distant disease–free survival and disease-specific survival were also similar. In all, 31.6% of patients discontinued treatment as a result of adverse effects, concomitant disease, or study refusal. Osteoporosis/osteopenia, hypertriglyceridemia, vaginal bleeding, and hypercholesterolemia were less frequent on exemestane, whereas mild liver function abnormalities and rare episodes of atrial fibrillation were less frequent on anastrozole. Vasomotor and musculoskeletal symptoms were similar between arms.
Conclusion
This first comparison of steroidal and nonsteroidal classes of aromatase inhibitors showed neither to be superior in terms of breast cancer outcomes as 5-year initial adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal breast cancer by two-way test. Less toxicity on bone is compatible with one hypothesis behind MA.27 but requires confirmation. Exemestane should be considered another option as up-front adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal hormone receptor–positive breast cancer.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2012.44.7805
PMCID: PMC3612593  PMID: 23358971
2.  Integrating Water Flow, Locomotor Performance and Respiration of Chinese Sturgeon during Multiple Fatigue-Recovery Cycles 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e94345.
The objective of this study is to provide information on metabolic changes occurring in Chinese sturgeon (an ecologically important endangered fish) subjected to repeated cycles of fatigue and recovery and the effect on swimming capability. Fatigue-recovery cycles likely occur when fish are moving through the fishways of large dams and the results of this investigation are important for fishway design and conservation of wild Chinese sturgeon populations. A series of four stepped velocity tests were carried out successively in a Steffensen-type swimming respirometer and the effects of repeated fatigue-recovery on swimming capability and metabolism were measured. Significant results include: (1) critical swimming speed decreased from 4.34 bl/s to 2.98 bl/s; (2) active oxygen consumption (i.e. the difference between total oxygen consumption and routine oxygen consumption) decreased from 1175 mgO2/kg to 341 mgO2/kg and was the primary reason for the decrease in Ucrit; (3) excess post-exercise oxygen consumption decreased from 36 mgO2/kg to 22 mgO2/kg; (4) with repeated step tests, white muscle (anaerobic metabolism) began contributing to propulsion at lower swimming speeds. Therefore, Chinese sturgeon conserve energy by swimming efficiently and have high fatigue recovery capability. These results contribute to our understanding of the physiology of the Chinese sturgeon and support the conservation efforts of wild populations of this important species.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0094345
PMCID: PMC3979774  PMID: 24714585
3.  The Caenorhabditis elegans Myc-Mondo/Mad Complexes Integrate Diverse Longevity Signals 
PLoS Genetics  2014;10(4):e1004278.
The Myc family of transcription factors regulates a variety of biological processes, including the cell cycle, growth, proliferation, metabolism, and apoptosis. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the “Myc interaction network” consists of two opposing heterodimeric complexes with antagonistic functions in transcriptional control: the Myc-Mondo:Mlx transcriptional activation complex and the Mad:Max transcriptional repression complex. In C. elegans, Mondo, Mlx, Mad, and Max are encoded by mml-1, mxl-2, mdl-1, and mxl-1, respectively. Here we show a similar antagonistic role for the C. elegans Myc-Mondo and Mad complexes in longevity control. Loss of mml-1 or mxl-2 shortens C. elegans lifespan. In contrast, loss of mdl-1 or mxl-1 increases longevity, dependent upon MML-1:MXL-2. The MML-1:MXL-2 and MDL-1:MXL-1 complexes function in both the insulin signaling and dietary restriction pathways. Furthermore, decreased insulin-like/IGF-1 signaling (ILS) or conditions of dietary restriction increase the accumulation of MML-1, consistent with the notion that the Myc family members function as sensors of metabolic status. Additionally, we find that Myc family members are regulated by distinct mechanisms, which would allow for integrated control of gene expression from diverse signals of metabolic status. We compared putative target genes based on ChIP-sequencing data in the modENCODE project and found significant overlap in genomic DNA binding between the major effectors of ILS (DAF-16/FoxO), DR (PHA-4/FoxA), and Myc family (MDL-1/Mad/Mxd) at common target genes, which suggests that diverse signals of metabolic status converge on overlapping transcriptional programs that influence aging. Consistent with this, there is over-enrichment at these common targets for genes that function in lifespan, stress response, and carbohydrate metabolism. Additionally, we find that Myc family members are also involved in stress response and the maintenance of protein homeostasis. Collectively, these findings indicate that Myc family members integrate diverse signals of metabolic status, to coordinate overlapping metabolic and cytoprotective transcriptional programs that determine the progression of aging.
