Recent advances in genomics technologies have spurred unprecedented efforts in genome and exome re-sequencing aiming to unravel the genetic component of rare and complex disorders. While in rare disorders this allowed the identification of novel causal genes, the missing heritability paradox in complex diseases remains so far elusive. Despite rapid advances of next-generation sequencing, both the technology and the analysis of the data it produces are in its infancy. At present there is abundant knowledge pertaining to the role of rare single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in rare disorders and of common SNVs in common disorders. Although the 1,000 genome project has clearly highlighted the prevalence of rare variants and more complex variants (e.g. insertions, deletions), their role in disease is as yet far from elucidated.
We set out to analyse the properties of sequence variants identified in a comprehensive collection of exome re-sequencing studies performed on samples from patients affected by a broad range of complex and rare diseases (N = 173). Given the known potential for Loss of Function (LoF) variants to be false positive, we performed an extensive validation of the common, rare and private LoF variants identified, which indicated that most of the private and rare variants identified were indeed true, while common novel variants had a significantly higher false positive rate. Our results indicated a strong enrichment of very low-frequency insertion/deletion variants, so far under-investigated, which might be difficult to capture with low coverage and imputation approaches and for which most of study designs would be under-powered. These insertions and deletions might play a significant role in disease genetics, contributing specifically to the underlining rare and private variation predicted to be discovered through next generation sequencing.
The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute has a strong reputation for prepublication data sharing as a result of its policy of rapid release of genome sequence data and particularly through its contribution to the Human Genome Project. The practicalities of broad data sharing remain largely uncharted, especially to cover the wide range of data types currently produced by genomic studies and to adequately address ethical issues. This paper describes the processes and challenges involved in implementing a data sharing policy on an institute-wide scale. This includes questions of governance, practical aspects of applying principles to diverse experimental contexts, building enabling systems and infrastructure, incentives and collaborative issues.
Pseudogenes have long been considered as nonfunctional genomic sequences. However, recent evidence suggests that many of them might have some form of biological activity, and the possibility of functionality has increased interest in their accurate annotation and integration with functional genomics data.
As part of the GENCODE annotation of the human genome, we present the first genome-wide pseudogene assignment for protein-coding genes, based on both large-scale manual annotation and in silico pipelines. A key aspect of this coupled approach is that it allows us to identify pseudogenes in an unbiased fashion as well as untangle complex events through manual evaluation. We integrate the pseudogene annotations with the extensive ENCODE functional genomics information. In particular, we determine the expression level, transcription-factor and RNA polymerase II binding, and chromatin marks associated with each pseudogene. Based on their distribution, we develop simple statistical models for each type of activity, which we validate with large-scale RT-PCR-Seq experiments. Finally, we compare our pseudogenes with conservation and variation data from primate alignments and the 1000 Genomes project, producing lists of pseudogenes potentially under selection.
At one extreme, some pseudogenes possess conventional characteristics of functionality; these may represent genes that have recently died. On the other hand, we find interesting patterns of partial activity, which may suggest that dead genes are being resurrected as functioning non-coding RNAs. The activity data of each pseudogene are stored in an associated resource, psiDR, which will be useful for the initial identification of potentially functional pseudogenes.
The classic organization of a gene structure has followed the Jacob and Monod bacterial gene model proposed more than 50 years ago. Since then, empirical determinations of the complexity of the transcriptomes found in yeast to human has blurred the definition and physical boundaries of genes. Using multiple analysis approaches we have characterized individual gene boundaries mapping on human chromosomes 21 and 22. Analyses of the locations of the 5′ and 3′ transcriptional termini of 492 protein coding genes revealed that for 85% of these genes the boundaries extend beyond the current annotated termini, most often connecting with exons of transcripts from other well annotated genes. The biological and evolutionary importance of these chimeric transcripts is underscored by (1) the non-random interconnections of genes involved, (2) the greater phylogenetic depth of the genes involved in many chimeric interactions, (3) the coordination of the expression of connected genes and (4) the close in vivo and three dimensional proximity of the genomic regions being transcribed and contributing to parts of the chimeric RNAs. The non-random nature of the connection of the genes involved suggest that chimeric transcripts should not be studied in isolation, but together, as an RNA network.
Sequencing the coding regions, the exome, of the human genome is one of the major current strategies to identify low frequency and rare variants associated with human disease traits. So far, the most widely used commercial exome capture reagents have mainly targeted the consensus coding sequence (CCDS) database. We report the design of an extended set of targets for capturing the complete human exome, based on annotation from the GENCODE consortium. The extended set covers an additional 5594 genes and 10.3 Mb compared with the current CCDS-based sets. The additional regions include potential disease genes previously inaccessible to exome resequencing studies, such as 43 genes linked to ion channel activity and 70 genes linked to protein kinase activity. In total, the new GENCODE exome set developed here covers 47.9 Mb and performed well in sequence capture experiments. In the sample set used in this study, we identified over 5000 SNP variants more in the GENCODE exome target (24%) than in the CCDS-based exome sequencing.
human exome; resequencing; GENCODE
Chemistry text mining tools should be interoperable and adaptable regardless of
system-level implementation, installation or even programming issues. We aim to
abstract the functionality of these tools from the underlying implementation via
reconfigurable workflows for automatically identifying chemical names. To
achieve this, we refactored an established named entity recogniser (in the
chemistry domain), OSCAR and studied the impact of each component on the net
performance. We developed two reconfigurable workflows from OSCAR using an
interoperable text mining framework, U-Compare. These workflows can be altered
using the drag-&-drop mechanism of the graphical user
interface of U-Compare. These workflows also provide a platform to study the
relationship between text mining components such as tokenisation and named
entity recognition (using maximum entropy Markov model (MEMM) and pattern
recognition based classifiers). Results indicate that, for chemistry in
particular, eliminating noise generated by tokenisation techniques lead to a
slightly better performance than others, in terms of named entity recognition
(NER) accuracy. Poor tokenisation translates into poorer input to the classifier
components which in turn leads to an increase in Type I or Type II errors, thus,
lowering the overall performance. On the Sciborg corpus, the workflow based
system, which uses a new tokeniser whilst retaining the same MEMM component,
increases the F-score from 82.35% to 84.44%. On the PubMed corpus,
it recorded an F-score of 84.84% as against 84.23% by OSCAR.
Alternative splicing (AS) has the potential to greatly expand the functional repertoire of mammalian transcriptomes. However, few variant transcripts have been characterized functionally, making it difficult to assess the contribution of AS to the generation of phenotypic complexity and to study the evolution of splicing patterns. We have compared the AS of 309 protein-coding genes in the human ENCODE pilot regions against their mouse orthologs in unprecedented detail, utilizing traditional transcriptomic and RNAseq data. The conservation status of every transcript has been investigated, and each functionally categorized as coding (separated into coding sequence [CDS] or nonsense-mediated decay [NMD] linked) or noncoding. In total, 36.7% of human and 19.3% of mouse coding transcripts are species specific, and we observe a 3.6 times excess of human NMD transcripts compared with mouse; in contrast to previous studies, the majority of species-specific AS is unlinked to transposable elements. We observe one conserved CDS variant and one conserved NMD variant per 2.3 and 11.4 genes, respectively. Subsequently, we identify and characterize equivalent AS patterns for 22.9% of these CDS or NMD-linked events in nonmammalian vertebrate genomes, and our data indicate that functional NMD-linked AS is more widespread and ancient than previously thought. Furthermore, although we observe an association between conserved AS and elevated sequence conservation, as previously reported, we emphasize that 30% of conserved AS exons display sequence conservation below the average score for constitutive exons. In conclusion, we demonstrate the value of detailed comparative annotation in generating a comprehensive set of AS transcripts, increasing our understanding of AS evolution in vertebrates. Our data supports a model whereby the acquisition of functional AS has occurred throughout vertebrate evolution and is considered alongside amino acid change as a key mechanism in gene evolution.
alternative splicing; nonsense-mediated decay; vertebrate evolution; RBM39
Summary: Dalliance is a new genome viewer which offers a high level of interactivity while running within a web browser. All data is fetched using the established distributed annotation system (DAS) protocol, making it easy to customize the browser and add extra data.