Author Summary
Transcription factors are essential proteins that regulate the expression of genes and play an important role in most biological processes. The results of our study presented here demonstrate for the first time a role in aging for a small family of transcription factors in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans. Importantly, these proteins have close relatives in higher organisms, including humans that influence metabolism, cell replication, and have been implicated in the development of cancer. Moreover, the loss of one homologue has also been implicated in Williams-Beuren syndrome, a disease characterized in part by signs of premature aging. Our data demonstrate that these transcription factors function within insulin/IGF-1 signaling and dietary restriction, two highly conserved pathways that link nutrient sensing to longevity. Taken together, our findings provide exciting new insight into a family of proteins that may be essential for linking nutrient sensing to longevity and have implications for the improvement of human healthspan.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004278
PMCID: PMC3974684  PMID: 24699255
4.  Intraobserver reliability of contact pachymetry in children 
Background
Central corneal thickness (CCT) is an important measurement in the treatment and management of pediatric glaucoma and potentially of refractive error, but data regarding reliability of CCT measurement in children are limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of CCT measurement using handheld contact pachymetry in children.
Methods
We conducted a multicenter intraobserver test–retest reliability study of more than 3,400 healthy eyes in children aged from birth to 17 years using a handheld contact pachymeter (Pachmate DGH55) in two clinical settings—with topical anesthesia in the office and under general anesthesia in a surgical facility.
Results
The overall standard error of measurement, including only measurements with standard deviation ≤5 μm, was 8 μm; the corresponding coefficient of repeatability, or limits within which 95% of test–retest differences fell, was ±22.3 μm. However, standard error of measurement increased as CCT increased, from 6.8 μm for CCT less than 525 μm, to 12.9 μm for CCT 625 μm and higher. The standard error of measurement including measurements with standard deviation >5 μm was 10.5 μm. Age, sex, race/ethnicity group, and examination setting did not influence the magnitude of test–retest differences.
Conclusions
CCT measurement reliability in children using the Pachmate DGH55 handheld contact pachymeter is similar to that reported for adults. Because thicker CCT measurements are less reliable than thinner measurements, a second measure may be helpful when the first exceeds 575 μm. Reliability is also improved by disregarding measurements with instrument-reported standard deviations >5 μm.
doi:10.1016/j.jaapos.2012.11.005
PMCID: PMC3639436  PMID: 23622447
5.  Analysis of Early Hypertension and Clinical Outcome With Bevacizumab: Results From Seven Phase III Studies 
The Oncologist  2013;18(3):273-280.
To assess the prognostic and predictive value of bevacizumab-related hypertension, hypertension and efficacy outcomes for seven company-sponsored placebo-controlled phase III studies of bevacizumab were analyzed. Early treatment-related BP increases were not found to have general prognostic importance for patients with advanced cancer.
Background.
Hypertension is associated with antivascular endothelial growth factor treatment, but the clinical implications of hypertension are uncertain. To assess the prognostic and predictive value of bevacizumab-related hypertension, a comprehensive analysis of whether hypertension and efficacy outcomes are associated was conducted on seven company-sponsored placebo-controlled phase III studies of bevacizumab.
Methods.
Patient-specific data were available from 6,486 patients with metastatic colorectal, breast, non-small cell lung, pancreatic, and renal cell cancers. Primary hypertension endpoint was a blood pressure (BP) increase of >20 mmHg systolic or >10 mmHg diastolic within the first 60 days of treatment. Additional endpoints included other predefined thresholds of change in BP and severity of hypertension graded using the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. To analyze the general prognostic importance of an early BP increase, multivariate Cox regression models were used to assess the correlation between BP changes and progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) outcomes in the control groups. To analyze whether early BP increases could predict for benefit from bevacizumab, similar analyses were conducted in the bevacizumab-treated and control groups.
Results.
In six of seven studies, early BP increase was neither predictive of clinical benefit from bevacizumab nor prognostic for the course of the disease. For study AVF2107g, early increased BP was associated with longer PFS and OS times in the bevacizumab group but shorter OS time in the control group.
Conclusions.
Early treatment-related BP increases do not predict clinical benefit from bevacizumab based on PFS or OS outcomes. BP increases do not appear to have general prognostic importance for patients with advanced cancer.
doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2012-0339
PMCID: PMC3607523  PMID: 23485622
Bevacizumab; Hypertension; Clinical outcome; Prognostic factor; Predictive factor
6.  Chromatin: Receiver and Quarterback for Cellular Signals 
Cell  2013;152(4):685-689.
Summary
Signal transduction pathways ultimately converge upon sequence-specific DNA binding factors to reprogram gene expression and affect necessary changes in cellular growth or behavior. Transcription factors, in turn, team up with chromatin modifying activities, including enzymes that post-translationally modify histones. Chromatin is also dynamically modified to regulate DNA accessibility for replication and repair. However, chromatin is not simply an endpoint for signaling pathways. Histone modifications can relay signals to other proteins to trigger more immediate responses than can be achieved through altered gene transcription. Such signaling might be especially important to time-urgent processes such as the execution of cell cycle check points, chromosome segregation, or exit from mitosis. In addition, histone modifying enzymes often have multiple non-histone substrates, and coordination of activity towards different targets might direct signals both to and from chromatin.
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.01.017
PMCID: PMC3644977  PMID: 23375745
7.  Memory regulatory T cells reside in human skin 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2014;124(3):1027-1036.
Regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are characterized by expression of the transcription factor Foxp3, are a dynamic and heterogeneous population of cells that control immune responses and prevent autoimmunity. We recently identified a subset of Tregs in murine skin with properties typical of memory cells and defined this population as memory Tregs (mTregs). Due to the importance of these cells in regulating tissue inflammation in mice, we analyzed this cell population in humans and found that almost all Tregs in normal skin had an activated memory phenotype. Compared with mTregs in peripheral blood, cutaneous mTregs had unique cell surface marker expression and cytokine production. In normal human skin, mTregs preferentially localized to hair follicles and were more abundant in skin with high hair density. Sequence comparison of TCRs from conventional memory T helper cells and mTregs isolated from skin revealed little homology between the two cell populations, suggesting that they recognize different antigens. Under steady-state conditions, mTregs were nonmigratory and relatively unresponsive; however, in inflamed skin from psoriasis patients, mTregs expanded, were highly proliferative, and produced low levels of IL-17. Taken together, these results identify a subset of Tregs that stably resides in human skin and suggest that these cells are qualitatively defective in inflammatory skin disease.
doi:10.1172/JCI72932
PMCID: PMC3934172  PMID: 24509084
8.  Tetracycline to Prevent Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor-Induced Skin Rashes: Results of a Placebo-Controlled Trial from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group (N03CB)1 
Cancer  2008;113(4):847-853.
PURPOSE
Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors are effective cancer therapies, but they cause a rash in greater than 50% of patients. This study tested tetracycline for rash prevention.
METHODS
This placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial enrolled patients who were starting cancer treatment with an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor. Patients could not have had a rash at enrollment. All were randomly assigned to either tetracycline 500 milligrams orally twice a day for 28 days versus a placebo. Patients were monitored for rash (monthly physician assessment and weekly patient-reported questionnaires), quality of life (SKINDEX-16), and adverse events. Monitoring occurred during the 4-week intervention and then for an additional 4 weeks. The primary objective was to compare the incidence of rash between study arms, and 30 patients per arm provided a 90% probability of detecting a 40% difference in incidence with a p-value of 0.05 (2-sided).
RESULTS
Sixty-one evaluable patients were enrolled, and arms were well balanced on baseline characteristics, rates of drop out, and rates of discontinuation of the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor. Rash incidence was comparable across arms. Physicians reported that 16 tetracycline-treated patients (70%) and 22 placebo-exposed patients (76%) developed a rash (p=0.61). Tetracycline appears to have lessened rash severity, although high drop out rates invite caution in interpreting findings. By week 4, physician-reported grade 2 rash occurred in 17% of tetracycline-treated patients (n=4) and in 55% of placebo-exposed patients (n=16); (p=0.04). Tetracycline-treated patients reported better scores, as per the SKINDEX-16, on certain quality of life parameters, such as skin burning or stinging, skin irritation, and being bothered by a persistence/recurrence of a skin condition. Adverse events were comparable across arms.
CONCLUSION
Tetracycline did not prevent epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor-induced rashes and cannot be clinically recommended for this purpose. However, preliminary observations of diminished rash severity and improved quality of life suggest this antibiotic merits further study.
doi:10.1002/cncr.23621
PMCID: PMC3918166  PMID: 18543329
9.  Clinical update for the diagnosis and treatment of Clostridium difficile infection 
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) presents a rapidly evolving challenge in the battle against hospital-acquired infections. Recent advances in CDI diagnosis and management include rapid changes in diagnostic approach with the introduction of newer tests, such as detection of glutamate dehydrogenase in stool and polymerase chain reaction to detect the gene for toxin production, which will soon revolutionize the diagnostic approach to CDI. New medications and multiple medical society guidelines have introduced changing concepts in the definitions of severity of CDI and the choice of therapeutic agents, while rapid expansion of data on the efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation heralds a revolutionary change in the management of patients suffering multiple relapses of CDI. Through a comprehensive review of current medical literature, this article aims to offer an intensive review of the current state of CDI diagnosis, discuss the strengths and limitations of available laboratory tests, compare both current and future treatments options and offer recommendations for best practice strategies.