Today, annotated amino acid sequences of more and more transcription factors (TFs) are readily available. Quantitative information about their DNA-binding specificities, however, are hard to obtain. Position frequency matrices (PFMs), the most widely used models to represent binding specificities, are experimentally characterized only for a small fraction of all TFs. Even for some of the most intensively studied eukaryotic organisms (i.e., human, rat and mouse), roughly one-sixth of all proteins with annotated DNA-binding domain have been characterized experimentally. Here, we present a new method based on support vector regression for predicting quantitative DNA-binding specificities of TFs in different eukaryotic species. This approach estimates a quantitative measure for the PFM similarity of two proteins, based on various features derived from their protein sequences. The method is trained and tested on a dataset containing 1 239 TFs with known DNA-binding specificity, and used to predict specific DNA target motifs for 645 TFs with high accuracy.
Chromatin modification (CM) plays a key role in regulating transcription, DNA replication, repair and recombination. However, our knowledge of these processes in humans remains very limited. Here we use computational approaches to study proteins and functional domains involved in CM in humans. We analyze the abundance and the pair-wise domain-domain co-occurrences of 25 well-documented CM domains in 5 model organisms: yeast, worm, fly, mouse and human. Results show that domains involved in histone methylation, DNA methylation, and histone variants are remarkably expanded in metazoan, reflecting the increased demand for cell type-specific gene regulation. We find that CM domains tend to co-occur with a limited number of partner domains and are hence not promiscuous. This property is exploited to identify 47 potentially novel CM domains, including 24 DNA-binding domains, whose role in CM has received little attention so far. Lastly, we use a consensus Machine Learning approach to predict 379 novel CM genes (coding for 329 proteins) in humans based on domain compositions. Several of these predictions are supported by very recent experimental studies and others are slated for experimental verification. Identification of novel CM genes and domains in humans will aid our understanding of fundamental epigenetic processes that are important for stem cell differentiation and cancer biology. Information on all the candidate CM domains and genes reported here is publicly available.
As genome sequences are determined for increasing numbers of model organisms, demand has grown for better tools to facilitate unified genome annotation efforts by communities of biologists. Typically this process involves numerous experts from the field and the use of data from dispersed sources as evidence. This kind of collaborative annotation project requires specialized software solutions for efficient data tracking and processing.
As part of the scale-up phase of the ENCODE project (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements), the aim of the GENCODE project is to produce a highly accurate evidence-based reference gene annotation for the human genome. The AnnoTrack software system was developed to aid this effort. It integrates data from multiple distributed sources, highlights conflicts and facilitates the quick identification, prioritisation and resolution of problems during the process of genome annotation.
AnnoTrack has been in use for the last year and has proven a very valuable tool for large-scale genome annotation. Designed to interface with standard bioinformatics components, such as DAS servers and Ensembl databases, it is easy to setup and configure for different genome projects. The source code is available at http://annotrack.sanger.ac.uk.
While genomic alterations identified in human tumors using techniques such as comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) may be recurrent, they frequently encompass large regions, in some cases containing hundreds of genes. Here we combine high-resolution CGH analysis of 598 human cancer cell lines with insertion sites isolated from 1,005 mouse tumors induced with the Murine Leukaemia Virus (MuLV). This cross-species oncogenomic analysis revealed candidate tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes recurrently mutated in both human and mouse tumors, making them strong candidate cancer genes. A significant number of these genes contained binding sites for the transcription factors Oct4 and Nanog and mice carrying tumors with insertions in or near stem cell module genes, genes that are thought to participate in self-renewal, died significantly faster than mice without these insertions. The profile of MuLV insertions that we identified was compared to insertions isolated from 73 tumors induced using the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system revealing significant differences in the profile of recurrently mutated genes. Collectively this work provides a rich catalogue of candidate genes for follow-up functional analysis.