doi:10.4292/wjgpt.v5.i1.1
PMCID: PMC3951810
Clostridium difficile; Antibiotic-associated diarrhea; Fidaxomicin; Rifaximin; Fecal transplantation; Probiotics
10.  Fast Gated EPR Imaging of the Beating Heart: Spatiotemporally-Resolved 3D Imaging of Free Radical Distribution during the Cardiac Cycle 
In vivo or ex vivo electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) is a powerful technique for determining the spatial distribution of free radicals and other paramagnetic species in living organs and tissues. However, applications of EPRI have been limited by long projection acquisition times and the consequent fact that rapid gated EPRI was not possible. Hence in vivo EPRI typically provided only time-averaged information. In order to achieve direct gated EPRI, a fast EPR acquisition scheme was developed to decrease EPR projection acquisition time down to 10 – 20 ms, along with corresponding software and instrumentation to achieve fast gated EPRI of the isolated beating heart with submillimeter spatial resolution in as little as 2 to 3 minutes. Reconstructed images display temporal and spatial variations of the free radical distribution, anatomical structure, and contractile function within the rat heart during the cardiac cycle.
doi:10.1002/mrm.24250
PMCID: PMC3394889  PMID: 22473660
EPR imaging; gated cardiac imaging; free radical metabolism; redox state; nitroxide; paramagnetic probe
11.  Treatment Outcomes of a Crisis Intervention Program for Dementia With Severe Psychiatric Complications: The Kansas Bridge Project 
The Gerontologist  2012;53(1):102-112.
Purpose: Although declines in memory and attention are hallmark symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), noncognitive symptoms are prevalent. Over 80% of individuals will experience neuropsychiatric symptoms, which complicates symptom profiles. Research indicates a community-integrated response to dementia crisis can reduce negative consequences attributed to crisis including increased caregiver burden, increased health care costs, and premature institutionalizations.
Design and methods: The Kansas Dementia Crisis Bridge Project is a multidisciplinary collaboration to provide direct support in critical situations to reduce psychiatric rehospitalizations. Coordinators provided counsel and dementia education to families throughout critical period of acute neuropsychiatric symptoms, facilitated professional involvement, and provided crisis prevention planning through crisis review. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire and Geriatric Depression Scale were used to measure the impact of neuropsychiatric symptoms and Bridge interventions on patient and caregivers.
Results: The Bridge project significantly reduced patient anxiety, depression, resistance to care, impulsive behavior, verbal outbursts, and wandering. Caregivers reported significantly reduced anxiety, apathy, resistance to care, and less distress over patient neuropsychiatric symptoms. Caregivers also reported increased confidence in managing difficult behaviors, and the project effectively reduced or resolved neuropsychiatric crisis. The project delayed nursing home placement for community-dwelling patients.
Implications: Crisis support models like the Bridge project reduce strain on care-delivery systems by incorporating nonpharmacological interventions, assisting families with communication, and reducing family distress during symptom crises. Although much of AD research focuses on disease-modifying medical interventions, aging and care systems in the state must simultaneously move towards dependency-modifying care interventions.
Decision Editor: Rachel Pruncho, PhD
doi:10.1093/geront/gns104
PMCID: PMC3605939  PMID: 22936530
Dementia; Neuropsychiatric; Psychiatric; Neuropsychological; Assessment
12.  Immediate versus delayed zoledronic acid for prevention of bone loss in postmenopausal women with breast cancer starting letrozole after tamoxifen-N03CC 
Postmenopausal women with breast cancer (BC) are at increased risk for bone loss. Bisphosphonates improve bone mineral density (BMD) in normal postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to determine if immediate treatment with zoledronic acid preserves BMD in postmenopausal women with BC starting letrozole after tamoxifen. Postmenopausal women with BC completing tamoxifen were treated with daily letrozole 2.5 mg/vitamin D 400 I.U., calcium 500 mg twice daily and were randomized to upfront or delayed zoledronic acid 4 mg every 6 months. Patients in the delayed arm were only given zoledronic acid if they developed a post-baseline BMD T score <−2.0 or had a fracture. The primary endpoint was the mean percent change in lumbar spine (LS) BMD at 1 year. About 558 women enrolled; 395 provided 1 year BMD data. The upfront arm experienced a mean change of +3.66% in LS BMD versus -1.66% for the delayed group (P < 0.001). Changes at the femoral neck/total hip were also greater for the upfront versus delayed arms (P < 0.001; P < 0.001) with differences persisting at 2 years. Patients in the delayed arm were more likely to experience a clinically meaningful 5% loss of BMD at all sites versus the upfront zoledronate group. Patients in the upfront arm were slightly more likely to report limb edema, fatigue, fever, nausea and jaw osteonecrosis(1%). Upfront zoledronic acid prevents bone loss in postmenopausal women with BC starting letrozole after tamoxifen.
doi:10.1007/s10549-009-0332-2
PMCID: PMC3907065  PMID: 19214743
Breast cancer; Aromatase inhibitor; Bone loss; Zoledronic acid
13.  HCMV gB shares structural and functional properties with gB proteins from other herpesviruses 
Virology  2012;435(2):239-249.
Glycoprotein B (gB) facilitates HCMV entry into cells by binding receptors and mediating membrane fusion. The crystal structures of gB ectodomains from HSV-1 and EBV are available, but little is known about the HCMV gB structure. Using multiangle light scattering and electron microscopy, we show here that HCMV gB ectodomain is a trimer with the overall shape similar to HSV-1 and EBV gB ectodomains. HCMV gB ectodomain forms rosettes similar to rosettes formed by EBV gB and the postfusion forms of other viral fusogens. Substitution of several bulky hydrophobic residues within the putative fusion loops with more hydrophilic residues reduced rosette formation and abolished cell fusion. We propose that like gB proteins from HSV-1 and EBV, HCMV gB has two internal hydrophobic fusion loops that likely interact with target membranes. Our work establishes structural and functional similarities between gB proteins from three subfamilies of herpesviruses.
doi:10.1016/j.virol.2012.09.024
PMCID: PMC3534942  PMID: 23089254
herpesvirus; cytomegalovirus; entry; membrane fusion; glycoprotein B; glycosylation; rosette; fusion loop
14.  GABAA Receptors Containing ρ1 Subunits Contribute to In Vivo Effects of Ethanol in Mice 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e85525.
GABAA receptors consisting of ρ1, ρ2, or ρ3 subunits in homo- or hetero-pentamers have been studied mainly in retina but are detected in many brain regions. Receptors formed from ρ1 are inhibited by low ethanol concentrations, and family-based association analyses have linked ρ subunit genes with alcohol dependence. We determined if genetic deletion of ρ1 in mice altered in vivo ethanol effects. Null mutant male mice showed reduced ethanol consumption and preference in a two-bottle choice test with no differences in preference for saccharin or quinine. Null mutant mice of both sexes demonstrated longer duration of ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR), and males were more sensitive to ethanol-induced motor sedation. In contrast, ρ1 null mice showed faster recovery from acute motor incoordination produced by ethanol. Null mutant females were less sensitive to ethanol-induced development of conditioned taste aversion. Measurement of mRNA levels in cerebellum showed that deletion of ρ1 did not change expression of ρ2, α2, or α6 GABAA receptor subunits. (S)-4-amino-cyclopent-1-enyl butylphosphinic acid (“ρ1” antagonist), when administered to wild type mice, mimicked the changes that ethanol induced in ρ1 null mice (LORR and rotarod tests), but the ρ1 antagonist did not produce these effects in ρ1 null mice. In contrast, (R)-4-amino-cyclopent-1-enyl butylphosphinic acid (“ρ2” antagonist) did not change ethanol actions in wild type but produced effects in mice lacking ρ1 that were opposite of the effects of deleting (or inhibiting) ρ1. These results suggest that ρ1 has a predominant role in two in vivo effects of ethanol, and a role for ρ2 may be revealed when ρ1 is deleted. We also found that ethanol produces similar inhibition of function of recombinant ρ1 and ρ2 receptors. These data indicate that ethanol action on GABAA receptors containing ρ1/ρ2 subunits may be important for specific effects of ethanol in vivo.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085525
PMCID: PMC3894180  PMID: 24454882
15.  Dialysate interleukin-6 predicts increasing peritoneal solute transport rate in incident peritoneal dialysis patients 
BMC Nephrology  2014;15:8.
Background
Repeated exposure to peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions contributes to cumulative intraperitoneal inflammation and peritoneal injury. The present study aimed to explore the capacity of dialysate interleukin-6(IL-6) to a) predict peritoneal membrane function and peritonitis in incident PD patients, and b) to evaluate the influence of neutral pH, low glucose degradation product (GDP) PD solution on dialysate IL-6 levels.
Methods
The study included 88 incident participants from the balANZ trial who had completed 24-months of follow-up. Change in peritoneal solute transport rate (PSTR) and peritonitis were primary outcome measures, and the utility of IL-6 and IL-6 appearance rate (IL-6 AR) in predicting these outcomes was analyzed using multilevel linear regression and Cox proportional hazards models, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were performed by analyzing outcomes in a peritonitis-free cohort (n = 56).