Cross-species analysis; insertional mutagenesis; bioinformatics; oncogenomics; comparative genomic hybridization
Development of high-throughput methods for measuring DNA interactions of transcription factors together with computational advances in short motif inference algorithms is expanding our understanding of transcription factor binding site motifs. The consequential growth of sequence motif data sets makes it important to systematically group and categorise regulatory motifs. It has been shown that there are familial tendencies in DNA sequence motifs that are predictive of the family of factors that binds them. Further development of methods that detect and describe familial motif trends has the potential to help in measuring the similarity of novel computational motif predictions to previously known data and sensitively detecting regulatory motifs similar to previously known ones from novel sequence.
We propose a probabilistic model for position weight matrix (PWM) sequence motif families. The model, which we call the 'metamotif' describes recurring familial patterns in a set of motifs. The metamotif framework models variation within a family of sequence motifs. It allows for simultaneous estimation of a series of independent metamotifs from input position weight matrix (PWM) motif data and does not assume that all input motif columns contribute to a familial pattern. We describe an algorithm for inferring metamotifs from weight matrix data. We then demonstrate the use of the model in two practical tasks: in the Bayesian NestedMICA model inference algorithm as a PWM prior to enhance motif inference sensitivity, and in a motif classification task where motifs are labelled according to their interacting DNA binding domain.
We show that metamotifs can be used as PWM priors in the NestedMICA motif inference algorithm to dramatically increase the sensitivity to infer motifs. Metamotifs were also successfully applied to a motif classification problem where sequence motif features were used to predict the family of protein DNA binding domains that would interact with it. The metamotif based classifier is shown to compare favourably to previous related methods. The metamotif has great potential for further use in machine learning tasks related to especially de novo computational sequence motif inference. The metamotif methods presented have been incorporated into the NestedMICA suite.
Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice spontaneously develop type 1 diabetes (T1D) due to the progressive loss of insulin-secreting β-cells by an autoimmune driven process. NOD mice represent a valuable tool for studying the genetics of T1D and for evaluating therapeutic interventions. Here we describe the development and characterization by end-sequencing of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries derived from NOD/MrkTac (DIL NOD) and NOD/ShiLtJ (CHORI-29), two commonly used NOD substrains. The DIL NOD library is composed of 196,032 BACs and the CHORI-29 library is composed of 110,976 BACs. The average depth of genome coverage of the DIL NOD library, estimated from mapping the BAC end-sequences to the reference mouse genome sequence, was 7.1-fold across the autosomes and 6.6-fold across the X chromosome. Clones from this library have an average insert size of 150 kb and map to over 95.6% of the reference mouse genome assembly (NCBIm37), covering 98.8% of Ensembl mouse genes. By the same metric, the CHORI-29 library has an average depth over the autosomes of 5.0-fold and 2.8-fold coverage of the X chromosome, the reduced X chromosome coverage being due to the use of a male donor for this library. Clones from this library have an average insert size of 205 kb and map to 93.9% of the reference mouse genome assembly, covering 95.7% of Ensembl genes. We have identified and validated 191,841 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for DIL NOD and 114,380 SNPs for CHORI-29. In total we generated 229,736,133 bp of sequence for the DIL NOD and 121,963,211 bp for the CHORI-29. These BAC libraries represent a powerful resource for functional studies, such as gene targeting in NOD embryonic stem (ES) cell lines, and for sequencing and mapping experiments.
Bacterial artificial chromosome; NOD/MrkTac; NOD/ShiLtJ; Mouse genome; Non-obese diabetic (NOD); Type 1 diabetes; T1D; Insulin-dependent diabetes; IDD
Motivation: Short sequence motifs are an important class of models in molecular biology, used most commonly for describing transcription factor binding site specificity patterns. High-throughput methods have been recently developed for detecting regulatory factor binding sites in vivo and in vitro and consequently high-quality binding site motif data are becoming available for increasing number of organisms and regulatory factors. Development of intuitive tools for the study of sequence motifs is therefore important.
iMotifs is a graphical motif analysis environment that allows visualization of annotated sequence motifs and scored motif hits in sequences. It also offers motif inference with the sensitive NestedMICA algorithm, as well as overrepresentation and pairwise motif matching capabilities. All of the analysis functionality is provided without the need to convert between file formats or learn different command line interfaces.
The application includes a bundled and graphically integrated version of the NestedMICA motif inference suite that has no outside dependencies. Problems associated with local deployment of software are therefore avoided.
Availability: iMotifs is licensed with the GNU Lesser General Public License v2.0 (LGPL 2.0). The software and its source is available at http://wiki.github.com/mz2/imotifs and can be run on Mac OS X Leopard (Intel/PowerPC). We also provide a cross-platform (Linux, OS X, Windows) LGPL 2.0 licensed library libxms for the Perl, Ruby, R and Objective-C programming languages for input and output of XMS formatted annotated sequence motif set files.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
An accurate and precisely annotated genome assembly is a fundamental requirement for functional genomic analysis. Here, the complete DNA sequence and gene annotation of mouse Chromosome 11 was used to test the efficacy of large-scale sequencing for mutation identification. We re-sequenced the 14,000 annotated exons and boundaries from over 900 genes in 41 recessive mutant mouse lines that were isolated in an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutation screen targeted to mouse Chromosome 11. Fifty-nine sequence variants were identified in 55 genes from 31 mutant lines. 39% of the lesions lie in coding sequences and create primarily missense mutations. The other 61% lie in noncoding regions, many of them in highly conserved sequences. A lesion in the perinatal lethal line l11Jus13 alters a consensus splice site of nucleoredoxin (Nxn), inserting 10 amino acids into the resulting protein. We conclude that point mutations can be accurately and sensitively recovered by large-scale sequencing, and that conserved noncoding regions should be included for disease mutation identification. Only seven of the candidate genes we report have been previously targeted by mutation in mice or rats, showing that despite ongoing efforts to functionally annotate genes in the mammalian genome, an enormous gap remains between phenotype and function. Our data show that the classical positional mapping approach of disease mutation identification can be extended to large target regions using high-throughput sequencing.
Here we show that tiny DNA lesions can be found in huge amounts of DNA sequence data, similar to finding a needle in a haystack. These lesions identify many new candidates for disease genes associated with birth defects, infertility, and growth. Further, our data suggest that we know very little about what mammalian genes do. Sequencing methods are becoming cheaper and faster. Therefore, our strategy, shown here for the first time, will become commonplace.
The elucidation of the human and mouse genome sequence and developments in high-throughput genome analysis, and in computational tools, have made it possible to profile entire cancer genomes. In parallel with these advances mouse models of cancer have evolved into a powerful tool for cancer gene discovery. Here we discuss the approaches that may be used for cancer gene identification in both human and mouse and discuss how a cross-species ‘oncogenomics’ approach to cancer gene discovery represents a powerful strategy for finding genes that drive tumourigenesis.
Cancer genome; Resequencing; Cross-species analysis; DNA copy number analysis; Mouse cancer models; Forward genetic screens
Sound scoring methods for sequence database search algorithms such as Mascot and Sequest are essential for sensitive and accurate peptide and protein identifications from proteomic tandem mass spectrometry data. In this paper, we present a software package that interfaces Mascot with Percolator, a well performing machine learning method for rescoring database search results, and demonstrate it to be amenable for both low and high accuracy mass spectrometry data, outperforming all available Mascot scoring schemes as well as providing reliable significance measures. Mascot Percolator can be readily used as a stand alone tool or integrated into existing data analysis pipelines.