Results
Dialysate IL-6 concentration significantly increased from baseline to 24 months (mean difference 19.07 pg/mL; P < 0.001) but was not affected by the type of PD solution received (P = 0.68). An increase in PSTR from baseline was associated with higher levels of IL-6 (P = 0.004), the use of standard solutions (P = 0.005) and longer PD duration (P < 0.001). Baseline IL-6 level was not associated with a shorter time to first peritonitis (adjusted hazard ratio 1.00, 95% CI 0.99-1.00, P = 0.74). Analysis of IL-6 AR as well as sensitivity analyses in a peritonitis-free cohort yielded comparable results.
Conclusion
Dialysate IL-6 concentration increased with longer PD duration and was a significant, independent predictor of PSTR. The use of biocompatible PD solutions exerted no significant effect on dialysate IL-6 levels but did abrogate the increase in PSTR associated with standard PD solutions. This is the first study to examine the impact of biocompatible solutions on the utility of IL-6 in predicting PSTR and peritonitis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-15-8
PMCID: PMC3893539  PMID: 24410736
Biocompatible; Glucose degradation products; Interleukin-6; Peritoneal dialysis; Peritoneal solute transport rate; Peritonitis
16.  Human cytomegalovirus entry into cells 
Current opinion in virology  2012;2(1):10.1016/j.coviro.2012.01.001.
doi:10.1016/j.coviro.2012.01.001
PMCID: PMC3880194  PMID: 22440964
17.  Effects of Climatic Region on Peritonitis Risk, Microbiology, Treatment, and Outcomes: a Multicenter Registry Study 
♦ Background: The impact of climatic variations on peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis has not been studied in detail. The aim of the current study was to determine whether various climatic zones influenced the probability of occurrence or the clinical outcomes of peritonitis.
♦ Methods: Using ANZDATA registry data, the study in cluded all Australian patients receiving PD between 1 October 2003 and 31 December 2008. Climatic regions were defined according to the Köppen classification.
♦ Results: The overall peritonitis rate was 0.59 episodes per patient-year. Most of the patients lived in Temperate regions (65%), with others residing in Subtropical (26%), Tropical (6%), and Other climatic regions (Desert, 0.6%; Grassland, 2.3%). Compared with patients in Temperate regions, those in Tropical regions demonstrated significantly higher overall peritonitis rates and a shorter time to a first peritonitis episode [adjusted hazard ratio: 1.15; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01 to 1.31]. Culture-negative peritonitis was significantly less likely in Tropical regions [adjusted odds ratio (OR): 0.42; 95% CI: 0.25 to 0.73]; its occurrence in Subtropical and Other regions was comparable to that in Temperate regions. Fungal peritonitis was independently associated with Tropical regions (OR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.22 to 3.90) and Other regions (OR: 3.46; 95% CI: 1.73 to 6.91), where rates of antifungal prophylaxis were also lower. Outcomes after first peritonitis episodes were comparable in all groups.
♦ Conclusions: Tropical regions were associated with a higher overall peritonitis rate (including fungal peritonitis) and a shorter time to a first peritonitis episode. Augmented peritonitis prophylactic measures such as antifungal therapy and exit-site care should be considered in PD patients residing in Tropical climates.
doi:10.3747/pdi.2011.00317
PMCID: PMC3598268  PMID: 22942270
Antibiotics; bacteria; climate; fungus; microbiology; peritonitis; outcomes
18.  Metabolic Syndrome and Cognitive Decline in Early Alzheimer’s Disease and Healthy Older Adults 
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors (i.e., abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, glucose and insulin dysregulation) that is associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and dementia. Recent studies addressing the association of MetS with cognitive performance and risk for dementia report mixed results. An important step in clarifying these conflicting results is determining whether cognition is influenced by the effects of individual MetS components versus the additive effects of multiple components. We assessed the effect of MetS on cognitive performance and decline over two years in 75 cases of early Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and 73 healthy older adult controls in the Brain Aging Project. Using factor analytic techniques, we compared the effect of a combined MetS factor to the effect of individual MetS components on change in attention, verbal memory, and mental status. In healthy controls, a combined MetS factor did not significantly predict cognitive performance, though higher insulin predicted poorer cognitive performance outcomes. In the AD group, higher scores on a combined MetS factor predicted better cognitive outcomes. Our findings suggest that MetS does not have the same association with cognitive decline in healthy older adults and those with early AD. We suggest that individual MetS components should not be evaluated in isolation and that careful methodological approaches are needed to understand the timing and non-linear relationships among these components over time.