Peptide identification; database search algorithm; Mascot; data analysis; machine learning; SVM; Percolator
Domains are the structural, functional or evolutionary units of proteins. Proteins can comprise a single domain or a combination of domains. In multi-domain proteins, the domains almost always occur end-to-end, i.e., one domain follows the C-terminal end of another domain. However, there are exceptions to this common pattern, where multi-domain proteins are formed by insertion of one domain (insert) into another domain (parent). Here, we provide a quantitative description of known insertions in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). We found that 9% of domain combinations observed in non-redundant PDB are insertions. Although 90% of all insertions involve only one insert, proteins can clearly have multiple (nested, two-domain and three-domain) inserts. We also observed correlations between the structure and function of a domain and its tendency to be found as a parent or an insert. There is a bias in insert position towards the C terminus of parents. We observed that the atomic distance between the N and C terminus of an insert is significantly smaller when compared to the N-to-C distance in a parent context or a single domain context. Insertions are found always to occur in loop regions of parent domains. Our observations regarding the relationship between domain insertions and the structure, function and evolution of proteins have implications for protein engineering.
domain insertion; inserted domain; discontinuous domains; non-contiguous domains; protein engineering
Now that the draft human genome sequence is available, everyone wants to be able to use it. However, we have perhaps become complacent about our ability to turn new genomes into lists of genes. The higher volume of data associated with a larger genome is accompanied by a much greater increase in complexity. We need to appreciate both the scale of the challenge of vertebrate genome analysis and the limitations of current gene prediction methods and understanding.
We outline the main tasks performed by the Protein Structure Prediction Center in support of the CASP7 experiment and provide a brief review of the major measures used in the automatic evaluation of predictions. We describe in more detail the software developed to facilitate analysis of modeling success over and beyond the available templates and the adopted Java-based tool enabling visualization of multiple structural superpositions between target and several models/templates. We also give an overview of the CASP infrastructure provided by the Center and discuss the organization of the results web pages available through http://predictioncenter.org
CASP infrastructure; protein structure prediction; evaluation methods; SPICE
It is a major challenge to develop effective sequence database search algorithms to translate molecular weight and fragment mass information obtained from tandem mass spectrometry into high quality peptide and protein assignments. We investigated the peptide identification performance of Mascot and X!Tandem for mass tolerance settings common for low and high accuracy mass spectrometry. We demonstrated that sensitivity and specificity of peptide identification can vary substantially for different mass tolerance settings, but this effect was more significant for Mascot. We present an adjusted Mascot threshold, which allows the user to freely select the best trade-off between sensitivity and specificity. The adjusted Mascot threshold was compared with the default Mascot and X!Tandem scoring thresholds and shown to be more sensitive at the same false discovery rates for both low and high accuracy mass spectrometry data.
This report summarizes the Critical Assessment of Protein Structure Prediction (CASP5) target proteins, which included 67 experimental models submitted from various structural genomics efforts and independent research groups. Throughout this special issue, CASP5 targets are referred to with the identification numbers T0129–T0195. Several of these targets were excluded from the assessment for various reasons: T0164 and T0166 were cancelled by the organizers; T0131, T0144, T0158, T0163, T0171, T0175, and T0180 were not available in time; T0145 was “natively unfolded”; the T0139 structure became available before the target expired; and T0194 was solved for a different sequence than the one submitted. Table I outlines the sequence and structural information available for CASP5 proteins in the context of existing folds and evolutionary relationships. This information provided the basis for a domain-based classification of the target structures into three assessment categories: comparative modeling (CM), fold recognition (FR), and new fold (NF). The FR category was further subdivided into homologues [FR(H)] and analogs [FR(A)] based on evolutionary considerations, and the overlap between assessment categories was classified as CM/FR(H) and FR(A)/NF. CASP5 domains are illustrated in Figure 1. Examples of nontrivial links between CASP5 target domains and existing structures that support our classifications are provided.