doi:10.3233/JAD-121168
PMCID: PMC3665401  PMID: 23388170
Alzheimer’s disease; cognitive decline; factor analysis; metabolic syndrome
19.  Maternal Administration of Solithromycin, a New, Potent, Broad-Spectrum Fluoroketolide Antibiotic, Achieves Fetal and Intra-Amniotic Antimicrobial Protection in a Pregnant Sheep Model 
Solithromycin (CEM-101) is a new antibiotic that is highly potent against Ureaplasma and Mycoplasma spp. and active against many other antibiotic-resistant organisms. We have explored the maternal-amniotic-fetal pharmacokinetics of CEM-101 in a pregnant sheep model to assess its potential for treating intrauterine and antenatal infection. Chronically catheterized pregnant ewes (n = 6 or 7) received either a single maternal intravenous (i.v.) infusion of CEM-101 (10 mg/kg of body weight), a single intra-amniotic (i.a.) injection (1.4 mg/kg of estimated fetal weight), or a combined i.v. and i.a. dose. Maternal plasma (MP), fetal plasma (FP), and amniotic fluid (AF) samples were taken via catheter at intervals of 0 to 72 h postadministration, and concentrations of solithromycin and its bioactive polar metabolites (N-acetyl [NAc]–CEM-101 and CEM-214) were determined. Following maternal i.v. infusion, peak CEM-101 concentrations in MP, FP, and AF were 1,073, 353, and 214 ng/ml, respectively, representing a maternal-to-fetal plasma transfer efficiency of 34%. A single maternal dose resulted in effective concentrations (>30 ng/ml) in MP, FP, and AF sustained for >12 h. NAc–CEM-101 and CEM-214 exhibited delayed accumulation and clearance in FP and AF, resulting in an additive antimicrobial effect (>48 h). Intra-amniotic solithromycin injection resulted in elevated (∼50 μg/ml) and sustained CEM-101 concentrations in AF and significant levels in FP, although the efficiency of amniotic-to-fetal transfer was low (∼1.5%). Combined i.v. and i.a. administration resulted in primarily additive concentrations of CEM-101 in all three compartments. Our findings suggest that CEM-101 may provide, for the first time, an effective antimicrobial approach for the prevention and treatment of intrauterine infection and early prevention of preterm birth.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01743-13
PMCID: PMC3910757  PMID: 24189250
20.  Role of the K2 Capsule in Escherichia coli Urinary Tract Infection and Serum Resistance 
The Journal of infectious diseases  2009;199(11):10.1086/598524.
Background
Capsule expression may be important during ascending Escherichia coli urinary tract infections (UTIs).
Methods
An isogenic ksl(k2)ABCDE mutant of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strain CFT073 that could not synthesize the K2 capsule was compared with wild-type CFT073, to determine virulence in a murine model of ascending UTI and in vitro killing assays.
Results
No significant differences were observed regarding the abilities of the mutant and the wild-type CFT073 strains to colonize the murine urinary tract in single-challenge infection experiments. However, in competitive-colonization experiments, the mutant was significantly outcompeted by the wild-type strain in urine and the kidneys. The mutant strain was also more susceptible to human serum. Complementation of the mutant with a plasmid containing the ksl(k2)ABCDE genes restored capsule expression, enhanced survival in the murine urinary tract, and restored serum resistance.
Conclusion
These results indicate that expression of the K2 capsule is important for the pathogenesis of UTI and provides protection against complement-mediated killing. To our knowledge, this is the first study in which the E. coli capsule has been proven to play a role in infection by use of isogenic mutants and genetic complementation.
doi:10.1086/598524
PMCID: PMC3872369  PMID: 19432551
21.  Factors Associated with Gastrointestinal Perforation in a Cohort of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis 
Arthritis care & research  2012;64(12):1819-1828.
Objective
To estimate the incidence and risk factors for gastrointestinal (GI) perforation among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Methods
Claims from employer health insurance plans were used to identify RA patients and those hospitalized for upper or lower GI perforation. GI perforation cases were identified using both a sensitive and specific definition. A Cox model using fixed and time-varying covariates was used to evaluate risk of GI perforation.
Results
Among 143,433 RA patients, and using a maximally sensitive GI perforation definition, 696 hospitalizations with perforation were identified. The rate of perforation was 1.70 per 1000 person years (PYs) [95% CI, 1.58–1.83] and most perforations (83%) occurred in the lower GI tract. The rate of perforation was lower when a more specific GI perforation definition was used (0.87, 95% CI, 0.78–0.96 per 1,000 PYs). Age and diverticulitis were among the strongest risk factors for perforation (diverticulitis hazard ratio=14.5 [95% CI, 11.8–17.7] for more sensitive definition, hazard ratio=3.9 [95% CI, 2.5–5.9] for more specific definition). Among various RA medication groups, and compared to methotrexate, the risk of GI perforation was highest among patients with exposure to concomitant non-biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and glucocorticoids. Biologics without glucocorticoid exposure was not a risk factor for perforation.
Conclusion
GI perforation is a rare but serious condition that affects patients with RA, most frequently in the lower GI tract. Clinicians should be aware of risk factors for GI perforation when managing RA patients, including age, history of diverticulitis, and use of glucocorticoids or NSAIDs.
doi:10.1002/acr.21764
PMCID: PMC3508293  PMID: 22730417
22.  Epidermal nerve fibers 
Neurology  2012;79(22):2187-2193.
Objectives:
Our first objective was to explore the value of estimating 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of epidermal nerve fibers (ENFs)/mm for number of sections to be evaluated and for confidently judging normality or abnormality. Our second objective was to introduce a new continuous measure combining nerve conduction and ENFs/mm.
Methods:
The 95% CI studies were performed on 1, 1–2, 1–3 - - - 1–10 serial skip sections of 3-mm punch biopsies of leg and thigh of 67 healthy subjects and 23 patients with diabetes mellitus.
Results:
Variability of differences of ENFs/mm counts (and 95% CIs) from evaluation of 1, 1–2, 1–3 - - - 1–9 compared with 1–10 serial skip sections decreased progressively without a break point with increasing numbers of sections evaluated. Estimating 95% CIs as sections are evaluated can be used to judge how many sections are needed for adequate evaluation, i.e., only a few when counts and 95% CIs are well within the range of normality or abnormality and more when values are borderline. Also provided is a methodology to combine results of nerve conduction and ENFs/mm as continuous measures of normality or abnormality.
Conclusion:
Estimating 95% CIs of ENFs/mm is useful to judge how many sections should be evaluated to confidently declare counts to be normal or abnormal. Also introduced is a continuous measure of both large-fiber (nerve conduction) and small-fiber (ENFs/mm) normal structures/functions spanning the range of normality and abnormality for use in therapeutic trials.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182759608
PMCID: PMC3570816  PMID: 23100396
23.  A community-based approach to trials of aerobic exercise in aging and Alzheimer’s disease 
Contemporary clinical trials  2012;33(6):1105-1116.
The benefits of exercise for aging have received considerable attention in both the popular and academic press. The putative benefits of exercise for maximizing cognitive function and supporting brain health have great potential for combating Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Aerobic exercise offers a low-cost, low-risk intervention that is widely available and may have disease modifying effects. Demonstrating aerobic exercise alters the AD process would have enormous public health implications. The purpose of this paper is to a report the protocol of a current, community-based pilot study of aerobic exercise for AD to guide future investigation. This manuscript provides 1) an overview of possible benefits of exercise in those with dementia, 2) a rationale and recommendations for implementation of a community-based approach, 3) recommendation for implementation of similar study protocols, 4) unique challenges in conducting an exercise trial in AD.
doi:10.1016/j.cct.2012.08.002
PMCID: PMC3468654  PMID: 22903151
randomized controlled trial; dementia; public-private partnership
24.  Metabolic specialization and the assembly of microbial communities 
The ISME Journal  2012;6(11):1985-1991.
Metabolic specialization is a general biological principle that shapes the assembly of microbial communities. Individual cell types rarely metabolize a wide range of substrates within their environment. Instead, different cell types often specialize at metabolizing only subsets of the available substrates. What is the advantage of metabolizing subsets of the available substrates rather than all of them? In this perspective piece, we argue that biochemical conflicts between different metabolic processes can promote metabolic specialization and that a better understanding of these conflicts is therefore important for revealing the general principles and rules that govern the assembly of microbial communities. We first discuss three types of biochemical conflicts that could promote metabolic specialization. Next, we demonstrate how knowledge about the consequences of biochemical conflicts can be used to predict whether different metabolic processes are likely to be performed by the same cell type or by different cell types. We then discuss the major challenges in identifying and assessing biochemical conflicts between different metabolic processes and propose several approaches for their measurement. Finally, we argue that a deeper understanding of the biochemical causes of metabolic specialization could serve as a foundation for the field of synthetic ecology, where the objective would be to rationally engineer the assembly of a microbial community to perform a desired biotransformation.
doi:10.1038/ismej.2012.46
PMCID: PMC3475376  PMID: 22592822
metabolic specialization; community assembly; biochemical conflicts; trade-offs; cross-feeding

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